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€6e Library 

of the 

2InitJet0itp of iQortb Carolina 

Collection of j&ortl) Catoliniana 

tgntJOtoet] bp 

Mn fepttutt Wl 

of t£e Claw of 1889 


v. 17, m<*-i9o0.c^ 

This book must not 
be taken from the 
Library building. 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 


The following- prizes will be awarded for work submitted 
during- 1899—1900 : 

For the best Essay, 

Webster's International Dictionary; 

For the best Short Story, 

Ten Dollars in Cash; 

For the best Poem, 

A Ten Dollar Camera; 

For the best Pen and Ink Sketch, 
A "Gibson Book." 

Only undergraduates will be considered as contestants. v 

All articles submitted will be the property of the Magazine. 

The Board of Editors will not publish such articles as are unsuita- 
ble, nor will any prizes be awarded unless the Committee of Award 
deem the work sufficiently meritorious. 

This Committee will consist of able and impartial members. 

If the contestants so desire their names will not appear in the 
Magazine or be made known to the Committee, provided they are 
sent with the papers to the Editor-in-Chief. 

Contents for cHpvember, 1899 


Carr Building Frontispiece 

John Lucas, A Sketch Dr. Wm. B. Phillips, '77 1 

De Profundis, A Poem B— — 12 

Oti a New York Daily Ralph H. Graves, '97 13 

Where Ocean Breezes Blow 

H. Legaie' Watson, '99 17 

A Song, A Poem X , Opt 21 

Scotch Traits in Thomas Carlyle 

L. R. Wilson, '99 22 

Rest, A Translation 31 

An Etching Minna Curtis Bynum, Opt. ..32 

Marvin A. Pickard Allen J. Barwick, 'oo 36 

Current Comment 38 

Library Notes 44 

Exchanges 47 

College Record 50 

Alumniana 56 


The following - prizes will be awarded for work submitted 
during- 1899—1900 : 

For the best Essay, 

Webster's International Dictionary; 

For the best Short Story, 

Ten Dollars in Cash; 
For the best Poem, 

A Ten Dollar Camera; 

For the best Pen and Ink Sketch, 
A "Gibson Book." 

Only undergraduates will be considered as contestants. 

All articles submitted will be the property of the Magazine. 

The Board of Editors will not publish such articles as are unsuita- 
ble, nor will any prize be awarded unless the Committee of Award 
deem the work sufficiently meritorious. 

This Committee will consist of able and impartial members. 

If the contestants so desire their names will not appear in the 
Magazine or be made known to the Committee, provided they are 
sent with the papers to the Editor-in-Chief. 


Contents for Deceember, 1899 


The Dartmouth Man 

..H.H. Home, A. M. '95 


Flowing Together, A Poem 

. W. V. Brem, Med. . . . 


Ike, The Wrestler 

. Lucy M. Cobb, Opt. . . . 


The Plan Revealed, A Poem 


Hon. Jesse Franklin 


John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 

Wm. B. Phillips, Ph.D. 


A Story of the Civil War. . 



Current Comment 

. . 100 

Clean Athletics 




Between the Covers 

Library Notes 




College Record 






The following- prizes will be awarded for work submitted 
during 1899—1900 : 

For the best Essay, 

Webster's International Dictionary; 
For the best Short Story, 

Ten Dollars in Cash; 
For the best Poem, 

A Ten Dollar Camera; 
For the best Pen and Ink Sketch, 

A "Gibson Book." 

Only undergraduates will be considered as contestants. 

All articles submitted will be the property of the Magazine. 

The Board of Editors will not publish such articles as are unsuita- 
ble, nor will any prize be awarded unless the Committee of Award 
deem the work sufficiently meritorious. 

This Committee will consist of able and impartial members. 

If the contestants so desire their names will not appear in the 
Magazine or be made known to the Committee, provided they are 
sent with the papers to the Editor-in-Chief. 

Contents for January* 1900 

Thomas H. Benton Frontispiece 

Some Animals I Have Known 

Unrest Seedy Thobson, .... 119 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 

Wm. B. Phillips, Ph.D. '77. 124 

Giles Mebane /. G. McCormick, '98, 135 

Prece, A Poem B 138 

A Dead Language — Who Killed It? 

Romanus, 'oo 139 

Thomas H. Benton Halcott Anderson, 'oo, 144 

Current Comment 150 

College Politics 
Hep. Debaters 

Library Notes 154 

Exchanges 158 

College Record 161 

Alumniana .167 

PnWJi yak mma 




f ^Dialectic and c Philanthropic Literary Societies* § 


Is to encourage literary activity in the Uni- 
versit}' and to record and preserve so much 
of student thought and research as deserves 
a permanent place on the library shelves. 


Contributions from all students are solic- 


will be awarded for the best work submit- 
ted during- the year. 




Address all Literary Communications to Editor-in-Chief ; 
Buiness Communications to Business Manager. i~_Z^\ □ 

Subscribers will please notif) r the Business Manager [if 
they do not receive Magazine regularly. 

Wm. S. Bernard, Alfred R. Berkeley, 

Editor-in-Chief. Business Manager. 



The following' prizes will be awarded for work submitted 
during- 1899—1900 : 

For the best Essay, 

Webster's International Dictionary; 
For the best Short Story, 

Ten Dollars in Cash; 
For the best Poem, 

A Ten Dollar Camera; 

For the best Pen and Ink Sketch, 
A "Gibson Book." 

Only undergraduates will be considered as contestants. 

All articles submitted will be the property of the Magazine. 

The Board of Editors will not publish such articles as are unsuita- 
ble, nor will any prize be awarded unless the Committee of Award 
deem the work sufficiently meritorious. 

This Committee will consist of able and impartial members. 

If the contestants so desire their names will not appear in the 
Magazine or be made known to the Committee, provided they are 
sent with the papers to the Editor-in-Chief. 

Contents for cApril, 1900 

The Ku Klux Klan and Its Operation in 

North Carolina R. D. W. Connor, '99 224 

A Message C. B. M.,01 235 

The Odinic Mythology — The Faith of our Fathers 

Whitehead Kluttz, ''02 243 

The Demon of Wilson's Ridge 

G. IV. John, 'oo 250 

Remorse, A Poem /. Warshaw 256 

Rome— A World- Romance.. Dr. H. F. Linscott 257 

Current Comment 272 

President Alderman's Resignation 

Have we a Literary Spirit? 

The Vanderbilt Debate 

In Apology 

Library Notes 276 

College Record 278 

Alumniana .283 


The following- prizes will be awarded for work submitted 
during- 1899—1900 : 

For the best Essay, 

Webster's International Dictionary; 

For the best Short Story, 

Ten Dollars in Cash; 

For the best Poem, 

A Ten Dollar Camera; 

For the best Pen and Ink Sketch, 
A "Gibson Book." 

Only undergraduates will be considered as contestants. 

All articles submitted will be the property of the Magazine.* 
□ The Board of Editors will not publish such articles as are unsuita- 
ble, nor will any prize be awarded unless the Committee of Award 
deem the work sufficiently meritorious. 

This Committee will consist of able and impartial members. 

If the contestants so desire their names will not appear in the 
Magazine or be made known to the Committee, provided they are 
sent with the papers to the Editor-in-Chief. 


Contents for June, 1900 


Edwin Anderson Alderman, D.C.L., LL. D. Fronti 
Faculty of the University of North Carolina 

The University of To-day; Its Work and Needs 

Edwin Anderson Alderman, LL.L 
The Fraternity and Its Relation to the In- 

Strnggle and Story of the Re-birth of the 

University Ktmp P. Battle, LL.D 

Tendency toward Unification in Science 



Current Comment 


Esse quam Videre 
Culpable Neglect 

Songs of All Colleges Halcott Anderson, 'oo 






Old senes, vol. xxx. no. i -November, \w. New series, w. xvn. 



IN the year 1874 there graduated from a Southern Univer- 
sity, classed by the hyper-facetious among- the fresh- 
water colleges, a young - man for whom his friends pre- 
dicted nothing unusual. He had taken a moderate rank as 
a scholar, stood well as a base-ball player, and occupied a 
high position among his fellows for a certain buoyant 
cheerfulness of disposition that even the undisguised sar- 
casms of the Professor of Mathematics could not ruffle. 

He came of a Southern family that had not been rich 
enough to be poor nor poor enough to be pitied. He was 
not old enough to have served in the Civil War — whether 
Rebellion or Revolution does not greatly concern us now — 
for the battle of Little Bethel was fought on his ninth 
birthday. Nor had any of his immediate family taken ac- 
tive part in that struggle, for his father was a professor in 
the University and his uncles were officers of the State 
Government. His people were of the sort now almost ex- 
tinct even in the slowly changing South, proud of their 
intellectual standing, far from wealthy yet having but a 
slight regard for money, measuring men by what they did 
and what they were, rather than by what they had, living 
by a high standard and content to serve God and the State 
according to their conceptions of duty. 

They did not belong to the class of so-called slave- 

-9 holders, for they had always been engaged in some one of 

O 1 


2 University Magazine 

the learned professions, law or medicine or theology, and 
had never owned more than a few personal servants about 
the house. In the eyes of the law — not always wide open 
or clear — -they were the owners of slaves, but in reality the 
slaves owned them, and life was tolerable only by a sys- 
tem of compromises. When thing's came to the worst there 
was, of course, the dire threat of the auction-block, at 
which there was outwardly some consternation but in- 
wardly no fear whatever. 

When the Spring- of 1865 came, and with it the Federal 
troops, there was, in the eyes of the law, a breaking - of the 
slender ties of ownership, but in reality things went along 
pretty much as before. "Uncle" Simon still cut up and 
brougmt in the fire wood, long- pieces for the house and 
short pieces for the kitchen stove, and spaded in the mel- 
low old g-arden and slept two hours after dinner ; "Aunt " 
Jinny still looked after the big- pot and the little one and 
carried on an unrelenting warfare with "dem plagued 
chillun"; Liza still cared for " de Ole Miss " during the 
day and romped with the aforesaid plagues in the evening ; 
while Soonie, the Mammy, placidly aired herself on the 
back-steps and made regular but utterly useless announce- 
ments that it was bed time. 

The schooling in those days was of an intermittent and 
old fashioned sort, and made up in variety of effort what 
it lacked in continuity. The men had gone to the war, 
and the women reigned supreme, as was but natural and 
right. The truth is that as the great strug-gle drew 
towards its close utter demoralization set in. No one was 
sure of to-morrow, some were not even sure of to-day. It 
was enough that bread and molasses and rye coffee could 
be had at breakfast ; what the day should bring in the 
shape of dinner and supper was another story. 

The learned professors in the University borrowed al- 
most any sort of conveyance that could be secured and went 
into the surrounding country for corn. Sometimes it was 
shelled and sometimes it was not, and when on the cob 

John Lucas, A Sketch 3 

they and their children shelled it and brought it home and 
carried it to the mill. 

With such a state of affairs among- the great and the 
learned what could the ordinary schools expect? That 
they existed at all was a signal act of Divine Providence, 
backed up, as many acts of Providence have to be, by hu- 
man persistence. The sword of the Lord was present and 
operative, but Gideon was also at work, although it must 
be confessed that his pitcher had often been mended and 
his candle was a tallow dip, home-made at that. But the 
schools went on, and the tallow dips were made at home, 
and the cups and saucers and plates and lamp chimneys 
( there was one long suffering lamp chimney in John Lucas' 
home) were mended over and over again. 

It did not so much matter what one learned at school, 
provided the teachers were gentle-folk and of the right 
faith. In that State for many years it had been the hered- 
itary prerogative of the Presbyterians to teach school, on 
the principle that any one who had mastered the intricacies 
of the Shorter and the Longer Catechism, with proofs, was 
equal to any emergency. Episcopalians, Methodists and 
Baptists had no hesitation in sending their children to a 
Presbyterian school, for they argued : Presbyterians never 
proselytize ; they may now and then recruit their ranks 
from the impenitent and the unattached but never from 
the penitent and the labelled. • An Episcopalian lad, for 
instance, came away from a Presbyterian school quite as 
much of an Episcopalian as when he left home, not from 
any profound conviction that Episcopacy was the best 
form of belief but because of a certain spiritual inertia. 

Inertia often takes the place of conviction — it rids one of 
a sense of responsibility and is the Western form of Fata- 
lism. To the average American the sense of personal re- 
sponsibility is comparatively unknown ; it is a luxury to be 
enjoyed by those who can afford it, a sort of moral elation 
covered with seal skin, rarely acquired before the age of 
forty and ceasing then on legal notice. 

4 University Magazine 

It was no wonder that the village school was under the 
control of the Presbyterians, and that all well regulated 
boys and girls went thither as a matter of course. The in- 
struction was tentative. The old order of things was 
passing away, and the new order had not come up out of 
the deep. To sensible people, who had not been carried 
away by the violence of the times, it was perfectly clear 
that the Confederacy was crumbling to pieces, and that 
when the end came there would be many and marvellous 
changes. The slaves would be free, suffrage would be ex- 
tended beyond all reason, property would be re-distributed 
and the relations of man to man would be along strange 
lines. The Deluge was approaching and the Ark was not 
even on the stocks. 

But it was felt that reading, writing, arithmetic, geog- 
raphy, spelling, and good manners would probably be re- 
quired under the new dispensation, although some had 
doubts as to the last. 

Allusions to the struggle then in progress were very in- 
frequent, and when made at all were merely by way of pass- 
ing reference to what was too well known to be discussed. 
There was over the entire country a black cloud from whose 
ominous fringes came the sounds of terror and of death. 
The elder people went about their imperative duties as if 
in a dream, dreading they knew not what, scanning the 
lists of the killed and wounded, and prajdng in the silent 
watches of the night. Teaching under such circumstances 
was not a farce — it was a daily tragedy. What effect those 
years had upon the children, who can tell? They grew up 
in an atmosphere of uncertainty, of terrible emotions, con- 
fined yet dangerous. 

It is by no means easy to determine the forces that act 
upon children, what they are, how they operate, or what 
the resultant is. The atmosphere in which they grow up, 
whether at home or at school is but one of many factors in 
the case. During the first ten or twelve years the home is 
the real school, for it is here that g-enuine men and women 

John Lucas, A Sketch 5 

are to be found. The impression that children get of 
the daily walk and conversation — to use a good old fash- 
ioned expression — of the home people is worth volumes of 
such texts as ' Procrastination is the Thief of Time,' 'Hon- 
esty is the Best Policy,' .'Spare the Rod and Spoil the 
Child,' etc. Children may not know why but they are very 
much alive to results. They feel the tender consideration, 
the patient care, the never-failing- love, and in after years 
at least, look back on the old home with some foretaste of 
heaven. It does not so much matter what they learn at 
school, but what they learn at home is nine-tenths of what 
they are in maturer years. It is not necessary to appeal to 
Scripture in support of this assertion, nor to quote, with 
sonorous ignorance of its meaning, Solomon's remark as to 
the training of children. Whatever success he may have 
attained as a compiler of proverbs as a trainer of children 
he was a dismal failure. The best training is the uncon- 
scious training, for this enters into the very fibers of exist- 
ence and has not the air of an accomplishment. 

There is a great deal of nonsense talked about education, 
and especially the education of children. We are given to 
think that so many hours a day over text-books, diagrams 
and black-boards will turn out the best of citizens. It is a 
part of the modern craze for machinery. A pig goes up 
an incline into a building and comes out in so many differ- 
ent articles that the mere enumeration of them would have 
turned his head in earlier and happier years. A log of 
spruce goes into a great machine and comes out a daily 
newspaper, but if it could have seen what some of them 
print it would not be proud as the pig. There is a great ma- 
chine called School, and we put children into it and go our 
ways with a comforting sense of duty performed. It grinds 
on and on, the bearings wear down, the oil gives out, the 
shaft gets out of line, the valves leak, but the grist goes 
in steadily and steadily the product, such as it is, comes 
pouring out. 

Thak God for School! It is such a ielief to get rid of 
the children! 

6 University Magazine 

And at home? Do they find love there, and gentleness, 
and truthfulness, and a high sense of personal honor, and 
obedience to lawful authority? Or are these thing also 
turned out by machinery, with the name of the maker and 
the number of the patent stamped on them? 

The school that John Lucas attended was an old fash- 
ioned school in an old fashioned town, and what he learned 
there was very much less than what he learned at home, 
which was old fashioned also. The town is still there but 
it has been modernized — whatever that may mean, — the 
school is there but it has had the latest improved machin- 
ery put in, electrically driven with direct gearing, and the 
teacher has long since gone to her reward. 

What gracious influences do exhale from a true woman, 
like the odour of violets, indefinable, peaceful, heavenly! 
The character of a gentlewoman can be analyzed only by 
her peers, and they would scorn to do it. To know such 
an one is to know the best thing on the earth ; to have her 
know you is to feel as if you were on the object-glass of a 
microscope with Divinity looking through the tube. 

In after years there were only two women that John 
Lucas could even think of comparing with his old school 
teacher — his mother and his wife, and yet neither of these 
was like her. They agreed, however, in one point, i. e. in 
refined goodness, and were the Three Graces of his latter 
da}' mythology. The only regret ever associated with 
them in his mind was that in heaven — should he be found 
worthy — they would be so far removed from him in the an- 
gelic choir as to be quite beyond his reach. We pass from 
glory to glory, but they had long- wa}' the start of him, 
and for this he grieved. Happy is the man, though sor- 
rowing, who knows that his mother and his wife are better 
than he! It is difficult for such a man to go very far 

John Lucas' home life was of the South and yet not 
Southern. His mother's people were long settled in the 
State, coming over from England somewhere about 1740, 

John Lucas, A Sketch 7 

and making- their way by diligence and thrift to a comfort- 
able estate. His father was Northern born, of mixed Eng- 
lish and Dutch ancestr} 7 , but had been reared in the South 
from early infancy. But neither his grand-father nor his 
father ever assumed the typical Southern character, which 
is nothing if not retrospective. The Augustan Age came 
back for once and those who were of it and not merely in it 
cannot forget the miracle, nor cease to regret the bread and 
the circus. Even the full moon as seen from the Battery in 
Charleston, cannot be compared with what it was ' befo 
de wah.' 

It is good to have things to look back upon, to have a 
family history which appeals to the better nature and sends 
the quickening blood along in currents of noble ambition. 
Our forebears may have had what to us are strange ideas 
of duty, but when we can know that they did their parts 
well in the world and were respected and honored we can 
thank God for their memories. 

John Lucas' family had no great possessions to lookback 
upon, for they did not accumulate, they dispensed, and 
there are many gray-haired men now in the Southern coun- 
try who can rise up and testify to the wealth of intellect 
and goodness so freely bestowed upon them from lecture 
room and pulpit. 

It has often been charged that as a relief from the cul- 
tivation of slaves the leading men of the South cultivated 
politics, but in this home it was assuredly not the case. 
In the first place politics at the State University was ta- 
booed, and in the second place the bent of his father's mind 
was philosophical and religious rather than practical and 
worldly. The morning and evening family worship, at 
which his father used to read from the big Bible, comment- 
ing free!} 7 and frankly as he read, the earnest prayer, the 
quiet look in his mother's saintly face, all these spoke of 
higher things than squabbling over the distribution of a 
pie not large enough to go around. 

As John Lucas sits now in the twilight, with his wife 

8 University Magazine 

within reach and the children storming - the heights of San 
Juan or breakfasting- in Manila Bay — all in the adjoining 
lot — his heart goes back to the basement dining room, and he 
sees the hymn books, bound in reddish-brown leather, and 
the big Bible, bound in black leather, and he hears his 
father's voice striking into, 

" Not all the blood of beasts 
On Jewish altars slain," 


"How firm a foundation ye saints of the Lord 
Is laid for your faith in his excellent word." 

And the electric lights go out, and the trolly cars cease to 
run, and the scream of the locomotive dies away. He is 
again, as a child, in the presence of God and his saints, 
wondering perhaps what it all means, but sure that it 
means far more than he can ever fathom. 

Why do certain facts hang in the memory through life, 
while others, perhaps even more important, are gone into 
the mists of unconsciousness ? Have children the faculty 
of laying hold of really vital occurrences, of going intui- 
tively to the heart of things ? There was John Lucas, for 
instance. He saw his father many times every day and for 
years, in many different surroundings and from many dif- 
ferent points of view, and yet he thinks of him oftenest 
reading from the family Bible, lifting his eyes now and 
then, thrusting his lower jaw a trifle forward and gazing 
with Isaiah or Paul into the awful mysteries that lie before 
us. When, in after years, he stood by his father's open 
grave and heard a life-long friend say, ' ' There lies the most 
learned man the State has ever had," he felt a certain ela- 
tion, as who would not ? And yet it is not his father's 
learning that stands with him for his father,but the deep- 
rooted, unfailing, impregnable trust in God. Thai is his 
father. Learning ? It is an accomplishment, but the sweet 
savour of righteousness speaks of intimate communion with 
the Almight3 T , of a soul that has found its everlasting rest- 
ing place and cares not for the things of time or sense. 

His father early impressed upon him the fact that work 

John Lucas, A Sketch 9 

is the normal state of man, and he did this not as much by 
precept as by example. Indeed, there was very little oral 
teaching- in the family, save the Shorter Catechism and the 
Three R's. The teaching - was'the daily life. As to work : 
Another view of his father comes into his mind. During a 
season of very bad weather, snow and sleet and ice, it was 
found that the supply of wood for the house was running 
low, and the faithful ' Uncle ' Simon was not to hand. John 
knew of the condition of affairs, but the " Young Jaeg- 
ers "was too much for him. He preferred South Africa to 
a frozen wood-pile, and a vicious black rhinoceros was 
ever so much better than the most tractable of wheel-bar- 
rows. Soon his mother came in with : 

''John, did you know that your father was out in the 
yard getting in the wood ? " 

" No'm, I didn't know that." 

'• Well, he is, and I think you ought to be ashamed to let 
him go out in this dreadful weather and get in the wood, 
while you hover over the fire and read hunting tales." 

John was not as much ashamed then as he is now, thir- 
ty years after that wood has turned to ashes, but he went 
out. His father was there without a hat and with an old 
dressing gown on, which was much the worse for wear and 
was flapping in the keen wind. He had gone out, not say- 
ing a word to any one, to do himself what he knew should 
be done, and giving no thought to his own personal com- 
fort. They worked in silence until the wood was all in and 
when John went back to the house and into the study there 
lay upon the table the book his father had left to go out and 
get in the wood — it was Poli Synops Criticorum, in its 
brown leather binding. 

A wonderful book was that Synopsis of Critics, a sympo- 
sium of commentaries on the Scriptures, as solid as a block 
of granite, and readable only by those who would get at the 
heart of things, It was always associated in John's mind 
with prodigious learning, encased in such a thorny exterior 
as quite to forbid his approach. He had a sort of bowing 
aquaintance with it, but never presumed to cultivate friend- 

10 University Magazine 

lier terms. But his father knew it as he knew his Pierce 
and Gauss, although it had to be propped up on the table, 
or the lounge, when consulted, as each volume weighed 
ten or twelve pounds. The getting- in of that wood was an 
object lesson that John never forgot, although it must be 
said that he was not always unwilling to give the other 
man a chance. And so through childhood and into youth 
— a transition imperceptible yet weighty. There were no 
amusements to speak of, for the whole country mourned. 
The swimming hole in the summer and an occasional skat- 
ing frolic in the winter varied the monotony with miniature 
battles and sieges. There had been a circus in the town 
once but the general opinion was that the opportunities af- 
forded for the study of natural history did not compensate 
for the air of levity that pervaded the place for months af- 
terwards. The truth is that the University professors set 
the pace, and this was not inclined toward the circus, grav- 
itating, as it did, between the church and the lecture room. 
They rallied to the suppression of periodical outbreaks 
among the students, but this was a form of dissipation not 
shared by the children. Life in the early sixties in a Uni- 
versity town cannot by a stretch of the imagination be 
thought of as gay. It was endured- — not enjoyed, as were 
most things of the time. 

Learning and godliness were the pole stars toward which 
the older barks were steered, but in the ocean of youth 
these are for the most part obscured and the voyage across 
is sometimes made even without a rudder. 

There are two kinds of bravery. The one knows and 
still goes on, the other does not know and yet goes on. 
Men exhibit the first and children the second. To know 
the danger and face it is of the man, and is true courage. 
Perhaps children have no true courage in this sense, for 
they do not know what is before. The blitheness of true 
manhood comes from fortitude, that of children from a 
blissful ignorance. They are here, they do not know 
why, nor do they much care. There is no past, the future is 
a rainbow, the present is theirs by divine appointment and 

John Lucas, A Sketch 11 

other tilings exist simply for them. The pleasures of 
Hope ? Yes, we have it on presumably good authority that 
there are such things, and so long as we take no trial bal- 
ance we may believe it. Children are happy because there 
is only one side on the ledger. They have unlimited credit 
and there are no debts. If they long to map the other side of 
the moon it is a sure sign that it is bedtime, for the moon 
and its mysteries — the beautiful and the unattainable — are 
for grown people. 

Youth ? A long and weary way back, but there is one 
comforting thought — the way is barred— there is No Thor- 
oughfare. We cannot return if we would ; so, as men, we 
set our faces steadfastly towards the coming years and the 
shadows. With children there are no shadows — only 

As John Lucas came into youth he was conscious of two 
things, first, the Old South was gone forever, and second, 
the New South had a decidedly unpleasant flavor. The dis- 
tillate from the mighty cauldron of Civil War might im- 
prove with age, but at first it was raw and had to be 
blended. What the blend was in his case remains to be 
seen, but he soon found that fusel oil does not improve with 
age. The ' singlings ' and ' doublings ' had to beresingled 
and redoubled before the purity of the final product could 
be certified to. All this took many years and there are 
some even to-day who declare that it was not worth the 
trouble. The Old South was a connoisseur in such matters 
and promptly refused to have anything to do with the new 
brew, but John Lucas did not belong to the Old South and 
knew nothing of its hereditary prejudices. He had none of 
its traditions by way either of valuable freight or worthless 
ballast, and could take his course to new ports as a tramp 
steamer, guided by circumstances and the emergencies of 
the market. It did not occur to hin: that a definite route, 
with cargoes both ways, has its advantages, but then there 
were many things that did not occur to him and he sailed 
away in ignorance of them all, and in the end fared no 
worse than others. 


BY B . 

01 am sick of what I am! of all 
That I in life can ever hope to be ; 
Angels of light, be pitiful to me, 
And build your white wings round me like a wall ; 
Angels, save me from the thought of what has been 
In days and years I have no pleasure in. 

Disabled, stalled in habits' deep worn rut, 

My labor is a vain and empty strife, 
A useless tugging- at the wheels of life, 

When the vital tendons all are cut ; 
I have no plea, no argument to make, 

Only love can save me for love's sake. 

The evil I have done I do deplore, 

And give my praise to whom it doth belong, 

For each good deed that seemeth out of wrong 
An accidental step and nothing more ; 

Treasure for heavenly investment meant 
I like a prodigal have spent. 

I am not in the favor of men's eyes, 

Nor am I skilled immortal stuff to weave ; 

No rose of honor wear I on my sleeve, 

To cheer the gloom, when that my body lies 

An unrigged hulk to rot upon life's ford — 
The crew of mutinous senses overboard. 

Thy wrath to stay what shall I bring, 

O God? The lillies Thou hast clothed Thy love repay, 
But I alas! not even — with thy Saints — dare say, 

'Simply to Thy cross I cling! ' 
I am undone, lost utterly, useless 

My sins Thon buriest in Thy tenderness. 



Amass of fiction dealing- with newspaper offices and news- 
paper men of New York City is doubtless responsible 
for the reputation that metropolitan journalism has ac- 
quired as afield of pleasing- excitement and unending variety. 
People living far away from the great cities have been led 
to believe that the urban reporter is a being solely devoted 
to unravelling dark mysteries or dealing in other games of 
adventure that would conduce to make his existence one of 
uninterrupted interest. In all of this there is much error, 
for the novelist and the story-writer have taken care to 
leave untold the under side of the journalist's life, and only 
those who are, or have been, connected with the editorial 
rooms of one of the big dailies realize that everything- de- 
pends on hard and steady work, little on the changing 
wheel of fortune or the erratic display of brilliant detective 

Methods in different offices vary in detail, and some pa- 
pers treat their employees better than others but the gen- 
eral principle on which affairs are managed is practically 
the same, in all news-dealing establishments, In every case 
the daily paper will have two main departments, the bus- 
iness and the editorial. In the business office care is taken 
of the publishing company's finances, in the editorial de- 
partment the news is looked after. The latter, being the 
home of the reporter, is under consideration at present. 

The editor-in-chief and managing-editor are the high 
priests of the editorial rooms, the former ranking-, but ex- 
ercising little of his authrity over the chief of the news di- 
vision. As a general thing, all the writers of editorial mat- 
ter are nfen with gray heads and long reportorial experi- 
ence, who have been in the business upwards of twenty 
years. They only use their pens on what they call "the 

14 University Magazine 

page " and hold little intercourse with the ordinary reporter, 
remaining- aloof in their private rooms and dispensing - abuse 
or condemnation against the world in general. 

Under the managing-editor are the city-editor, telegraph- 
ed' tor, and, in fact, the heads of all the departments, of 
which that of the local-desk is most important. There are 
several dignitaries of a half-editorial-half-news kind who 
rule their departments almost exclusively, but may be 
"called down" by the "boss " if he sees fit. Among- them 
are the dramatic critic, musical reviewer, foreign editor, 
exchange, and financial editor, and others. They differ 
from ordinary reporters in that their copy goes straight 
into the composing rooms from their own hands and is not 
subject to the blue pencil of a copy reader. All of them 
have extra work piled on them when there is a rush, and 
their functions are not at all clearly defined, varying much 
on different papers. 

Of all the many different divisions into which the busi- 
ness of issuing a newspaper is divided, the city department is 
by far the most important, for, however cosmopolitan the 
character of the publication may be or however much space 
it may devote to foreign news, the local columns always 
command the greatest interest with the greatest number of 
subscribers. And it is in this department that the ubiqui- 
tous reporter plies his pen until the small hours of morning. 
Here also is the all-powerful copy-desk with its coterie of 
"blue-pencil slingers," who may, after some poverty- 
stricken space-man has run all over town and afterwards 
written a whole column, reduce his earnings to twenty cents 
by a few strokes of their color-dealing implements. Here, 
from noon to three in the morning, is heard the continual 
clatter of excited voices, the scraping of pens and the inces- 
sant ticking of telegraph instruments. Around the long 
room, with its rows of desks and disarranged chairs and its 
dusty floors covered with masses of paper that wefe there a 
year ago and will still be there a year hence, there are al- 
ways a few members of the staff, smoking and talking — 

On a New York Daily 15 

and never thinking- about what the morrow may bring- forth, 
unless, perchance, it is to be pay-day. Through the smoke, 
and in and out between the papers and chairs, the office 
boys scurry around, answering the 'phone, that seems to 
ring- forty times to the minute, or obeying- some behest of 
editor or reporter. They are a good crowd of fellows, these 
office boys, and never seem to get out of humor. Besides 
they know about as much of the business as the reporters, 
and most of them end by g-etting- on the regular staff. 

It is a great place — this room of the city-editor's — and 
its inmates, spendthrifts and freaks though the outside 
world of respectable people declares them, are a happy 

The working- day of a reporter is something like this : 
At noon, or thereabouts (depending upon what paper he 
works for), he makes his appearance, having risen from 
bed an hour or two before. On reaching the office the 
first thing to be thought of is the morning's paper. He 
may have read some of it on the way down town — or even 
all, if he lives far enough away from Park Row — but every 
word of the local news must be gone throug-h with, for 
that is expected, and one may be called upon at any minute 
to follow up a story begun yesterday. When this duty is 
accomplished, it is in order to wait for an assignment, and 
the wait may be ten minutes, or it may be an hour or two. 
In the meantime a few packs of cigarettes may be con- 
sumed or a few yarns "swopped" with some other ling- 

Sooner or later each reporter hears his name called and, 
in response, betakes himself to the desk up at one end of 
the room, behind which sits the Dictator. There the af- 
ternoon assignment is received, and, in the usual case, it 
must be completed and the resulting story turned in before 
six o'clock. After that comes the evening- assignment, 
which is expected to be covered before midnig-ht. Even 
then there may be a third assig-nment, but this is unusual. 

Of course there are no rigid time rules, for a story may 

16 University Magazine 

develop features involving- such a multitude of trips up 
and down town that to cover it successfully would require 
eight or ten hours. In such an event the city editor must 
receive a report by 'phone at five or six o'clock in the after- 

When the reporter returns from an assignment, he re- 
ports to the city-desk and then writes his story in accord- 
ance with instructions received there. He may be told to 
write two sticks or two columns. It depends on what kind 
of a yarn he reports. When the story is completed, it is 
turned over to the city-editor, who reads it and then 
gives it to a copy-reader. After passing under the blue 
pencil it goes to the composing rooms and is put into type. 
When midnight comes, a "good night" may be asked and 
if received, the day's work is done. In the case of a man 
who is working on space, it is proper to request leave to 
go as soon as the evening assignment is finished, maybe 
as early as eight or nine o'clock. So the older reporters 
often get off early, as most of them are " space-men." 

To some people the newspaper business is very attract- 
ive ; others could not endure it. It all depends upon in- 
dividual taste. But the man who selects it as a life-long 
vocation had better relinquish ambitions in the direction 
of pecuniary success, for there is no money in it, and even 
those at the very top make small salaries compared to 
what may be acquired by an equal amount of labor on 
Wall Street or in any regular business. As for leisure, 
there is more than would appear on first thought. A man 
has abundant time for eating while out on assignments, 
and sometimes gets such a job that he may find time for 
diversion as well. On the whole, the work is not often 
extremely hard and a decent paper — "yellows" are not 
considered decent — never gives one more than he can do. 
The profession of a reporter is essentially like anj^ other; 
the man who works succeeds, and the one who does not 



FRED Cummings tilted back his hat till it reached the 
proper angle, lit his after-dinner cigarette, and stroll- 
ed down the bathing gangway of the New Brighton 
on the last Sunday afternoon, as he said, that he was to 
spend in "such a place," 

" I am going out there and settle it with myself once for 
all," he muttered as he swung out toward the beach. 
Walking rapidly he soon left the peopled part of the beach 
behind. Only faint echoes of the joyous shouts of the 
bathers could be heard. The swish of the waves began to 
grow louder. His own crunching footfalls were increasing 
in intensity at every step. "This'll do," he said, and 
seated himself on a line of dunes behind him: Carefully 
rolling up his pantaloons, and shaking the snowy sand 
from his clothes, he seemed to have the intention of sitting 
the afternoon out in this carefully pre'pared attitude. His 
hands supported his chin for awhile, but after a little he 
reached behind him and drew forth a little black volume. 

"Sometimes a diary is a good thing and then sometimes 
it is a devil of a thing. Lemme see how mine stands : " 

"July 22. Come down here, Carolina Coast, to-day, for 
rest. Pound Cousin Emma and all her crew over at their 
new cottage, 'The Breakers.' Also hear Mary B. is with 
her aunt, old lady Baker. The old soul will leave for the 
city to-morrow and Mary will go over to Cousin K's." 

"July 23, Tried the surf this morning. Not much. 
People here seem to like it OK. Some think it the best 
the world affords. Went over to 'The Breakers' after 
lunch. Mary and old Mrs. Baker were at the train. Slept 
all the afternoon." 

"July 24. Met Francis MacVaughn at breakfast. Came 
in last night on some government business. Takes me out 

18 University Magazine 

to see the new jetty. Gone all day. Hear Kingsbury is 

"July 25. Went over to see Cousin Emma about some 
of Charley's things. Kingsbury and Mary are out driving - . 
Francis and I go in for too much Bud-weiser. I may go 
back to the City with him." 

"July 26. Saw Mary for the first time. Noticed she 
had no ring- at all on her left hand. King-sbury left last 
night. Francis goes at noon, I take lunch at ' The 

"July 27. I take Mary out for a sail. Lunch at home. 
Plan for a party to go out to see the new jetty. Cousin 
Emma will chaperone." 

"July 28. Had a big time to-day. Stopped at old Fort 
Jackson on the way back. Mary and I sat on the old wall 
for nearly two hours while the others roamed around. Got 
a letter from home saying I had better come back; Mr. 
Henson is not at all well. I do not like this old work any- 
way. But it's all I've got just now." 

"Well, that's it — just now. The whole situation 
must be reviewed 'just now'." He flapped the leaves of 
the diary and gazed far out to sea. To the left and be- 
hind him, the hotel loomed up, shutting off the inland view 
and the row of cottages farther up the beach. Nothing to 
see but water, ever-moving water, and the skyline, stilling 
its restless surface at last far out at sea. There was just 
a suggestion of the old Fort visible, a brown corner of the 
wall. The flag flapped drearily, as if the gathering clouds 
had already weakened its spirit and further defiance was 
useless. It reminded him of yesterday, and yesterday of 
Mary, and Mary of all the past, his and hers. 

"Here's how it is. I've got to decide. I love her. Told 
her so over a year ago. I will never tell another woman 
the same thing as long as I live. I have sworn it. They 
all do, I know, but — I — God only knows how I love that 

girl! And then I'm not worth a d , not worth killing, 

I guess. Got no profession and it may be years before I 

Where the Ocean Breezes Blow 19 

can ever get settled in the one I choose. I've told her all 
this. She never says a word. If I only had a chance for 

the future, I'd insist on her saying- no, she wouldn't. 

I don't believe she loves anybody. She doesn't love Kings- 
bury, anyway. Said so yesterday." 

Then his mental soliloquy seemed to cease. Propped on 
his palms, his face set seaward hour after hour. Lost to 
the world about him, he gazed at the skyline in front till 
it seemed to open and let him pass in. He seemed to wan- 
der far into the future. For a time he was allowed to look 
on the pictures of the Fates. At times his brow bent in 
folds and he dug holes in the dune with his heel, as if the 
dune were some living thing feeling the vent of his ven- 
geance. Rising to his feet at last, he stretched out his 
hands piteously to the restless waves. 

" I must, I must, — but oh, my God, why? No one can 
ever love her as I do, — but I will never thrust myself into 
another's place in her heart — if she loves another," and he 
started forward. "I'll tell her to-night, and I can leave 
with the knowledge that she knows at last." 

The beach was silent as he strode along. The band had 
gone indoors. The last load of people was ready at the 
hotel station. Only one more train was to go that night. 

"I'll have time for supper and then catch the train for 
' The Breakers.' " Supper took place in name only. Glass 
after glass of tea was served. The waiter filled his orders 
in trained silence, and, lost in reverie, he sat at his table 
till the ten-minute warning-bell of the last outgoing city 
train roused him. It was only a short run to " The Break- 
ers," and it seemed to Cummings only a few seconds since 
he had left the beach, so absorbed had he been with his gi- 
gantic struggle. 

She met him at the steps. The others were all inside. 
They walked together down the veranda, till they faced the 
sea, and then Cummings put down the two camp stools he 
had been carrying. " Here's a good place," — and they sat 
near the edge, resting their arms on the low railing. It 

20 University Magazine 

made them seem so far away from the rest of the world, 
with only the sea to look at. It was hard to say what he 
had planned. More than ever he knew how he loved her. 
Not a word had been said since he had told her that he was 
going- back home in the morning. He took her silence as 
an unfavorable omen. He thought she was at a loss for the 
proper thing to say, and this determined him to tell her of 
his afternoon's decision. But it took the form of an impas- 
sioned wail, and to her he appeared a man struggling in 
the sea of life, a sea not less hungry for victims than the 
one before her. 

" Mary, why have I been cheated so in life's game ? It 
happens at every turn. Now it's one thing and then it's an- 
other. Time has been taken away from me, and every- 
thing. I had better quit. What I do doesn't amount to 
anything, and nothing I can ever do will." 

She seemed not to hear, but soon he heard her saying, 
" But I will always have an interest in all you do." Turn- 
ing swiftly, dazed, he repeated with firey emphasis, "Al- 
ways ? " 

In an instant both felt the strenth of destiny and that 
neither time nor space avail against its force. Like a flower 
in the morning sun she yielded and softly whispered, " Al- 

Across the marshy rice fields and bays behind, through 
moss-festooned trees, softly rising and falling came the 
sounds of the city's bells tolling the last strokes of the de- 
parting day. The wind came crooning through the pal- 
metto trees. All around them the moonlight lay in great 
floods, while out at sea it made a million upturned mirrors 
which, shifting on the crests of the waves, reflected two 
faces aglow with the light of love. 

Gently pushing back the lace head-covering she wore, 
and laying both her hands on his she said, " You will not 
go away to-morrow, will you, dear ? " 

A Song 21 

" No, I cannot leave you yet." 
" 'Tis sweet to love," she said musingly. 
"And to be loved, he added, "where the ocean breezes 



Come, drink to the dying year, 

And drink to the dying- day, 
And drink to all that is past, 

And all that is passing- away. 

For what is life but a song, 
To sing what way you will? 

Come, choose us a merry tune then ; 
Tell hastening time 'be still.' 

So hush the voice of your heart and mine, 

For their speech brings only pain, 
Shut your ears to misery's call 

And let the hag knock in vain. 

For one short hour be merry, 
Forget there's more of life ; 

To-morrow brings the struggle, 
The care and the ceaseless strife. 

Then crown the beaker with garlands, 

And put your lips to the brim, 
And drink to undying beauty, 

And eyes that never grow dim ; 

And drink to the happy-go-lucky ; 

Hurrah for the end of strife! 
Here's to all that's merry and happy; 

Forget there is more of life. 




* rpO thoroughly appreciate the great work of an author 
something more than a mere superficial study of the 
exterior page is required. His character and pur- 
poses must be viewed in the light of his hereditary ten- 
dencies and environment. The man and his time interact 
upon each other and must be examined in their mutual 
relations. Just as in Art the most harmonious, pleasing 
effect of a picture is secured only when the bright, attrac- 
tive central figures are toned down and blended with the 
hazy side lights and the dark shadowy back ground, so in 
Literature, which is an art, complete harmony can be ob- 
tained only when all the minor, hidden details are taken 
into consideration. 

The picture we have before us is that of the life of the 
grim, rugged, massive Carlyle, the Hebraic prophet, who 
stands out giving utterance to his praise of that which is 
true and noble and boldly denouncing that which is untrue 
and ignoble. Let us turn to it and investigate, in the 
Scotch youth, the small beginnings of the stern seer who 
forged, later, his ponderous thoughts in the silent seclu- 
sion of Chelsea. 

Carlyle began life in the unpretentious Scotch village of 
Kcclefechan, a place of no other special note, whatever. 
It was simply the home of a few Scotch lmd-owners and 
their peasant renters, — not the place seemingty, to produce 
the spiritual prophet of the English nation, but rather, 
the earnest, persistent, religious tiller of the soil. 

His father was of the strong, self-made class of men. 

Born of poor peasant parents, his boyhood was hard and 

trying. At an early age he became the apprentice of a 

first class mason under whose direction he carefull} 7 trained 

*This essay won for Mr. Wilson the Hume Medal. — Ed. 

Scotch Traits in Thomas Carlyle 23 

himself to be a master workman. Reserved, dignified, at 
times impetuous, persevering, and intensely religious, he 
worked and built bridges and walls that continued to en- 
dure even when his strong, busy hand had entered upon its 
eternal rest. 

His formal education, lasting only for three months, was 
very poor. He was, however, a man of much good sense 
and possessed a mind, which although not carefully train- 
ed, was deep of insight, quick of action, and accurately 
logical. His great teacher was Nature, and the lesson 
taught him by her was to work — to work honestly and 
continually for that which was elevating and praiseworthy. 
The lesson once learned, he gave his entire strength to 
that which his hands found to do. 

His religious views were firmly based on Calvinistic doc- 
trine. They were unshaken and real. "Religion was the 
polar star of his being, and without it he would have been 
nothing. Although rude and uncultivated in many other 
respects, it made him and kept him 'in all points a man'." 
The deep faith in God as ruler and director of all things, 
which finds itself most firmly rooted in the Scotch heart, 
was preeminently his. For him God's will was supreme. 
God did all things for the good of those who put their 
trust in Him. 

Carlyle's mother was a tender, gentle, loving Scotch 
Presbyterian, in whom the religious teachings of her 
country were naturally deep seated. Hers was the unques- 
tioning, instinctive faith of a woman who knew that her 
Redeemer liveth, and who never doubted that God's all- 
wise care directed all things. In her was to be found that 
sensitive conscience which is especially characteristic of 
the Scotch people, and which, perhaps, can be said to exist 
in the true New England girl whom Hawthorne pictures 
in the "Marble Faun," — a conscience which cannot brook 
evil in others and which is constantly picking itself to 
pieces and setting itself aright in the sight of God, 

Such were the parents of Carlyle. Such the father and 

24 University Magazine 

mother from whom he received the broad, sound founda- 
tion upon which he built so grandly. 

In such a home his life was moulded and set into a form 
which it never wholly lost. Its teaching- with regard to 
obedience, to work, to truth and partly to religion, was 
lasting. Its atmosphere, though possibly a little unpleas- 
ant to a boy of will, was, at all events, "wholesome and 

As to his early training we are not left to mere conject- 
ure as he himself has given us a terse, graphic picture of 
one of his old teachers. Adam Hope, the dreaded, stern, 
English master, stands out in bold relief, and in him we 
find Scotch qualities that are characteristic of Carlyle him- 
self. Carlyle says: "He was a man humanly contem- 
ptuous of the world, and valued ' suffrages ' at a most low 
figure in comparison. I should judge him an extremely 
proud man ; for the rest, an inexorable logician, a Calvinist 
at all points, and Burgher Scotch Seceder to the back-bone. 
He did not know very much, but still a good something. 
But what he did profess or imagine himself to know, he 
knew in every fibre, and to the very bottom. A more rig- 
orously solid teacher of the young idea, so far as he could 
carry it, you might have searched for throughout the world 
in vain. Self-delusion, half -knowledge, sham, instead of 
reality, could not get existence in his presence. He was 
a praise and a glory to the well-doing boys, a beneficent 
terror to the ill-doing or dishonest, block-head sort ; and 
did what was in his power to educe and maize available the 
net amount of faculty discernible in each, and separate 
firmly the known from the unknown or misknown, in those 
young heads." This is the teacher who found in Thomas 
Carlyle an apt scholar, and who left with him impressions 
which sank into his life and made their appearance in bold, 
unmistakable signs in later years. From Annan Academy 
he went to Edinburgh University and there entered upon a 
secluded, laborious life of which we have but a scant rec- 
ord. Shy and timid, he kept himself from the eyes of the 

Scotch Traits in T/iomas Carlyle 25 

public and toiled steadily on at his own work, the forma- 
tive influences of home and school shaping him all the 
while for his future destiny. 

At an early age, and with a somewhat silent, contempla- 
tive disposition, he found himself setting- out into the sea 
of life which fairly teemed with Scotch influences. Around 
him moved men in secular pursuits ' ' who were argumenta- 
tive, clear-headed, sound-hearted, rather conceited and 
contentious, shrewd, humorous ; who possessed, to a re- 
markable degree, a great deal of human sense and polite- 
ness, who, of all men, were filled with a most ardent 
longing for all things spiritual." Men who, like Sir Wal- 
ter Scott, would not take refug-e behind some plausible 
deceit, but who had the moral courage to see their property 
swept forever away from them in meeting their obligations, 
and then to work doggedly until every requirement was 
met ; who, like Knox, could endure the galley slave's 
bench, or boldly refute queens for their conscience's sake ; 
who, with passionate, imaginative hearts, could sing like 
the immortal Burns or utter denunciations more fierce 
against that which was false than those which the Hebrew 
prophet Elijah uttered against the untruthful priests of 
Baal ; who, perhaps of all men, recognized most clearly 
the hand of God working in all things. In speaking of 
their religious life, and especially of their places of wor- 
ship,- Carlyle says: "In their lowly, rude, rustic, bare 
meeting-houses were sacred lambencies, tongues of authen- 
tic fire, which kindled all that was best in man and fanned 
it into a living flame." 

Out of college, study for the ministry and teaching 
claimed his attention. Neither of these occupations pleased 
him, however, and after a two-years' trial he decided to 
give them up. 

At this same time another power was brought to bear 
upon his life which we cannot overlook. That was the 
lasting friendship formed with the afterwards famous di- 
vine, Edward Irving. To him Carlyle owes much of his 

26 University Magazine 

success, as it was at that period of his early manhood, when 
he was by no means "sanguine and diffusive, but rather 
biliary, sarcastic, and intense," that the fine, manly, so- 
cial, good, natured, young - teacher and minister drew him 
into his own heart and there fostered him on the best that 
he could afford. His conversation was helpful, and his li- 
brary was stored with books which suited the peculiar tem- 
perament of Carlyle's mind and furnished it with a vast store 
of food, quickly digested and assimilated and in later years 
called into active, telling - service. 

These were the influences which shaped the man whose 
oracular utterances were, for several long- years, awaited 
with eager expectation throug-hout all England. They acted 
upon the shy, meditative, dyspeptic youth, who " felt out of 
place even in his own house," and formed the basis of a life 
which was wonderfully productive of great works. Upon 
this foundation he built his massive, towering - superstruct- 
ure to which we will briefly refer. 

We now look to the Carlyle of mature years to see in 
what respect he bears the stamp of a true Scotchman — we 
look to Carlyle the worker. Work claimed him as her own 
child. The brief, clear ring - of his father's trowel taug-ht 
him that idleness was not for him, but rather, hard, unre- 
lenting toil . Nothing - , he says, was ever accomplished 
without work, and only that could last which was the pro- 
duct of earnest, concentrated effort. The bridges which 
rose under his father's hand stood for a definite amount of 
muscle, tissue and sweat. 

Work, moreover, in order to be lasting and beneficial, 
must also be true. The same loathing for sham, which 
caused his father to abandon the mason's trade, made Car- 
lyle cry out in thunderous tones against untruth and incon- 
sistency. The French Revolution and the great political 
upheavals in England furnished him undeniable proofs that 
that which was false had to be eradicated in order that 
truth might spring up in its place. He held that relations 
between the governing and governed had to be sound, otk- 

Scotch Traits in Thomas Carlyle 27 

erwise strife and arms were inevitable. Luther, thoroughly 
manned with a truth, marched against the stronghold of 
Popery— of sham — and with it brought destruction to cant 
and hollow show. Cromwell, true to himself and the peo- 
ple of his native England, rose in arms against his king — 
the embodiment of weakness and insincerity, and forced 
him to the execution block. Napoleon, as long as he was 
true to his principles, brought empires to his feet ; when he 
became false to them and allowed ambition to dominate his 
life, saw his kingdoms fall forever from his powerless 

It was this element of his nature which, coupled with a 
remarkable depth of insight, fitted Ctirlyle for the duties 
of literary critic. He never stopped short of the bottom of 
a subject in his investigations, and then never failed to give 
the approval or disapproval which he thought it deserved. 
Truth could not be sacrificed by him, no matter what the 
consequences. "Uncompromising to himself," says Pan- 
coast, "he was alwaj-s uncompromising towards others," 
and, like some stern judge, looked upon the thing itself and 
did not allow himself to be blinded by outward appearances. 
For that reason the veneered, insincere Byron met with 
his bitter scorn, while the passionate, firey-hearted, sincere, 
though misguided, Burns met with his richest praise. 

To be most beneficial, Carlyle said work had to be car- 
ried out according to some definite, unifying plan. It was 
for the lack of such a purpose that Burns failed to make 
the most of life and that his end was one of deep sorrow. 
He vainly "attempted to mingle, in friendly union, the 
common spirit of the world with the spirit of poetry, which 
is of a far different nature. No man formed as he was can 
be anything by halves." Thus he defeated his own ends 
and set limits to his effectiveness which were perhaps not 
nearly so extended as they they could have been. Profiting- 
by this example, and by that of Milton who devoted the 
best of his manhood to literary preparation, Carlyle 
set himself to work in one field, and then labored 

28 University Magazine 

doggedly and untiringly. It was this singleness of 
purpose that held him in the seclusion of Craigenput- 
toc and Chelsea and caused him to look with disdain 
upon that which attempted to lure him from his true, laud- 
able work. The mere fact, that men in general spent 
their forces in different ways, did not influence him in his 
course. He heeded not the voice of the public, but with an 
active will and the strength of a giant applied himself to 
his task. This voice was incapable of furthering his un- 
dertakings. "He who had the approval of his own con- 
science and the favor of God, need not concern himself with 
what his unthinking fellows thought." 

The estimate he placed upon man generally was ex- 
tremely low, and can possibly be stated in the words which 
he puts into the mouth of his old teacher as he sums up the 
worth of his scholars : ' ' Nothing good is to be expected 
from you or from those you come of, but we must get the 
best you have and not complain." Only the few had any- 
thing worth striving after. Many whom the world called 
great, and to whom it yielded its greatest praise, were val- 
ued but at little by him. In one sentence, to which we 
may justly take exception, he gives his opinion of the great 
religious teacher, Henry Drummond : "I have heard him; 
I learned neither good nor evil fromhim." Note his humor- 
ous description of a city by midnight : ' ' Five hundred 
thousand two-legged anmials are lying there in a horizon- 
tal position with night caps on and their heads filled with 
all kinds of fanciful dreams ! " The voice of such a throng 
was nothing more to him than the passing of an empty 
cloud — soon gone forever. But one in a million gave a 
message worth receiving. 

As a natural consequence the social life of London was 
utterly insipid to him. Nothing was to be learned from 
the whimsical, shallow, superficial " flunkies" who nightly 
gave their elegant soirees and spread out their elaborate, 
empty feasts of vanities. Time spent in such "idiocy" 
was time lost. An evening at home with his wife and a 

Scotch Traits in Thomas Carlyle 29 

home friend, such as Leigh Hunt or Tennyson, was worth 
infinitely more and did not require nearly so great a sacri- 
fice of interest and pleasure. 

However, despite his sternness and seeming misanthropy 
towards the world at large, there is to be found in him a 
marked vein of sympathy and love. His father and mother, 
although unlearned and poor, never once failed to receive 
from him the respect and affection which was their due. 
To Edward Irving, the friend of his young manhood, he 
never proved false, but stood nobly by him when London 
had turned her cruel back upon him. The strong, stern 
man of suffering frequenty left "Sham" and the "Gos- 
pel of Dirt " to themselves and turned with a deep feeling 
of compassion to those who were struggling to accomplish 
something in th« hard, bitter world. As he viewed the 
life of Burns, with its holy ambitions, its pitfalls, and 
doubts, he grieved that it had not been in his power to lend 
him a helping hand. Again, as he followed the doubt-tossed 
Teufelsdrockh through his strong progress from the "Ever- 
lasting No " to the "Everlasting Yea," he could not but 
speak through the ideal image of himself, words of pro- 
found sympathy to all inquirers after truth : ' ' Poor, wan- 
dering, wayward man ! Art not thou tired and beaten with 
stripes even as I am ? Even whether thou bear the Royal 
mantle or the Beggar's gaberdine — art thou not so weary, 
so heavy laden : and thy bed of Rest is but a grave. Oh my 
Brother, my Brother, why cannot I shield thee in my bosom 
and wipe away all tears from thy eyes ! " 

One word more. In Carlyle the Hero Worshipper and 
Calvinistic Sceptic we discover the resultant of several pri- 
mary, or elementary forces. His idea of the Hero and of 
God would not seem to spring from his early teaching. In 
trying to be practical, and in endeavoring to have but one 
purpose, he overlooks another important teaching, namely, 
that every individual has an immortal, priceless soul. In 
trying to think freely and still hold to the Calvanistic 
doctrines, his spiritual ideas become rather entangled and 

30 University Magazine 

are not what we might wish them to be. In his eyes the 
great mass of men counted for too little. Only the few 
strong- men were worthy of respect and capable of leader- 
ship. Such men were to be the rulers, the heroes; the 
worthless, unthinking throng was to be despotically 
ruled by them. 

After one long, agonizing fight with doubt, a conflict in 
which modern Rationalism opposed Calvinistic teaching, 
his belief assumed one definite, unchanging form. To him 
God was the great, all powerful spirit who pervades the 
universe and rules all things. Christ was but a great hero 
whose life represented the spiritual ideal for man. He was 
not sent to save the world, — God did not care so much for 
mankind as to make such a supreme sacrifice. 

In rough outline, Carlyle,the Annandale youth, surround- 
ed by Scotch influences, and Carlyle, the great rugged, 
seer of the English nation, stand before us. On one side 
is the youth of Knox's Presbyterian, free-thinking Scot- 
land, with its deep religious life ; on the other the strange 
sceptic, who, though savoring of modern Rationalism, has 
settled for all time his doubts and firmly believes in an all- 
wise God and a ruling Providence. The shy meditative 
youth of Ecclefechan emerges as the great, bold thinker, 
or rather, the oracle of London. He who taught himself 
to turn a deaf ear to the voice of the multitude and to heed 
only those who could teach, dismisses with a sentence 
those whom the unthinking world calls great, and in soli- 
tude seeks and finds knowledge. Yonder in the Edinburgh 
library of Irving, poring over the works of Geothe and the 
winged and piercing sarcasm of Gibbon, sat the young 
student who was to sit as a true, impartial, far-seeing - critic 
of literature and men, who was to paint, with wonderfully 
graphic, scrutinizing pen, portraits of Cromwell and Luther, 
which fairly burnt their way into the minds of men. The 
heart which revolted at sham and pretence, and which 
poured bitter scorn and fierce, scathing denunciation upon 
those who worked deceit, goes out in tender yearning for 

Rest 31 

the down-trodden, despairing- soul which struggles and 
battles honestly through the harsh, grinding world. The 
boy who was taught to esteem truth, whose birthright was 
to work, devotes himself body and soul to a literary career 
and despite seemingly insurmountable obstacles sticks, 
with Scottish persistence, to his task, and ever working as 
in the sight of his maker, rears for himself a glorious, 
precious monument which shall endure even when the mor- 
tar and granite of his father's art shall have fallen into 
forgotten decay. 



Rest is not quitting this busy career, 

Rest is the fitting of self to its sphere ; 

'Tis the brook's motion, clear without strife, 

Fleeing to ocean after its life ; 

'Tis loving and serving the Highest and Best; 

'Tis onward, unswerving, — that is true rest. 



IT was in the forest that he first met her. She was com- 
ing- slowly along- the narrow path with her hands full 
of brilliant leaves, looking- in the autumn radiance like 
some white lily with crimson leaves all around. The red au- 
tumn sun shot one last lingering ray straight through the 
glory of trees about her, lighting up her face with a 
strange, transcendent light, like the golden halo of some 
mediaeval saint. 

He wondered, as he stood aside to let her pass, whether 
there would be any hesitation and coyness, any shy half 
dropping of the eyelids, any covert side glances from the 
grey eyes as she passed by. The handsome, silent profes- 
sor was accustomed to such recognitions of his presence 
from his adorers. But he grew ashamed of the thought as 
she let her gray eyes meet his calmly, steadily and with a 
sweet, grave recognition of his presence. 

She had passed by, he remembered, with only a slight in- 
clination of the head, leaving him standing in the road 
alone, in the darkness she and the sun had left behind. 
That was all, but the professor's mind had travelled back 
ten years to another wood, when a woman had looked at him 
steadily with just such grave, gray eyes. He drew a long 
breath of pain as he thought of the earnest face with the 
trusting eyes and sweet, unsmiling mouth. 

"If I had never known " — he said in a half whisper, 
with a queer little touch of pain in his voice — "if she had 
only let me think her true ! " 

He stood there in the gathering darkness in a silence ap- 
palling in its intensity, thinking in a vague, disconnected 
fashion of that summer's idyl that had ended as summer 
idyls do. Then his mind hastened back to the stern, saint- 
like figure that had caused his reverie. 

An Etching 33 

" She has the same eyes," he thought, " the same mouth ; 
but she seems somehow different. Perhaps it was the sun- 
light on her face. She looked like a madonna or an angel." 
He thought of her again that night as he stood at his win- 
dow looking out over the moon-light-radiant earth, but he did 
not know that she was thinking of him with a pain at her 
heart : " He has been true to her through all these years, 
true to his ideal of her. I wonder if he knows I am her sis- 
ter ! " 

It was the next day he was presented to her formally. The 
well known name came to him like a blow — he looked at 
her with an expression of pain his dark eyes that he could 
not conceal, but he only said very quietly, "Your name is 
very familiar to me, I once had — a — friend — " Her eyes did 
not meet his then as she answered quickly, but in a low, 
hushed voice, "I am her sister." 

There was a death-like silence for a moment ; then she 
raised her eyes to his filled with an entreaty that was al- 
most a prayer. His eyes met hers and softened into an ex- 
pression of sweet gravity as he held out his hand and took 
hers with a swift intuitive comprehension. ' 

Nothing more was said ; there was no explanation, but 
no words are needed to establish a perfect understanding, 
and each felt that the other knew and understood. 

They saw much of each other after that, as much as was 
consistent with their academic relations, and their acquaint- 
anceship ripened into a beautiful friendship, which meant 
much to both just then. 

There was someting infinitely touching in her exquisite 
comprehension and instant response to every word. 

"Do you never have moods yourself?" he asked half 
earnestly one evening, feeling with an intuition as delicate 
as her own the perfect sympathy of her attitude. 

"Oh, I am a sensitive plant," she answered laughing ; 
"I am all moods. I change with every influence, but I am 
always the same ; translate that paradox, if you will." 

" I understand you too well to need any translation^" he 

34 University Magazine 

said quite seriously. "I like to read the original without 
forcing - the finer shades of meaning into words." 

" You understand things," she said very simply. " You 
should be always understood. That is one of my troubles 
with life, that people make themselves into Chinese puzzles, 
eventually stop all sympathetic relations with other minds. 
Why is one expected to be always conventional and unnat- 
ural ? Why shouldn't a girl go to a man she loves and say 
to him, 'You have a beautiful soul and I love it. We both 
know that all hnman love is one with the Divine love. 
Nothing little can enter into it and you must understand.' 
Do you think he would misunderstand ? " 

" Not if he were really the man she loved," he answered 
slowly, "but most of us are in love with ideals and if she 
had not read his character aright, he would not understand 
at all. She could love the beautiful soul and sometime that 
soul would understand and answer." 

The professor did not look at the girl. He was gazing- 
deep into the glowing fire, and she was looking at him, 
wondering if his thoughts were with the woman he had 
loved so long ago. When he spoke again it was to answer 
her unspoken question. 

"You know, perhaps, that many years ago, when I was 
scarcely more than a boy, I met your sister." He was speak- 
in a quick, hoarse voice and the girl leaned forward listening 
intently. " She seemed to me to be the embodiment of all 
I loved. She" — he paused and his eyes softened into an 
expression of tenderness the girl had never seen before — 
" was like yourself at the first glance, not at the second 
and the third. You know she did not love me. I thought 
she did; perhaps you know ? " — The girl nodded. She knew 
very well indeed. — " For many years I clung to the thought 
of the woman I had loved. I did not realize it was the 
ideal I had loved and not the woman. Then another wo- 
man came," — The girl was breathing quickly, her fingers 
playing with a rose she held in her hand, in a manner quite 
unlike herself — " the woman who understood," he went on 

An Etching 35 

with a quick indrawing of his breath. " And whatever may 
befall, I shall always have the blessedness of having- known 
her, and the ideal I shall always hold even if the reality is 
never mine." 

He stopped abruptly and looked at the girl. Her face 
was very white, and her eyes were like stars, as they met 
his own quite steadily. 

"Doesn't she understand?" he asked in a breathless 

They had both risen and were standing facing each 
other with' a light on their faces that was not like the 
glow of the firelight. 

She went straight to him, without any nervousness or 
shyness, and put her arms about his neck in a simple, 
childlike fashion. He laid his face against her own with 
a passionate reverence, while his arms tightened about her 
as though they would never let her go. 

"My dear, this is for always," she whispered, and he 
knew she understood. 


Born August 29, 1879. 
Died October 10, 1899. 

Every one who has been a student at the University 
within the last several years cannot behold the above 
without experiencing- a deep feeling- of sadness. Whether 
on The Hill or elsewhere, every student, of whatever class, 
who knew Marvin Pickard felt that here was a large 
heart and one well worth the knowing and the holding 
in touch. If ever youth and promise of life flushed in 
any man's face, it did in his. It cannot be said that he 
was careless and inattentive, but rather that he took life 
in all its seriousness, which however detracted nothing 
from his readiness and pleasure to enter upon its duties. 

In the fall of '96, after a year of creditable work at 
Oak Ridge Institute, he entered the University with the 
class of 1900, the present Senior Class. But at the close 
of his Sophomore year, he assumed part of the duties in- 
volved in the management of the Chapel Hill Hotel 
which is under the supervision of his father, Mr. W. W. 
Pickard. In this position he was continually before the 
eyes of all who were in any way associated with the ho- 
tel, and in every duty and relation he acquitted himself 
in such a manner as to win the hearty commendation of 

At the beginning of this collegiate year, by reason of 
his skilful administrative ability, he gave promise of 
being especially serviceable to the faculty and students 

in a peculiar way. He had been selected by the Faculty 
Committee as Manager of Commons Hall, and it was 
hoped that this Ghoice would mean the assurance of 
permanent success for the organization, which it doubt- 
less would have meant, had not Death issued his uncon- 
ditional summons. 

But on the second evening- before University Day, after 
suffering for four long weeks with typhoid fever, his rel- 
atives and friends were stricken with grief when the in- 
telligence was circulated, ' ' Marvin Pickard is dead. " On 
the following day the Senior Class assembled, and reso- 
lutions of respect were drawn up, expressing the deep 
sorrow which they felt at the death of their classmate. 

Very impressive funeral services were held in the Pres- 
byterian church on the following afternoon, and his 
body, accompanied by his relatives, friends and fellow 
classmates, was conveyed to the cemetery just east of the 
campus, where amid the last obsequies that man pays to 
man, it was laid away with its fellow clay. The numerous 
beautiful floral offerings that covered the grave were but 
a simple expression of the great esteem in which he was 
held by his many friends. 

Of Marvin Pickard it could truly be said, " Thou art a 
man." Strength, self-command, integrity, gentleness, 
ability -to-do were the silent messages his personality 
conveyed to you, and you did not question them. 

Thou art gone but not forgotten, — 
At peace with earth in earthly sod ; 
Thou hast found the rest eternal, 
The rest of Heaven and God. 

Au,en J. Barwick, '00. 




Published by the Dialectic and Philanthropic Literary Societies. 


WM. S. BERNARD, '00, Editor-in-Chief, Phi. 

Phi- Di. 

D. P. Parker, '00, D. S. Thompson, '01, 

A. J. Barwick, '00, H. E. D. Wilson, '00, 

J. W. Greening, '00. Whitehead Kltjttz, '03. 

ALFRED R. BERKELEY, '00. Business Manager, Di. 

Address literary communications to the Editor-in-Chief; business communica- 
tions to the Business Manager. 
Entered at the Chapel Hill, N. C, Post Office as second class mail matter. 


IT was the hope of the present Management to place the 
first issue of Vol. XXX. of the Magazine; in the hands 
of its patrons before the last day of October and per- 
haps there has been some pardonable impatience at the 
seeming- tardiness. The delay has been unavoidable. By 
comparison with an issue of last year you will see that the 
Magazine; has assumed an entirely new appearance in so far 
as this is affected by the printer's art. Cover, typography, 
and to some extent arrangement have been changed, we 
believe for the better, and trust they will find the same ap- 
proval in your eyes. Such changes must be made deliber- 
ately — not hastily, and part of the work could be done only 
in the North. Hence the delay. 

* * 

As to subject matter, the board of editors will 

y ' pursue practically the same policy that has 

held since the Societies assumed control. The Magazine, as 

its name implies, is a vehicle of expression for the life that 

Current Comment 39 

is born, grows in and out of the University of North Caroli- 
na, from Freshman to Alumnus, be it in Art or Science, on 
the Campus or in the great world beyond its walls. Like 
the University itself the Magazine; would stand for broad - 
est culture, would speak from and to every phase of life 
and action that draws its inspiration and nournishment 
from the paps of U, N. C. 

Yet college journalism has a definite field peculiar to it- 
self, and that is primarily to represent college life and in 
particular student thought. It is well that it should place 
upon itself some limitations and use judgment when over- 
stepping them. It would be as inappropriate for these pa- 
ges to contain an editorial on the conduct of the war in the 
Transvaal as to contain a commentary on St. John's Gospel. 
No one would care a fig for the editor's opinion on such a 
question, but would rather draw knowledge from a more 
promising source. 

Neither should the college monthly burden itself with 
professional stuff in a vain attempt to toddle along in the 
footprints of The Forum or The Arena. 

Now if this statement seems too general, we will repeat 
the old formula modified to suit our own ideals : Student 
contributions will be given the preference when they are 
reasonably good. If, as is the case with this issue, the ed- 
itors cannot secure enough student work to round out the 
usual quota of pages they will fill in with alumni articles. 
In every issue there will appear one or more papers of such 
a character as will appeal to our Alumni. Without their 
sympathy and subscription, and the advertising made pos- 
sible by their subscription, the Magazine; would die a 
deserved death, 


Last year the writer was in charge of the 

^ *. !!L e ^- exchange department and from various 

sources became somewhat familiar with 

the difficulties attending college journalism. The two great 

40 University Magazine 

shadows that constantly threaten the editorial peace of 
mind are inadequate financial support, and apathy on the 
part of the undergraduate body in regard to literary contri- 
butions. The light of many college journals has gone out 
by reason of the first, and the usefulness of many more suf- 
fers by reason of the second. For the present year the lib- 
erality of our Societies and the University, and the energy 
of our business manager have placed us above the sordid 
wants of poverty ; but as yet we see no silver lining to the 
dark cloud of indifference. The usual excuses, when ap- 
proached on the subject, are "lack of time," "heavy course," 
" no experience." 

Now when a student wants time, he forthwith finds it 
and takes it, whatever he may be robbing to supply the 
whim of the moment. In the second place, he is in college 
to get experience, among other things that of expressing 
the thought-stuff his studies are supposed to put into a 
state of fermentation. 

It seems a bit unaccountable that the alumnus, who is 
usually a busy man of the world, considers it a privilege to 
contribute to his college magazine, whereas the student, 
whose the magazine is and whom its success more nearly 
concerns, considers it a bore and prefers to spend his odd 
moments in a social loaf. 

Another excuse sometimes offered is that after a paper 
has been submitted it maybe "turned down." That is 
possible. But the same method that wins a 'varsity sweat- 
er, assuming average ability, wins recognition in the 
pages of an open periodical, viz., work, patient, painstak- 
ing work, and aptitude — born of resolve to win — to retrieve 
mistakes and inexperience. A contestant for honors in 
debate will put weeks of untiring effort — revision and re- 
revision — into a speech to be delivered before a limited 
audience, which has not the leisure ffor close criticism; 
whereas the audience you challenge in the pages of your 
magazine is of larger numbers, broader culture, with leis- 
ure to calmly estimate and judge whether you have told a 

Current Comment 41 

true tale and told it well, or otherwise. The paper that is 
returned is returned usually to the contributor who thinks 
that an hour at most is time and enough for preparation to 
face this audience. The result is invariably wretched 
English, crude thought and, if the attempt is fiction, non- 

The Management has no desire to raise a difficult stand- 
ard, to measure an undergraduate by an alumnus, but, by a 
careful examination of our exchanges, most of them from 
colleges much below the University in standard, to find an 
average of merit, and require that that average be reached. 

Therefore to stimulate to more earnest effort to do good 

work for the Magazink, the Societies most generously have 

enabled the Management to offer valuable prizes for the 

best contributions submitted for publication during the 

present academic year. Students will find the offer of 

these prizes, and the conditions under which they are 

awarded on page preceding Contents. 

* * 


Carr Building. Through the courtesy of Mess. Pear- 
son and Ashe, Architects, the Magazine presents to its 
readers, as frontispiece of this issue, an excellent engrav- 
ing of the Carr Building. Perhaps it would be of interest 
to our Alumni to know the exact location and general plan 
of this splendid hall. 

Standing on the steps of the Library portico and looking 
east, the main (west) entrance of the new building is di- 
rectly in front of you, 150 ft, distant. Refering to the 
frontispiece, this is the entrance on the right. The en- 
trance seen to the left is in the north wall which stands on 
the line of the north walls of the Library and Old South 

The horizontal dimensions are 88x56 feet, the longest 
extending north and south. The walls are built of white 
granite pressed brick, the roof of slate with four gables. 
Each entrance is through a massive Romanesque arch 

42 University Magazine 

resting - on Ionic columns, and is approached by stone 
steps. Over the north entrance is a handsome bay-window 
extending- to eaves and terminating in a balcony just under 
the gable. A similar window adorns the south wall. 
There are three floors, the first containing- 12 rooms, the 
second and third, 15 each, access to which is gained by 
two winding- stairwaj-s, continuous from first to third floor. 
Each floor will be fitted with water-works and bath-room, 
and heated by hot air transmitted from basement through 
flues. I have used the present tense in this description, 
whereas the walls at present are barely flush with the sec- 
ond floor. The work however is steadily progressing and 
the dormitories will be ready for occupancy, probably by 
the opening of the spring term. 

Cover. This issue of the Magazine is indebted to Prof. 
Collier Cobb for the coat it is wearing. To many of our 
readers its design and history are familiar and they will 
no doubt welcome it with pleasure. The Management 
wishes to thank Prof. Cobb and acknowledge their in- 
debtedness for his ready advice and assistance in many 
other particulars. 

* * 

«< John Lucas." The author of this sketch is Dr. Wil- 
liam Battle Phillips, Ph.B., 1877, Ph.D., 1885, and Prof, 
of Agricultural Chemistry and Mining U. N. C. 1885-88. 
Dr. Charles Phillips, his father, was tutor and professor in 
the University from 1844-'75 with a short intermission. 
He is too well known throughout this State to need further 
mention by us. Dr. Wm, Phillips, for some time editor of the 
American Manufacturer, has resigned this position, and is 
lately returned from Cuba where he has been prospecting in 
the interests of the Carnegie Mfg. Co, He is eminently 
fitted to write such a sketch as "John Lucas." All whose 
imaginations cling about the "Old South", the older 
University and their rejuvenation will find in this paper 
much of interest, It will be continued as the Magazine 
has space for it. 

Current Comment 43 

Art Work. At the request of the editor several sketches 
were submitted to him for publication. He hastens to say 
that by reason of the many duties and perplexities involved 
in giving- a new form to the Magazine, he failed to ask for 
this work early enough to make it available. But such 
work will have an assured place in the Magazine hereaf- 
ter. The editor is now negotiating with The Life Pub- 
lishing Co. for a Gibson book to offer as a prize for the best 
work of the kind submitted during the academic year. The 
editor would be glad if every artist in college would let him 
know his individual preference of the Gibson books before 
the order is sent in. 

Patronize our advertisers. 


D. P. PARKER, Editor. 

Stars and Teji^scopbs, A Hand-book of Popular As- 
tronomy. By David P. Todd, M.A., Ph.D. With maps, 
colored plates and nearly 250 other illustrations, 12mo., 
pp. 419. Boston : Little, Brown & Co. 

This is the most interesting- hand-book of astronomy that 
we have ever seen, and it is written by an acknowledged 
master of his subject. Every teacher who desires to keep 
informed on the recent advances of importance in other de- 
partments than his own specialty will find this just the book 
to inform him completely in astronomy ; every intelligent 
person who desires to be well-informed on one of the most 
interesting of sciences, and every young person who loves 
the beauties of the heavens or is fond of entertaining read- 
ing will find this a fascinating little book. 

The illustrations show the moon's surface, sun-spots, 
different planets, telescopes and observatories, comets, me- 
teors, double stars, the nebulae of unknown worlds, some 
of them distant more than a trillion miles away, and por- 
traits of distinguished astronomers, one of them being a pro- 
fessor in the University of North Carolina in the early 
part of this century. It tells, too, of the first American 
observatory, erected at Chapel Hill, 1831-'32, though it is 
in error in making Olmstead a professor here at that time. 
In 1817 he was elected professor of geology and chemistry 
in the University of North Carolina, but resigned in 1825 to 
accept a professorship at Yale. 

The striking and important showers of meteors and shoot- 
ing stars due November 14th are lucidly treated, and Pro- 
fessor Todd gives an account of the similar displays in the 
past, and the theories as to the cause of meteors, with the 
result of chemical analysis of such of these bodies as reach 
the earth. These are known as meteorites, and they are 

Library Notes 45 

the only messengers from other spaces that ever come 
within human reach. 

The total eclipse of the sun, which happens in this coun- 
try May 28th, 1900, and is visible across North Carolina — 
the Mecca of all astronomers that year — is mentioned in 
this book, and all the total eclipses of the sun are portrayed 
in outline. 

The book is of convenient size for the hand, well-printed, 
and beautifully bound. 

American Lands and Letters. By D. G. Mitchell. Sec- 
ond series. New York : Scribner. 

James Russeee Loweee and His Friends. By E-. K. 
Hale. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Reminiscences. By Justin McCarthy. Two vols. New 
York : Harper & Bro. 

These books form an interesting- addition to lighter bio- 
graphical literature. They are written in the touch-and- 
go fashion lately so popular in biography, and make little 
pretense beyond superficial table-talk concerning celebri- 

Dr. Mitchell writes in his usual vein — " delightful," is 
the adjective generally employed. His subject matter ran- 
ges from "Leather Stocking to The Raven." Authors, 
reformers, teachers and preachers, for the most part from 
the much exploited New England group, give the inspira- 
tion for rapid character sketches. 

Dr. Hale has a central point for his book, of recollections, 
and so gains in concentration and effect. His style too is 
far more pleasing in that it is more direct and natural. A 
strong feeling of sympathy dominates the book and pro- 
duces in the reader a corresponding feeling of pleasure. 

It is from a busier life than either of the other two that 
Reminiscences of Justin McCarthy are culled. His various 
activities — editor, politician, and author — threw him into 
contact with many celebrities of the world : Cobden and 
Bright, Garibaldi, Louis Napoleon, Dickens, Carlyle, Sum- 

46 University Magazine 

ner, Brig-ham Young-, Beecher, Whitman, Parnell, Glad- 
stone, Kipling and quite an assorted collection. These are 
told about in an unadorned, conversational style that is very 

The philosophy of all of the books is extremely optimis- 
tic. One almost wishes that one "Twelve Bad Men" 
mig-ht break in on the serene monotony of g-oodness and 
spoil this paradise of pleasant people. 

'99 Class Record. By J. Ed. Latta, Secretary Class '99. 

This is a neat pamphlet containing- Class Roll, Baccal- 
aureate Sermon and a complete record of the Class Exer- 
cises on that, to them, memorable day of graduation. The 
cover of the Record is done in green, '99's color. Mr. Latta 
is to be congratulated for the tasty manner in which this 
little book is gotten up. It is a credit to himself and his 
class, and should serve as a model for future publications 
of the kind. We hope that the action of '99 in this matter 
of organization and perpetuating their doings in tangible 
form will prove a stimulus to other classes to undertake 
the same good work. We have only one criticism to offer. 
We find in it notice of only one honor won by the class, 
the Wiley P. Mangum Medal. Why not mention other 
honors? We are under the impression that the Worth 
Philosophy Prize was won by a Senior. It seems to us that 
with a bit more of fulness and detail the book could not be 
improved upon. 


J. W. GREENING, Editor. 

THE proper and customary thing- for us to do, at the 
outset, is to express our inability to cope with the 
momentous questions which will arise in this depart- 
ment ; to express the feelings of awe and reverence we 
hold for our predecessors, and all that sort of thing - . 
But suffice it to say, we will do the best we can. We shall 
be perfectly frank and as fair as we know how to be, and 
we ask to be treated accordingly. 

The part of critic is one we, personally, do not like. 
But as it is our business to criticize, we shall not so far 
forget our office as to deal out taffy in any great quantity. 
The man who is to handle vinegar has no business at the 
confectionery counter. Still we shall always be glad to 
point out what seems to us good points. If you think we 
treat you unjustly, credit us with gcod intentions, and for- 
give our ignorance. Or, if you dislike the doctrine of for- 
giveness, and wish to jump on us with both feet, very well ; 
we shall very likely survive. 

It is possible that our present criticisms may be a bit 
unjust ; for the magazines were all handed to us at a late 
day, and we have not had time to weigh any of them with 
the care we would like to bestow upon them. 

We would like to call general attention to three things 
which greatly detract from the good qualities of many of 
our periodicals. 

First : Advertisements in the midst of literary matter. 
There can be no excuse for giving a college monthly a 
Cheap- John appearance by inserting advertisements among 

The second disfigurement is the publication of those old, 
old jokes about the green and awkward fresh, the rough 
soph and meek and lowly senior. Why those old things 

48 University Magazine 

were invented and perpetrated centuries ago on the banks 
of the Nile ; they are as old as civilization itself, and yet 
every edition of modern college journalism pours forth an 
additional flood of this ancient and musty humor, only ap- 
plied to a new man, or put in different words. Let us 
have done with it. 

Finally, let the contributors beware of overworked words 
and phrases and conventional plot and setting - . The modern 
love stories are all the same ; and especially is this same- 
ness seed in the story propagated by means of the college 
monthly. This sameness is logical, but quite boring. 
We all know the story : A man meets a fair maid by some 
strange chance, and the two fall in love at once. The 
story gives a wondrous account of the insurmountable diffi- 
culties which the lovers overcome in order to marry and 
enter bliss. And here endeth the lesson. Now, if you 
really wish to portray trouble and difficulties and heart- 
burnings and times which try men's souls why begin at 
the wrong end? Why not just touch the smooth, honey- 
sweet days of courtship by way of introduction and let 
your story develop their married life? The conventional 
heroine is always sweet, graceful and beautiful. We ad- 
mit that such beings exist somewhere, possibly in heaven, 
but why not give us the genuine every-day piece of flesh 
and blood to which we all have been accustomed from our 
childhood. We could understand so much better and it 
would be so much more life-like if you would give the lady 
red hair instead of golden, and put less color and more 
freckles on her cheeks. There is a little more of variety 
in heroes ; they are generally good in one or more respects, 
and here the imagination again comes into play. 

To judge from the articles in The Erskinian, the student 
body of Brskine must be intoxicated with patriotism — or 
are they but reflecting the general feeling over Dewey dis- 
played in all the papers? "The Dangers of Territorial 

Exchanges 49 

Expansion," and "The Success of American Arms" are 
subjects just a trifle worn, and the treatment of the latter 
is that given it by the Fourth of July orator every year, 
over and over. The article in question is a hasty sketch 
of American History, devoted mainly to telling- in spread- 
eagle style how we have "wiped up" creation with every 
people that has crossed us. The Erskinian, on the whole, 
would make a valuable addition to that class of literature 
known as 'Speakers,' suitable for the use of boys in the High 
Schools. However, the contributions, though somewhat 
crude, reflect a genuine American spirit. 

The Georgetown College Journal and The William Jewell 
Student are model college monthlies, both in general ap- 
pearance and subject matter. The only fault we find with 
the latter is that there is not enough of it. 

We notice in several of our Southern magazines, a strain- 
ing after the humorous in the shorter articles, which spoils 
the good appearance of the issue containing them. Gen- 
uine humor is enjoyable, but when one strains after it by 
all manner of petty devices, it becomes wearisome. 

The following periodicals have been received i 
The Carolinian, Sagitta, Niagara Index, Philo-mathean Monthly, 
University School Register, Gray Jacket, Haverfordian, University of 
Mississippi Magazine, Davidson College Magazine, Elizabeth Chron- 
icle, Hendrix College Mirror, Fur-man Echo, Converse Concept, Ers- 
kinian, Peabody Record, Wofford College Journal, Central Collegian, 
Emory Phoenix, Guilford Collegian, William Jewell Student, George- 
town College Journal, Trinity Archive. 


A. J. BARWICK Editors H. E. D, WILSON 

Rev. F. D. Thomas, '87, of Georgia, preached in the 
Presbyterian church October 15. 

Mr. G. R. Swink, Ex-'99, was with us on September 24, 
as the guest of his brother D. M. Swink, '01. 

Material is being- procured and work on the Alumtri 
Building - will soon be vigorously pushed forward. 

Work on the Carr Building is progressing rapidly. When 
finished it will be the most artistic structure on the cam- 

Mr. Chas. W. Woodson has entered Columbia University, 
New York, where he becomes a member of the Senior 

The second of the public lectures was delivered October 
19 by Dr. Venable. Subject, "Justus Von Liebig : A He- 
ro of Science." 

The U. N. C. boys of the law department made an excel- 
lent record, as usual, at the September examination before 
the Supreme Court. 

Dr. Battle delivered the first of the series of public lect- 
ures in the Chapel October 5. Subject, "Bench and Bar of 
of Raleigh 1854-'64." 

Mr. J. Crawford Biggs, Assistant Professor of Law, has 
resigned his chair and entered the law firm of Boone and 
Bryant, Durham, N. C. 

We are pleased to learn that nearly every member of the 
Class of '99 has a good situation. We expect good returns 
from every one of them. 

We are all glad to see our friends, Dr. Pratt and Mr. 
Ned Myers, '95, of the United States Geologieal Survey on 
the Hill a short while ago. 

College Record 51 

Our University Day was saddened on account of the death, 
of Mr. Marvin Pickard, Ex-'OO, who was at the time of his 
death manager of Commons Hall. 

Mr. Edmund Berkeley, of Atlanta, Ga., recently visited 
his sons, Mess. A. R. Berkeley, '00, Business Manager of 
the Magazine, and G. Berkeley, '03. 

Rev. Daniel A, Long-, A.M., D.D., LL.D.,- former Presi- 
dent of Antioch, Ohio, lectured in the Chapel Thursday 
night, October 26. Subject, "Religion and Science," 

Dr. Wm. Phillips, of Pittsburg, Pa., formerly a member 
of the University faculty, delig-hted us on the night of 
September 23 with an informal talk on his experiences in 

The General Athletic Association, composed of the stu- 
dent body, has elected the following officers : K. P. Lewis, 
President ; W. K. Battle, Vice-President ; P. H. Busbee, 
Secretary and Treasurer. 

The Class of '98 is represented this year in the University 
by Archibald Henderson, A.M., Instructor in Math.;E. K. 
Graham, A.B., Librarian; J. G. McCormick, A.B., Law, 
and Miss Sallie Stockard, A.B., who is pursuing postgrad- 
uate studies. 

The University Press Association has reorganized with 
J. K. Hall, President ; E. A. Abernethy, Vice-President ; 
and Benjamin Bell, Jr., Secretary and Treasurer. This or- 
ganization is composed of the newspaper correspondents of 
the University. 

The Y. M. C. A. gave its annual reception to new stu- 
dents Sept. 29. Drs. Alderman, Battle, Hume, Rev. N. H. 
D. Wilson, Wm. S. Bernard and others made interesting 
addresses. Refreshments helped to make the occasion the 
more enjoyable. 

It is a pleasure for us to note that our President, Dr. Al- 
derman, has been honored with the degree of LL.D., con- 

52 University Magazine 

ferred by Tulane University. We appreciate the honor 
Tulane has has conferred upon our President and congrat- 
ulate Dr. Alderman. 

Mr. Holland Thompson visited his Alma Mater, soon af- 
ter the opening - , en route to Columbia University. Mr. 
Thompson has received a fellowship at that institution, 
having won it by an industrial paper embodying the results 
of original research. 

The Tar Heel board this year is composed of W. F. Bry- 
an, Editor-in-Chief ; D. P. Parker, Managing Editor ; A. 
J. Barwick, Business Manager ; B. S. Skinner, Assistant 
Business Manager ; Associate Editors, Mess. C. G. Rose, 
Whitehead Kluttz, D. Thompson, and Benjamin Bell, 

Rev. J. W. Stagg, D.D., pastor of the Second Presbyte- 
rian church of Charlotte, spent the last week in October 
with us as the first "University Preacher" of the term. 
Besides conducting morning prayers and assisting in the 
Y. M. C. A. services, he preached able sermons to large 
congregations on Sunday and Thursday nights in the 


The first meeting of the Shakespeare Club was held in 
the Chapel on Monday evening, October 16. The follow- 
lowing are the officers elected for the ensuing year : Dr. 
Thos. Hume, President ; Prof. W, D. Toy, Vice-President ; 
Prof. Geo, McKie, Secretary ; and A. R. Berkeley, Treas- 
urer. After a short talk by Dr. Hume, interesting and well 
written papers were read by Mess. N. C. Curtis, A. A. 
Holmes, and Miss Sallie Stockard. Prof. McKie gave an 
informabyet very instructive talk, on stage arrangements 
in presenting Richard III. 


On Monday night, October 30, the Historical Society 
met and resumed its usual place in our college life. Dr. 
Battle was elected President, and Mr, A. H. Jarratt, Vice- 

College Record 53 

President. A valuable paper, "Benjamin Hawkins, One 
of Our first United States Senators," was read by Mr. J. S. 
Atkinson. After this Dr. Battle explained in an informal 
way the situation in South Africa. 


The regular work of the Societies has begun again with 
renewed vigor, and this promises to be one of the most suc- 
cessful years in their history. The older men are doing- 
well, and many of them are striving - to be leaders. Espe- 
cially the new men give evidence of rare talent. No class 
in several years has shown a brighter promise in this line 
of work. 

The debaters for the Semi-annual Inter-Society debate 
are : Phi, Mess. J. E. Avent, '01, and D. P. Stern, '02 ; 
Di, Mess. W. A. Murphy, '01, and R. R. Williams, '02. 
The query selected is: "Resolved, That the so-called 
trusts and combinations are injurious and should be abol- 


The 123rd meeting of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific So- 
ciety was held on October 10. A large number of students 
and others enjoyed the evening program. President Prof. 
Win, Cain called the meeting to order and Drs. Wilson, 
Venable and Baskerville read instructive and interesting 
papers. The Society meets in Person Hall the second 
Tuesday evening in each month. It issues journals twice a 
year. The officers for the present year are : Wm. Cain, C: 
E-, President; C. S, Mangum, M.D., Vice-President ; Fran- 
cis P. Venable, Ph.D., Secretary and Treasurer; Charles 
Baskerville, Ph.D., Corresponding Secretary. 


October 5— Prof. K. P. Battle, "The Bench and Bar of 

Raleigh 1854-1864." 
October 19— Prof. Venable, "Justus von Liebig — a Hero 

of Science." 

54 University Magazine 

October 26 — Dr. D. A. Long, "Science and Religion." 
November 2 — Prof. Thos. Hume, "The Relation of the 

Bible to a Liberal Education." 
November 9 — Prof. Edwin Mims, Trinity College, N. C, 

"Newman, Browning, Arnold; a Comparative Study." 
November 16— Prof. Collier Cobb, "The Yellowstone 

National Park." (Stereopticon.) 
November 24 — Dr. Hunter McGuire, University College 

of Medicine, Richmond, Va., "Personal Recollections 

of Stonewall Jackson." 
December 30 — President A. Alderman, " The Southern 

Boy and his Opportunity." 
January 11 — President Geo. T. Winston, Agricultural and 

Mechanical College, Raleigh, N. C. 
Jannry 19 — Prof. H. L. Smith, Davidson College, N, C, 

" Intellectual Value of Scientific Study." 
January 25 — Prof. J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, "A 

Tour of the Great Lakes and a Glimpse of Canada." 

February 2 — Prof. Eben Alexander, "Athens." 
February 9— Prof. W. L, Poteat, Wake Forest College, 

N. C. 
February 15— Prof. H, F. Linscott, "Rome— A World- 
March 1 — Prof. C. S. Mangum, "War Between Man and 

March 15— Prof. M. C. S. Noble, "Fort Fisher and the 

March 29— Prof. W. D. Toy, "The Faust Legend and 

Goethe's Interpretation." 


Whereas, Almighty God in his divine wisdom, has seen 
fit to take from our midst our friend and classmate Marvin 
A. Pickard, be it 

Resolved 1. That we, the members of the Senior Class, 
deeply deplore his death and do extend to his family and 
relatives our heartfelt sympathy in their bereavement. 

College Record 55 

Resolved 2, That a copy of these resolutions be present- 
ed to the family. 

Resolved 3, That these resolutions be sent to the Tar 
Heel, University Magazine and Chapel Hill News with 
a request for publication. 

D. P. Parker, ) 
Chas. G. Rose, > Committee. 
S. J. Adams, ) 



J. K. Dozier, '99, has been elected professor in Tilton 
Seminary, N, H. 

T. G. Pearson, '99, has been elected professor of Biology 
at Guilford College. 

T. J. Wilson, Ph.D., '98, is now instructor in Latin and 
Greek in the University. 

H. H. Home, Harvard '99, has been appointed instructor 
in Philosophy at Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. 

George L. Kirby, '96, has received a desirable position 
at the State Hospital, Worcester, Mass., as the result of a 
competitive examination. 

Holland Thompson, '95, won a fellow-ship in Political 
Economy at Columbia University last March. He is now 
in New York pursuing his studies. 

J. Crawford Biggs, '93, who has been instructor in Law 
for the past two years, has resigned his position, and is 
now a member of the firm of Boone, Bryant and Biggs, of 

R. H. Graves, '97, University Librarian for the past 
three years, has secured a position on the New York 
Times. Mr. E. K. Graham, '98, succeeds him as Libra- 

The work of organizing the Alumni on a scientific basis 
is being begun. The organization plan is, in brief, as 
follows : to organize and classify the alumni, and to form 
local associations and a General Association to which the 
local organizations will send delegates. It is earnestly 
hoped that the alumni will give their secretary at Chapel 
Hill their co-operation in carrying out this plan. 

Alumniana 57 


W. D. Carmichael, '97, now principal of one of the pub- 
lic schools of Durham, was married to Miss Margaret 
McCall at Raleigh, Oct. 11th, 1899. 

E. S. Myers, '95, of the North Carolina Geological Sur- 
vey, was united in marriage to Miss Madeline Douglas, 
daughter of Judge R. M. Douglas, of Greensboro, on No- 
vember 8th, 1899. 


John Gurney Crawford, of Graham, '95-'99, died July 
14th, 1899. He was born December 29th, 1869. 

Marvin A. Pickard, '96-'98, born August 29th, 1879, died 
in Chapel Hill, October 10th, 1899. 

Romulus S. Deaton, of Mooresville, '98-'99, died of ap- 
pendicitis last June. He was born October 1st, 1871. 

David Schenck, of Greensboro, '84-'85, born June 30th, 
1869, died May 11th, 1899. Mr, Schenck was one of the 
most promising young lawyers in the State. 

Henry Clay Wall, of Richmond county, 1858-'61, died 
July 31st, 1899. He was one of the many who went out 
from the University at the call of duty to enlist in the Con- 
federate Army. He was a merchant, manufacturer, and 
legislator, being a member of the last General Assembly. 
Mr. Wall was born in 1841. 

Capt. Richard James Ashe, '42, of Hillsboro and Chapel 
Hill, died August 13th, 1899. As a captain in the confed- 
erate army he commanded the Chapel Hill company at the 
battle of Bethel. He was president of the Cape Fear Nav- 
igation Company; road-master of the Raleigh & Gaston 
R. R. Co., and a member of the Legislature of California. 
He moved to California in 1868. Capt. Ashe was born in 

58 University Magazine 


Dialectic Hall, 
Oct. 14, 1899. 
Whereas, God in His infinite wisdom has seen fit to re- 
move from our midst our fellow member, R. S. Deaton, 
therefore be it resolved : 

1. That we the members of the Dialectic Society, while 
bowing" in humble submission to the divine decree, cannot 
but deeply realize and regret our loss. 

2. That in his death this Society has lost an earnest and 
faithful member. 

3. That we extend our heartfelt sympathy to the be- 
reaved family. 

4. That these resolutions be spread on the minutes of 
this Society and copies furnished the Tar Heel and the 
University Magazine. 

H. M. Robins, ) 
Jas. S. Cook, > Committee. 
Whitehead KXuttz, ) 






Old serft m m. no. 2-— oecember, 1899. New series, vol. Xtfii. 



Awhile ago I had occasion to write something - on the 
Harvard man. Since that time it has been interesting 
to observe the type of man that different colleges pro- 
duce. What is here written comes as the result of careful, 
though short, study of the Dartmouth man. He is first of 
all not capable of being quickly atomized. What is here 
seen is no doubt truly seen; yet equally without doubt the 
whole has not been seen. 

On entering an institution for the first time a student 
easily yields himself to the engrafted genius of his newly 
chosen college and quickly adjusts himself to its peculiar 
point of view. Tradition has no firmer hold than in our 
college customs. The process of adjustment requires but a 
single year, often but a few months, and henceforth the 
new recruit wears the college colors and bears the college 
standard. He is immersed in the sea of the customs of his 
college and henceforth is alive to their maintenance. A 
rare man is he who reshapes, and is not shapen by, the an- 
cient current of his college life, who stems and does not 
float upon the ancestral tide. His fellows know him as the 
genius. His individuality is superior to that universality 
which many generations re-enforcing each other have pro- 
duced. The usual college novitiate contributes his mite to 
the treasury of the ages and is content to be a part of the 
new life that comes to greet him. 

60 University Magazine 

Each college, further, has its own peculiar genius loci. 
This genius is the product of the lives of past student- 
bodies, building - one upon the other; it is also the producer 
of the life that now is. The life that shall be is the resul- 
tant of the conserving and disintegrating forces of the tra- 
ditionalist and the radical. Each college having its own 
peculiar hallowed heritage, that wins to itself the sponta- 
neous allegiance of the incoming class and thus perpetuates 
itself forever, naturally produces its own type of man. 
Commonly speaking, as is the college, so is the man. The 
"college" is the concretized essence of past ideals. It 
strengthens itself by the modicum of might which the new 
man has to give and makes him its own. 

Colleges, presenting us thus with different traditions, 
which traditions in turn make the man, naturally present 
us also with different types of man. Hence it is legitimate 
to expect a man from another college to be a specimen of 
another type. This expectation is realized when one pass- 
es, for instance, from Harvard to Dartmouth. 

Harvard has the culture of a classic city; Dartmouth the 
strength of the wilderness. If Harvard is the Athens of 
American institutions, Dartmouth is the Sparta. If ideal- 
ism is the note of the one, realism is the note of the other. 
Harvard is the haven of the true, Dartmouth is the haven 
of the useful. Harvard's is the gospel of Matthew Arnold; 
Dartmouth's of Carlyle. The one is fine and sensitive; the 
other is strong and efficient. They unite in announcing 
the Christ, Harvard with the logos of John the Disciple, 
Dartmouth with the vox of John the Baptizer (the seal of 
Dartmuoth bears the words vox clamantis in deserto). 
The one is the thoughtful observer of life; the other the 
vigorous liver of life. Harvard, with a city's great life 
about it, retires from it to reflect on the on-sweeping 
tide of modern civilization. Dartmouth with the quiet and 
solitude of the country rushes about with the hurry of a 
large centre and Hanover becomes known as "the little city 
by the Connecticut." Each supplies from itself what the 

The Dartmouth Man 61 

environment lacks. Harvard in the midst of affairs pro- 
duces scholars; Dartmouth in the midst of quietude pro- 
duces statesmen. The Harvard democracy of culture be- 
comes the Dartmouth aristocracy of work. The classic 
cities beyond the New Hampshire border, especially the 
"Modern Athens," delight to strengthen themselves at 
times with Dartmouth's strong men of the North who in- 
vade them in large numbers and fill their honorable po- 

Of course we are comparing greater things with less. 
The transition is from the greatest of city universities with 
its four thousand students to the largest of the New Eng- 
land country colleges with its eight hundred students. The 
looseness of one student-body, the so-called 'indifference' 
that really springs from a great variety of interests, gives 
place to the closeness of the other where college spirit is a 
factor to be reckoned with. Despite the great difference 
in the numbers, the average Dartmouth man, it may be as- 
serted, knows more of his fellows than the average Har- 
vard man. The advocates of the country as a site for an 
educational institution have never failed to point out the 
close companionship it engenders. At Harvard there is 
almost the variety of segregated interests that an English 
University with its colleges will show; it is quite possible, 
indeed common, that the Harvard man's interest in the 
whole is secondary to his interest in some part of the 
whole. At Dartmouth 'the college' comes first, partial in- 
terests of whatever kind second. The loyalty of Dart- 
mouth men is far-famed. The good things here are better 
than the best things elsewhere. "Why go to Harvard 
when you have Dartmouth?" is the common alumni feel- 
ing. Once a winter its sons return to celebrate in speech 
and song the praises of "old Dartmouth green without a 
peer," — it is "Dartmouth Night." The devotion amounts 
to enthusiasm. At times it would make inroads upon the 
quieter conventions of the city. Recently its best-loved 
president, Dr. Tucker, when about to speak on the plat- 

62 University Magazine 

form of Tremont Temple, Boston, before the International 
Congregational Council in assembly there, with difficulty 
restrained a group of young gathered alumni from reliev- 
ing the solemnity of the occasion with "a rouse for the 
college on the hill." 

In particular there are three things that belong to the 
Dartmouth type of man. He believes in work, he (es- 
pecially to the looker-on in Hanover) disbelieves in dress, 
he believes in success, even as the world counts success. 
These three things belong to each other. They are but 
aspects of the one virtue of practicality. If the Dartmouth 
man had a patron philosopher, it would be Socrates. He 
holds by the utility of the good. He denies there is such 
a thing as being good without doing good. The good, he 
affirms, is good for something. Life is action, not thought. 
He knows his own great ones, Webster and Choate, not 
Emerson and Lowell. The sciences, not the humanities, 
are his preferred courses. He is a child of the modern age. 
Industries, not ideals, are his study. 

As to his belief in work, in college he makes use of both 
head and hands. There may be some things he can not 
do; there is nothing he will not do. He knows the value of 
money for he makes it. He works at all possible things 
not so much because he needs to as because he wants to. 
Recently a request was formulated that men who could af- 
ford to would not take offers of work in town and college 
to the exclusion of really needy men. His summers are 
spent in hotels as clerk or waiter. His devotion to work is 
not explained wholly by the previous county life of a ma- 
jority of the students. It is a custom of the college. 

As to his disbelief in dress, to the usual observer he 
appears negligent. There is no constant society to invite 
it. The winters are long and severe and protection, not 
appearance, is the problem. What is the good, one says, 
of going decent here? The city bred fellow, unlike his 
companion who goes, say, to Williams, dons his sweater and 
rubber boots at the approach of winter as nonchalantly as 

The Dartmouth Man 63 

the sons of the farm. The environment naturally suggests 
these things; he freely chooses them. In his choice there is 
also present no doubt a handsome disregard of all that 
artificiality which costume fosters. He had rather be care- 
less than foppish. He does not know the sentiment, "the 
apparel oft proclaims the man." The rich and poor meet 
together. No body of college students presents so homo- 
geneous an outside. This indifference to personal appearance 
is a privilege all alike cherish and one to be relinquished un- 
der no slight inducement. So noticeable is it, especially to a 
stranger's eye, that it deserves to rank among the charac- 
teristics of the typical man. It so ranks in that unit of 
many centres known as the student mind. The former 
and the latter qualities combined are the basis of a proverb 
among its patrons, that Dartmouth is "the poor man's col- 
lege. " Not all of its students are poor but none of its poor 
students are at a loss. 

The third and final mark to receive special mention is the 
Dartmouth man's belief in success. Some would call this an 
ambition "of the earth earthy." Without attempting to 
estimate the fact, we are now concerned with describing it. 
The Darthmouth man is 'a lad o' parts;' he is capable; he 
is the epitome of Yankee shrewdness. He has faith in his 
ability. A recent editorial in the college monthly begins 
characteristically "A Dartmouth man can do almost any- 
thing fairly well, if he but tries." In athletics, like Yale, he 
plays to win; unlike 'fair Harvard' he does not play primarily 
for the sport. In an equal contest he expects his team to win. 
Victories are taken largely as a matter of course; defeats 
go hard. 'Nothing succeeds like success,' he repeats. It 
is the world's standard. The college song embodies this 
sentiment: "The world will never have to call on Dartmouth 
men in vain." Usually it is the non-prof esssional world. 
Formerly it was the uniform custom for graduates to teach 
two or more years after college, as well as during the long 
winter vacation, to pay off their indebtedness or procure 
means for professional study. Whence the institution be- 

64 University Magazine 

came known as "the schoolmaster's college." Now an 
increasing - majority of its graduates are going into busi- 
ness. Recently a Dartmouth man who was an assistant pro- 
fessor in the college resigned his position for a business 
career. The end of the sophomore year shows a marked 
diminution in the number of the class. For this there is 
doubtless many causes. Certain it is that the number is 
augmented by those who are without means for further 
study. But the decrease is partly due to the fact that the 
required and fitting courses are now over; the elective and* 
culture courses remain; the business world invites. To 
many the temptation is insuperable. Scholarship is not its 
own excuse for being; it is a means to an end. The Dart- 
mouth man has the wisdom to see that an education is 
profitable even as a financial investment. The college is 
not a microcosm ; it is a place of preparation for the macro- 
cosm. Its great worthies were public men, jurists, states- 
men, diplomats, financiers ; not belle-lettrists as those, say, 
of Bowdoin. The Dartmouth man carries continually this 
image in his mind's eye. It makes of him a thoroughly 
sensible, uneccentric, genuine and approachable youth. He 
knows no basis for the ideal save the real. He loves no 
airy clouds save those that rest upon his own granite hills. 
The Dartmouth man is thus versatile, straight-forward, 
and capable. He is practical, forceful, and efficient, lie is 
no idealist, especially in the Cambridge sense of the word. 
But he does have a certain finer something than anything 
yet mentioned, which makes itself felt in his life, which re- 
deems from what might easily become coarseness, and 
which is prophetic of something even better than now is. 
The Dartmouth man may be ignorant of the ideal, but be 
is not wholly unresponsive to it. He may not be seeking 
the Holy Grail, prefering rather to do the day's pressing 
duty, but he is not averse to its vision. This subtler some- 
thing is to be named practical idealism. This alone satisfies 
him and to this brighter world he is glad to be allured. He 
is an idealist in the sense that an American is an idealist. 

Flowing Together 65 

It is an emotional attitude toward the material. He is 
most encouraging - to work with because of this attitude of 
waiting and desire to be informed of the idea. He would 
never make a Platonist but is the ready disciple of any 
Aristotelian mind who will wed the ideal to the real. His 
feet are on the solid earlh. His eyes are ready to be direct- 
ed to the heavens whence comes the light of earth. This 
final element has named itself "the new Dartmouth man." 
Of the old Dartmouth man, who is the prime subject of this 
sketch, it may be said, "he partly is"; of the new, "he 
wholly hopes to be." The new man will make the good 
identical with the beautiful even as the old man made it 
identical with useful, and then the real will have clothed 
itself in the garments of the ideal. 
Hanover, N. H. 


Two small streams among- the hills I watched, 
Winding o'er stony beds, through changing channels, 
Which led them hither, thither. It often seemed 
That each would lose the other and find its way 
Alone. Beyond the hills, however, broader, 
Deeper grew the streams until two rivers, 
Their tranquil waters moving ever nearer, 
Flowed together and passed to the boundless sea. 

I watched the restless ways of two young lives : 
Moving through ever changing scenes they grew 
In being, and, though at times their youthful paths 
Diverged, in larger years I saw unfold 
A love, which bound their souls. As one they passed 
Through life to the boundless sea, eternity. 





ON the first day of the session this startling- announce- 
ment appeared on the bulletin board at the Uni- 
versity of N. — 

"My name is Isaac Adoniram Jones, otherwise known as 
Ike, the Wrestler. I am the son of John Jones, the noted 
fiddler and speller. Although my talent does not run in 
the same direction as that of my father, who could spell 
any word in the Blue Back Speller and give the page and 
line on which it was found, I am equally as famous as he. 
I have never been thrown in wrestling, and I hereby chal- 
lenge any member of the University, faculty, student or 
employee, to meet me at any time he may appoint. 
IKE, the Wrestler, 

Room 28, Old North Building." 

As the students passed out of the registrar's office, many 
stopped and read the above notice. Harry Anson saw it, 
and he, Dick Thompson, and a number of boys of their set 
crowded up to read it. 

"Say, fellows!" said Dick "Here's a chance for some 
fun. Let's call on Ike, and accept his challenge." "Har- 
ry's the fellow to tackle him," suggested Bob Eastman. 

They were soon on their way to the Old North Build- 
ing-. On arriving and knocking on the door of No. 28, a 
drawled out "Cu-um in" greeted them. As they opened 
the door the Wrestler rose and wanted to know "What 
you uns come for?" 

They found him a long-limbed, lantern-jawed country- 
man, with greenish-grey eyes and a head covered with 
short bristles of brick colored hair. His chin, which was 
long and protruding, was set off by a yellowish-red Van 

Ike, the Wrestler 67 

Dyke beard. To add to the ungainliness of his appear- 
ance, his clothes were a long-tailed green-black coat, 
high-water trousers, and brogan shoes. His shirt was 
white, and to complete his costume he wore a crocheted red 
and white cravat. 

"Mr. Jones," began Bob, "we have come to accept your 
challenge. Thompson, this fat fellow over here, will 
wrestle first; next, I will try my hand, and Anson, old boy, 
he may tackle you last." 

"As you see, Mr. Jones, none of us look like athletes, 
and you have already acquired notoriety, but, as a rule of 
our college life is to surmount all difficulties, we are will- 
ing to accept your challenge." 

Ike rose slowly to his feet from the box on which he was 
seated. "Gentlemen," said he, "you uns dun no who 
you're goiti' to deal with, and, if any of you uns is afeared 
yer can pull out right now, but if yer don't, it ain't my fun- 
eral but yourn." 

"We've accepted already and don't back out," said Dick, 
voicing the sentiments of the others. 

"Wall," said Isaac Adoniram, "I allaws bets on this per- 
formance. Now what you uns goin' to put up?" 

"Say, Jones, freshmen don't wear beards. If two of us 
throw, Tim Duncan shaves you; if you win, we'll call it 
square, and you keep your Van Dyke. How does that 
strike you?" 

Ike stroked affectionately the object of discussion, then 
suddenly said, "Ya-as, that's the thing, for never yer m in', 
Ike '11 keep his beard." 

At four-thirty that afternoon, Dick Thompson, Bob 
Eastman, and Harry Anson with several of their club- 
mates went whistling up to the gymnasium. Ike was al- 
ready there. 

"Harry comes last, he's so small, that we'd better see if 
he can stand you," said Dick, as he pulled off his coat. 

The Wrestler wore a red flannel shirt for this special oc- 
casion, and as he stepped out to meet Thompson, his fiery 
appearance created much mirth among the on-lookers." 

68 University Magazine 

At first Ike's wrestling- did quite well, but in a little 
while his luck turned and his antagonist seeing- his inde- 
cision at a critical moment seized his opportunity and gave 
him a hard "dog throw." 

Next, after a rest, Bob Eastman took his place. The 
latter, after that first trial, not fearing a defeat, was care- 
less at the outset, and as Ike was excited and fiery, one 
could not tell what would happen. From the waverings 
to one side and then to the other, first Bob seemed to be 
the one who would go down, then the Wrestler would al- 
most fall, but suddenly, catching his opponent round the 
head, Ike jerked him forward and, placing his left foot 
back of Bob's right heel, bent him over it. Such a quick 
"inturn" or back heel "chip," was too much for Eastman, 
so down he went. 

The Wrestler flushed redder than ever and with a 
pleased grin kept exclaiming, "Didn't I do him though! 
You uns better look solemn." Then to Anson, "Come on, 
Sonny, You uns is most afeared to fool with Ike now, 
ain't yer?" 

Anson was thin and wiry looking, but the boys knew 
what they were doing when they put the little Sophomore 

They began with a "black-snake" lock, and wrestled 
hard. Both intended to win. 'Never give up' was in 
their faces. The Wrestler felt that he knew it all and 
did not remember his first defeat, while Anson meant to be 
victor and knew the science of wrestling. Ike's conceit and 
dogged persistence kept him up longer than the boys 
thought it would, but Anson's trained powers of endurance, 
along with his skilled activity, were not to be downed. 
When Ike again tried a back heel, Anson, though so much 
lower and thus at a disadvantage, clasped his antagonist 
around the waist with an under-hold, turned him quickly 
to the left, and with his right leg lifted Ike's left one off 
the floor; the latter thus got a hard clean throw and fell 
with a heavy thud. 

Ike, the Wrestler 


The Wrestler was completely knocked up. While he 
sat on the floor hugging his bruises, Harry Anson made 
his maiden speech with Ike as the foremost in his audi- 

"My boy," he began, "you had better mind how you 
tackle college students. College men, as a rule, are strong- 
er than other men. Here I am, nothing but a Sophomore; 

" — nothing but a Sophomore.'''' 

been in college one year, and have given you such a hard 
throw. So take my advice, Ikey, and don't fool with a Jun- 
ior or a Senior who've been here three or four years, and — 
as for a member of the faculty — why some of them have 
been in college for eight or ten years, and they could just 
wipe up the earth with you." 

As Ike the Wrestler, escorted by Bob, Harry, Dick, and 
about a dozen other fellows, marched down to Tim Dun- 
can's barber shop, the Wrestler looked more like a rose than 
ever, but I assure you his sky was far from rose-colored. 

70 University Magazine 

At the barber shop he not only lost his Van Dyke, but a 
little of his assurance. Ike learned many thing's in college, 
among them, not many weeks after, the fact that Harry 
Anson, the wiry little fellow who threw him sp hard, was 
half-back on the football team. 


This wish, to have another see 

In us what we are not, 

Is deadly to our deeper life, 

And tears our hearts with useless strife; 

It leads a multitude astray 

Into a path, a wrongful way, 

Unto a worthless lot. 
I prayed, "L/ord, grant Thy power to be." 

A thought then came, His plan stood clear. 
"God hearkens not to passive prayer 

To free from sorrow rife. 
He's given power, but we abuse 
The sovereign wills which we might use 
To noble ends." Then let us be — 
Fulfill ourselves till He can see 

In us the Perfect Iyife. 




IN thinking - of early heroes and statesmen North Caro- 
linians usually look to the East, forgetting,it seems, that 
even as early as the revolutionary period, there dwelt 
in our hills and mountains men whose services made them 
worthy of a place in North Carolina history and biography. 
Of those heroes none served our State in its infancy more 
faithfully, patriotically and unselfishly than Jesse Franklin, 
a frontier settler of Surry county. 

Jesse Franklin, third son of Bernard and Mary Franklin, 
was born in Orange county, Virginia, March 24, 1760. His 
education was limited. He was permitted to attend school 
only part of his time until he was twelve years old, when his 
school days ended. He served in the army during the year 
1777 as a volunteer. After his term of service expired he 
returned to his father's home. 

Immediately before the commencement of the war his 
father had made arrangements to move to the north-western 
part of North Carolina, which at that time was almost en- 
tirely unsettled. Jesse, upon his return from the army, 
though only a lad of seventeen, was sent forward to make 
selection of lands and to prepare a house and provisions for 
the family which was to follow in the succeeding fall. 
Going beyond the settlements, and passing through what 
is known as "the hollows," he chose a beautiful valley on 
the head-waters of Fisher's River in Surry county as the 
future home of his father. Game was abundant, and horses 
and cattle could thrive on the pea vines of natural growth. 
In addition to desirable game, undesirable wolves and bears 
roamed at large in the neighborhood. The future senator 9 
with his servants thus led for nearly a year a strictly 
frontier life. When his father and family came he had pre- 

72 University Magazine 

pared comfortable cabins for them. Jesse was not, how- 
ever, long- permitted to enjoy the sweet communion of his 
new home. The needs of his country demanded that he 
enter the field of battle. 

The Tories had become so troublesome in Surry and 
Wilkes as to demand the erection of a fort near Wilkesboro. 
Jesse Franklin joined his uncle, Col. Benjamin Cleveland, 
in assisting to drive them out of the county. Col. Cleve- 
land's tactics of war were not what our modern civilization 
would admire. It is recorded that he would capture 
Tories and informally hang them and sometimes force 
them to take their own lives. It is said that one 
poor fellow begged so pitifully that Col. Cleveland re- 
leased him, but before doing so made the unfortuate man 
cut off one of his own ears. 

On one occasion Jesse was captured by the Tories. They 
tied a rope around his neck and to the limb of a tree, the 
prisoner remaining on his horse. Just as they were ready 
to drive the horse from under him, he said, "You have me 
in your power and can hang me if you wish, but let me 
warn you, that for my life Uncle Benjamin Cleveland, in 
retaliation, will hang an hundred Tories." Terrified by the 
threat which Cleveland's character fully justified, they 
promptly released their prisoner. 

In 1780 after many skirmishes with the Tories, Franklin 
acted as Adjutant to Col. Cleveland at the battle of King's 
Mountain. It was he who, when the enemy was obscured 
from our troops by smoke, rode up the mountain side, perceiv- 
ed and reported the British situation, and thus caused our 
troops to be led to victory. The British commander, Col. Fer- 
guson, was killed and Capt. Ryarson succeeded him. After 
the battle Ryarson delivered his sword to Jesse Franklin, say- 
ing to him "You deserve it, sir." This sword was held for 
several generations by the Franklins as a relic ; but on one 
occasion a party of gentlemen in testing the metal, 
broke it into fragments which were divided among members 
of the family. , 

Hon. Jesse Franklin 73 

The following spring- (1781) on hearing of Gen. Greene's 
retreat Franklin hastened to join him as a volunteer. Gen. 
Greene, knowing his familiarity with the country, sent him 
to carry orders to the Whig fort at Wilkesboro. The whole 
country was at this time infested by Tory bands, and it re- 
quired extreme vigilance for him to get through to his 
charge safely. He reached Salem early one morning, 
breakfasted with the only pronounced Whig in the village, 
not over-ceremoniously exchanged his tired horse for a fresh 
one and hastened on his journey to Fort Wilkesboro. After 
performing his errand he decided to return to Gen. Greene's 
army by way of his father's home and carry a little salt to the 
family. Knowing the country to be infested with Tories he 
made his way outside the settlements; but just before reaching 
homehewas surrounded by Tories who had long watched for 
him. They made him dismount and tied his hands behind 
him. They then replaced him on his horse, and having 
stacked their guns beside a large white oak tree they led his 
horse under a dogwood and prepared to force him to swear 
allegiance or be hanged. Though almost strangled he 
refused to swear allegiance. Just as a Tory struck the 
horse to drive him from under their victim, the hangman's 
rope broke and Franklin rode triumphantly away before 
they could regain their rifles and pick him off. Thus he a 
second time escaped an ignominious death. This latter 
escape is authentic ; the authority for the first event is 
tradition. He visited his home and returned to Greene's 
army in time to be present at the battle of Guilford Court 
House, where his military career ended. 

Judge David Schenk in his address at Guilford Battle 
Ground, July 4th, 1893 said, "In the fighting between 
Tarleton and Major Joseph Winston's troops, after the Con- 
tinental line had retreated Jesse, Franklin was the last to 
retire from the field." A monument to the memory of 
Major Winston, Jesse Franklin and Richard Talliaferro, 
who fought by Franklin, has been erected at Guilford Bat- 
tle Ground by the late Gov. Thomas M. Holt. This 

74 University Magazine 

monument was made from granite of their county and 
bears the inscription : Palmam qui meruit ferat. 

As a lad and young- man Franklin served his country as 
a simple frontier soldier. As a man of mature years he 
served his State and nation in various and honorable capaci- 

He lived in retirement on his mountain farm from the 
close of the war till 1794, when he was, without solicitation 
on his part, elected a member of the House of Commons 
from Surry county. In the following - year he was elected a 
member of the Federal House of Representatives in which 
body he served one term. In 1797 he was again elected a 
member of the House of Commons. In 1799 he was elected 
to the United States Senate as a successor to Alexander 
Martin, who had offended our people by supporting Presi- 
dent Adams in voting for the Alien- and Sedition acts. So 
popular was Franklin, though only a simple countryman, 
that he was president of the Senate in 1804 and 1805. It is a 
matter worthy of mention that at tne same time Nathaniel 
Macon was speaker of the Lower House. At the expiration 
of his term as Senator he returned to his farm, but during 
}he same year he was elected to the State Senate. The 
Legislature of 1807 again elevated him to the United States 
Senate, this time to succeed David Stone, a man ever 
ambitious for political preferment. At the expiration of 
his second term as United States Senator he declined re- 

He was the first man from North Carolina to serve a 
second term in the United States Senate. The high 
estimation in which he was held by the senators was shown 
by their choosing him to be their president. He was a 
member of many important committees. He was on the 
committee which reported on the celebrated ordinance of 1787, 
also on the committee of investigation of the case of Smith 
of Ohio, who was implicated with Aaron Burr. He was 
a strong advocate of President Madison's war measures, 
bitterly opposed to all monopolies, and fought vigorously the 

Hon. Jesse Franklin 75 

re-charter of the United States Bank, which came up during 
the latter part of his term as senator. In 1816 he was 
appointed with Andrew Jackson to treat with the Chickasaw 
Indians. This treaty which they concluded was signed on 
the spot where the city of Memphis now stands. 

The Legislature of 1820 elected him Governor of the 
State. His message to the Legislature recommended, a- 
mong other beneficial reforms, the discontinuance of muti- 
lating criminals by cropping their ears. He urged that 
this was a barbarous punishment, that it placed the crimi- 
nal beyond hope of reform, and thus defeated the object 
of punishment when life was spared. He also recom- 
mended a prudent, steady, and progressive system of in- 
ternal improvement for the State. At the expiration of 
his term as Governor he retired from public life and died in 
1823, in the 64th year of his life, after a long, eventful and 
useful career. 

Moore, in his history of North Carolina, says, "He 
did not shine in oratory like Alexander Martin, David 
Stone, or Nathaniel Macon, but his powers lay in his deep 
devotion to what he considered his duty and in his practical 
common sense." Public men like David Stone, Abraham 
Baldwin and others, considered much more brilliant than 
he, sought his advice on delicate questions. In him seem 
to have been combined the elements of a plain, conscientious, 
industrious countryman and statesman. He is one of our 
heroes who fought his way to honor in doing faithfully 
what he considered his duty. 

His chosen occupation was farming, and when not en- 
gaged in public affairs, he spent his time at the home which 
he founded in his youth. He preferred the quiet retirement 
of his mountain farm, but so great was his people's con- 
fidence in him that, like Washington, he was not allowed 
to enjoy it uninterruptedly. In his manner he was severely 
simple. A homely anecdote well illustrates his taste in 
this regard. While at Hillsboro attending to his duties as 
State Senator, in replenishing his wardrobe, the new arti- 

76 University Magazine 

cles of raiment were brought him, decorated with fashionable 
ruffles and frills. These he promptly cut off as unsuitable 
to a representative of a frontier constituency. 

The descendants of Jesse Franklin are among- the best 
and most influential citizens of Surry county. Shadrach 
Franklin, one of the most successful farmers in that sec- 
tion is one of his descendants. The late Judge Jesse 
Franklin Graves was his grand-son, and there are others 
just as worthy of mention. His grave and that of his wife 
are on a beautiful knoll in the small valley where he first 
settled. A plain slab with the inscription: "Sacred to the 
memory of Hon. Jesse Franklin, late Governor of North 
Carolina, born March 24, 1760 and died Sept. 5, 1823." 
The old home he loved so well is still in good condition. 
The knoll and grove, in the little valley under the moun- 
tain with its undisturbed quietude seems a worthy resting 
place for such a man as Jesse Franklin, whose deeds and 
high character are his best monuments. 



SIR Philip Sidney had just taken his departure from 
Durham House where the Earl of Essex and his family 
were living- in retirement under the temporary dis- 
pleasure of their exacting- sovereign. ' Sir Philip had been 
engaged in a lively dialogue and merry romp with the eld- 
est daughter, pretty Penelope Devereux. She had follow- 
ed him to the door, the wind tossing her brown curls, 
which were not yet arranged in the towering head-dress 
deemed indispensable by every woman of noble birth. 

"Sir Philip seemeth to be well pleased with our little 
daughter," said Essex. 

"I have thought it too; and he is so handsome!" answer- 
ed his wife. 

"Yes, and what is better, his conduct is as comely as his 

"Penelope is thirteen now and it behooves us to see that 
she be well established in a few years." 

"There is yet much time to consider that. However, if 
Sir Philip should chance to fancy her — " 

"He hath such excellent prospects. It is said that Her 
Majesty honoreth him exceedingly of late, and he need not 
depend on himself alone to gain her favor, for his uncle the 
Earl of Leicester will bring him more and more to her no- 

Essex frowned and did not answer. He well knew that 
he himself had no friend in Leicester, and the intimacy be- 
tween his wife and the haughty courtier was displeasing 
to him. 

A few months after this conversation the Earl of Essex 
lay on his death-bed, stricken with a sudden and myster- 
ious illness. He had sent for Sidney, but it was too late. 
When the dying man realized that the end had come he 

78 University Magazine 

spoke again of Sidney and said: "Commend me to him; I 
send him nothing-, but I wish him well — so well that, if 
God move their hearts, I wish that he might match with 
my daughter. I call him son- — he so wise, virtuous and 

The message was delivered to Philip as he stood weep- 
ing over the dead body of Essex. The sprightly little 
Penelope was dear to him yet the message pained him, for 
he could as yet feel nothing but the elder brother's love to- 
wards this girl, half child, half woman. A command from 
Elizabeth to present himself at court came opportunely at 
this time, for Philip thought that by separation all hopes 
of a union between the two would be gradually given 

The Earl of Leicester was now at the height of his pow- 
er, having outstripped all his rivals in the Queen's favor. 
It was for Leicester's sake that Elizabeth was first gracious 
to Sidney, but it was not long before he had secured her re- 
gard for himself individually. To Philip's beauty of face, 
delicate and almost perfect in feature, was added that 
strange magnetism — always inexplicable — which, nearly 
always accompanied by personal beauty, seems quite inde- 
pendent of it. These things did not fail to make an im- 
pression on the well-matured heart of the Queen, and this 
in spite of the fact that for a long time she had evinced 
the tender passion for the uncle. She soon began to heap 
favors upon this new object of her fickle fancy. At last 
one day as he was preparing to leave the royal presence, 
the meaning of her softly spoken words of farewell could 
not be misunderstood. When Sidney reached his cham- 
bers his cheek was flushed and his eyes flashing. He could 
not remain seated, would alternately rise, pace backwards 
and forwards and then reseat himself. Pure in mind and 
honorable of purpose as he was, the vista open before him 
could not fail to dazzle his imagination — lands, wealth, 
honors in war, honors in peace, the financial burdens of his 
parents forever at an end. — But would they accept? — they 

Sidney's Sweethearts 79 

need not know, — his parents' welfare was worth any sacri- 
fice, and this was no sacrifice, — any courtier in the king- 
dom would give his right hand, — it was the part of a fool 
to hesitate! Away with thoughts! 

He gave orders that three jewelers should attend him on 
the morrow with such designs as would be suitable for Her 
Majesty. He chose a golden ornament on which was carv- 
ed a figure of Diana, garnished with diamonds, rubies and 
pearls. Elizabeth was enraptured. She loaded him with 
gifts in return and, among more substantial ones, included 
a lock of her hair, saying, "To others too I may give 
riches and power but only to thee, my sweet knight, do I 
give this." 

Sidney's response left nothing to be desired. He recited 
on bended knee: 

"Her inward worth all outward show transcends, 

"Envy her merit with regret commends; 

"Like sparkling gems, her virtue draws the sight, 

"And in her conduct she is always bright; 

"When she imparts her thoughts, her words have 

"And sense and wisdom flow in sweet discourse." 

Meanwhile, in Sidney's consciousness a voice was speak- 
ing; for a long while unheard, it at last became audible, 
and when once listened to, its commands must be obeyed, 
even though poverty and disgrace might be the result; for 
Sidney knew that to slight the affections of the Queen 
would be attended by danger to his prospects and even to 
his head. Once determined on his course, his tact never 
failed him. The Queen's compliments were met by care- 
fully chosen phrases by which he endeavoured to convey 
the impression that the royal heart must by all men be con- 
sidered beyond the dreams of her subjects. In the audi- 
ence chamber his demeanor was as attentive as ever, yet he 
avoided her as much as possible in order that he might not 
be forced to show indifference and thereby arouse her re- 

80 University Magazine 

vengful resentment. While the Queen did not fail to take 
note of his demeanor and show her displeasure, she how- 
ever soon forgot her pique and ever after regarded Sidney 
with as sincere liking as could find a place in that hard and 
selfish nature. 

Sidney longed to leave the court and had already applied 
for permission to aid the Dutch in their brave struggle 
against Spain, when events transpired which caused him 
for a time to lose interest in the affairs of people across the 
channel. He had not seen Lady Penelope Devereux since 
the death of her father, but had heard of, and regretted 
her marriage to Lord Rich, for he knew the latter to be a 
vicious and dissipated youth. Lord and Lady Rich were 
soon called to attend the Queen at the court and Philip 
again saw his former friend. She had developed into the 
most noted beauty of the day. At the first sight of her, 
Philip felt the strange power which personal beauty exerts 
over all. To see this angelic being— how could a creature 
with such a form, such eyes, so glorious yet with such a 
look of innocence be anything else! — to see such a being 
treated with open contempt — yea, almost with abuse by him 
who should be her protector, and yet not be able to inter- 
fere, was more than enough to give rise to the deepest feel- 
ings of pity for the one and dislike for the other. A more 
passionate feeling gradually arose, which was heightened 
by accident. 

One day in a secluded part of the garden Sidney was 
enjoying the morning air while all the courtiers and ladies- 
in-waiting were, he supposed, in the castle, for it was an 
hour when few visited the gardens. Turning the corner of 
a thick hedge he saw, almost at his feet, a woman's figure 
shaken by sobs. His first impulse was to retire, but think- 
ing he might be of aid and recognizing Lady Rich, he ad- 
vanced and addressed her, asking the cause of her distress. 
She could not answer at once, but he saw that she wished 
him to stay. Sidney stooped and took her hand and tried 
to calm her. This beautiful woman in tears did not fail to 

Sidney's Sweethearts 81 

have the usual effect. As Lady Rich became calmer, Sid- 
ney became more excited; the touch of her hand thrilled 
him, and the dark brown waves of her hair seemed to call 
for the other hand to smooth them — just to push that stray 
ring-let off the white neck. Lady Rich was the first to 

"It was only my husband. Merely a new persecution — 
only the heaping up of a great many which overcame me. 
But it is not seemly that I tell you this, yet you are the 
friend of my childhood and of my father — how I used to 
tease thee, command thee in attendance as if I were a 
great lady!" And something like a smile danced in the 
dark eyes under the damp eyelashes. 

Sidney too smiled. "You were always merry company," 
he said. 

Her face clouded for an instant. "But not now, yet you 
are the same and I should be too. Your face, which I see 
every day, helps me to bear my misery, but if I could only 
talk to thee freely as we were wont to do long ago!" 

"Can I not talk to thee, Lady Rich? Do you not come 
walking this way, tomorrow, perhaps, at this hour?" 

"Yes, I suppose so. But I must go. Good-bye, Sir 


Then,— "Oh Philip." 


"Call me Penelope, like you used to do. Good-bye, 

"Good-bye, Penelope." 

For the second time in his life Sidney returned to his cham- 
bers with his brain in a whirl, but this time his heart also 
was affected. He forgot the hour of his attendance at 
court and sat at his window looking out over the Thames, 
feeling again the touch of her hand and hearing the sound 
of her voice, yet taking in every detail of the gay life 
which passed and repassed beneath his window; the gliding 
barges, the rhythm of the oars, the brilliant colors, the 

82 University Magazine 

breath of the spring day, all seemed to be a part of bis 
consciousness and of ber. Thus he sat, not thinking but 
listening to his thoughts. Prudence was not allowed a 
voice, she was dismissed with the statement, that here was 
innocence in distress such as he might help to relieve. 

The tryst was kept. So were many others. 

The hours of separation were spent in composing impas- 
sioned sonnets. Love had conquered. But not finally. 
Conscience though tardy, at last awoke — or was it disen- 
chantment caused by the gradually acquired perception of 
Penelope's really shallow nature? Which of us can say? 
The best we can do in judging our own conduct is to pick 
out one of the largest threads from the web of motives 
which govern each act and say, "This is why I did it." 
We can only see the result and guess at the causes. Here 
Right was victor. On the fly-leaf of his Bible underneath 
his own and his mother's name Philip wrote: 

"Leave me, O love, which reachest but to dust: 

"And thou, my mind, aspire to higher things, 

"And think how ill becometh him to slide 

"Who seeketh heaven, and comes of heavenly breath. 

"Then farewell world; thy uttermost I see: 

"Eternal love, maintain thy life in me!" 



IN the South, thirty years ago, there was very little said 
about the Newer Criticism, or the mistakes of Moses, or 
the authenticity of the Epistle to the Hebrews. People 
were not disturbed by discussions as to whether it was a 
whale, a great fish, or a covered barge that received Jonah 
when he was thrown over-board, nor were they affected 
by attempts to prove the naturalness of the phenomena 
when the son and the moon stood still upon Gibeon and in 
the valley of Ajalon, and Joshua smote the Amorites to 
Azekah and unto Makkedah. The Dictionary of Biblical 
Difficulties had not been added to the colporteur's pack, and 
would have been dead stock had he carried it. What was 
written was written, and the earnest men who expounded 
the Word allowed no levity of thought or expression. It 
was the Bread of Life which they dispensed and woe to the 
luckless wight who would suggest that some portions of it 
were stale. Sensationalism in the pulpit was unheard of; 
at some of the camp-meetings, held in August after the 
corn was laid-by, there were sporadic cases of undue excite- 
ment, yet these were but tributes to the searching eloqu- 
ence of some gifted brother, and were not to be taken as 
representing the normal course of events. It was told of 
John Lucas' own father, Presbyterian divine and learned 
Professor as he was, that on one occasion, when preaching 
at a famous Methodist camp-meeting, he spoke with so 
much power that from the Amen corners came storms of 
'Glory be to God', and he was confused. He spoke with 
directness and simplicity, using the ordinary language of 
the people, and a good old mother in Israel declared that it 
was a great pity he was not an educated man, ''for then 
shorely he'd be a sarchin' preacher, he most shorely 

84 University Magazine 

would." And then she went back to her corn-cob pipe and 
communed with the spirits of Wesley and Asbury, saints on 
the earth and saints in heaven these many years. 

The South has not been a good breeding-ground for va- 
garies of belief. For the most part it has remained faith- 
ful to the old standards, and has not gone far afield for 
new sensations. Now and then it shows that the old sen- 
sations have a wonderful vitality, which is not always ex- 
hibited in the most edifying manner, but on the whole it 
has been satisfied to go on in pretty much the old way. It 
has the charm and the power of conservatism clothed in a 
new spring dress, not quite large enough around the bust 
and somewhat short in front. But these are pardonable 
defects. John Lucas entered life when the old time rever- 
ence for the minister was on the wane. Years ago, when 
the minister was also the school-master, he was invested 
with a double authority. He was not only the dispenser of 
divine things but was likewise the supreme court of secular 
learning. What he did not know was commonly supposed 
to be unknown, or at least of such small moment that it 
was not worth knowing, and appeals from his decisions 
were but little short of sacrilege. Whether he was a great 
Professor, with hundreds of books in his library and able 
to quote from the original Hebrew and Greek, or whether 
he was a circuit-rider on his first rounds, with the Bible 
and the Book of Discipline in his saddle-bags, he was the 
source of spiritual and secular knowledge. 

Nearly every man took his religion "straight", not from 
any lack of water but from lack of power to withstand the 
combined assaults of the clergy and the women. We may 
compromise with the clergy, but when the women lend 
their aid there are but two avenues of escape, uncondition- 
al surrender, or suicide. This may be an argument for the 
female ministry, but at any rate when the world is finally 
converted the women will be very unhappy. 

With the advent of the daily newspaper and the religious 
periodical the personal influence of the clergy began to di- 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 85 

minish, and with the extension of schools and the multipli- 
cation of books they were, in a measure, compelled to 
change front. They did not abandon any of the essentials 
of religious instruction but they began to perceive more 
clearly what the essentials were. They became less dog- 
matic and more persuasive, less disposed to insist and more 
disposed to liberal views of man's place in the universe. 
They did not recede from their position as interpreters of 
the divine will, nor allow of any detractions from the sac- 
red charaeter of the Scriptures, but they insensibly drifted 
into the current that led to the Congress of Religions 
in 1893. 

It is difficult for men who believe themselves set apart as 
expounders of the will of God to fall in heartily with the 
right of private judgment. Theoretically, of course, they 
acknowledge the validity of the claim, but when it comes 
to every day life they are inclined to hedge. Manifestly, 
the principle is not of indefinite extensibility. It must 
break down some where, and it is far better to cease pull- 
ing on it before the elastic limit is reached. Between the 
authority of the Pope and the indefinite multiplication of 
sects there is much dangerous ground. 

In the later years of his father's life, when rheumatism 
claimed him for its own and compelled him to cease from 
active labors, the dogmatism of the divine and the profess- 
or gave place to the sweetness of the saint. It was then 
that John Lucas realized what it meant to be at peace with 
God and the world. The independence of his father's mind 
was as pronounced as ever, and his intellect as comprehen- 
sive and as keen, but from the terrible furnace of physical 
affliction he had come as the three worthies of old, nor had 
the smell of fire passed on him. 

The greatest men suffer the most, but there are some 
who suffer without being great. 

God has his own way of marking his own. It may and 
very often does seem to us, who see only one side and that 
but dimly, that the ripening of fruit for the heavenly 

86 Univefsity Magazine 

courts is attended with a great waste of energy. We often 
ask ourselves: "Is it necessary that people who are already 
good enough should be made to suffer so much?", forget- 
ting that physical suffering is not an attonement for sin 
but a tribute to the inexorableness of natural laws. It is 
not a waste of energy, it is a proof of its conservation. 
Suffering in maturer years, consequent upon the disregard 
of natural laws in youth, can not be taken as a dispensa- 
tion .of Providence. It may be a means of grace — that is as 
we use it — but it may always be traced back along the 
chain of cause and effect. 

There was, perhaps, no phase of his father's character 
which had so powerful an influence upon John Lucas as 
his fortitude in suffering. It was a revelation to him of 
that quality in man which enables him to overcome the 
greatest obstacles simply by will-power. A strenuous life 
is not necessarily an active life, for there are potencies em- 
anating from an invalid's chair as forceful as an army with 
banners, and far more permanent, for they are spiritual. 
To live well is to live so that our friends and neighbors 
shall realize the lofty aims that animate us; the purity and 
the permanence of our standards must appeal to them in 
countless ways. This is possible within the narrow circles 
of village life quite as well as upon a throne, for there is 
no such searching of true character as goes on in small 
communities. The man who can command the respect, the 
confidence and the affection of his neighbors in a small 
town for forty years is a good man. Aside from his posi- 
tion as a preacher and a teacher, this is what John Lucas' 
father did. No one had ever really visited Loveland who 
had not been to see Dr. Lucas. The greatest and the best, 
the smallest and the worst came to him and went away 
cheered, broadened, uplifted. His house was as the Gate 
of Heaven. 

A certain fearless criticism of man and of things, past, 
present and to come, marked the home of John Lucas, and 
to it he attributed his tendency towards the analysis of 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 87 

conditions in which he found himself in later years, an an- 
alysis not always kindly but for the most part just. It was 
a variation from what he heard at home, for there he heard 
nothing- that was not kindly. But it was one of the per- 
versities of his nature that he attached no weight to what 
so and so might have said or would say, unless it were a 
question of fact and not always then. The personal equa- 
tion may influence the statement of a fact, although not 
the fact itself. Truth is outside of human knowledge, and 
the only thing we are responsible for is our conception of 
it. Obviously, we can not be held responsible for the opin- 
ions of another man, and not being responsible for them 
they are of no great importance. By parity of reasoning, our 
own opinions are not of much value, and we come to a com- 
forting sense of humility, never observable in American 
youth and not over-poweringly evident in the matured spe- 

The Master of All Truth once had the opportunity of re- 
plying to the question, "What is Truth?," but it was asked 
by a man who did not care what it was and there was 
no answer. 

John IyUcas was not precocious. There was no admiring 
throng, headed by his parents, to bow before the budding 
of his genius, partly because there was no genius to bud 
and partly because parents had some rights in those remote 
days. He had been careful in the choice of his parents (to 
which Sterne advises us) not from a worldly point of view 
but from a position far higher and better. The unscrupul- 
ous acquisition of wealth was never put before him as a de- 
sirable thing, nor the fame that comes from the successful 
trampling on the rights of others. If any one of the fam- 
ily had made much money his name was not on record, 
and if any one had gained fame through ignoble means his 
name, had it been on record, would have been blotted out. 
To be a gentleman, to be worthy to associate with gentle- 
men, to live quietly and honorably and to do his share of 
the world's work without having a brass band in attend- 

88 University Magazine 

ance, these were set before him, with one other, viz., to 
fear God, not because He is fearful but because He is Good. 
To fear as a coward is contemptable; to tear as Error in 
the light of Truth is ennobling-. We may not know what 
Truth is but we know what Truth does, and this is 

The instruction that John Lucas had in the schools may 
not have been of a high order, but the preaching- he listen- 
ed to on Sunday and the comments on thing-s and people he 
heard at home were each of an unusual kind. The effect 
of the Sunday preaching- and the weekly prayer-meeting 
upon the American character is a factor in our life whose 
importance no one can estimate. It is to a certain extent 
elusive, for it manifests itself in so many different ways, 
assumes so many shifting- attitudes according- to environ- 
ment, that those who would describe it are at a loss to be- 
g-in. Even the most observant foreigners have failed to 
grasp it, and it is one feature of the life here which they 
have for the most part passed over in silence. They have 
commented freely on our politics, our society, our amuse- 
ments, our business methods, our transportation facilities 
and our manners, but as to the religious character of Amer- 
icans they have said what was once said about snakes in 
Ireland — there are no snakes in Ireland. 

There is an undercurrent of religious feeling in America 
which is none the less powerful because it is not apparent. 
In the lives of the great mass of the people, especially in 
the country, there is more than a leavening portion of 
spiritual influences, for it is simply impossible that the la- 
bors of so many good men should have gone for naught. 
They may be mistaken, their own grasp upon the essentials 
of religion may be none of the strongest and they may fail 
to adorn the doctrines they declare, All this and more 
may be true, and yet the fact remains that the atmosphere 
of countless American homes is more or less colored by per- 
manent religious tints. The habit of church going is 
deeply implanted here, and in no part of the country more 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 89 

so than in the South. The peaceable fruits of righteous- 
ness do not always spring- from this universal church go- 
ing-, but it will be found that the most lawless and the 
most backward portions of the country are where the 
church, with its concomitant school-house, is lacking. 

John Lucas could not now repeat a single expression 
heard from the pulpit when he was young, but at the same 
time he could not divest himself of the effect upon his 
character. He did not believe then, as he does not believe 
now, all that was said, and some of it was couched in terms 
incomprehensible to him, but he grew up with the feeling 
that he was much the better from having acquired a pro- 
found respect for genuine religion and a broad tolerance of 

We may not hold to the plenary inspiration of the 
Scriptures, but we do hold to the plenary blessedness of a 
saintly life, whose spiritual fountains are beyond human 
knowledge. It is genuine religion to live by our highest 
ideals, to face the great questions of daily existence, and 
solve them as best we may. A doctrine is an empty husk 
of a thing at best, and we rattle around in it like peas in a 
drum, making a great noise but coming back to the place 
we started from. But a life! Ah! That is different! It 
is the only thing beside which a doctrine becomes in- 
significant, and the more saints there are in the world the 
fewer doctrines will there be. We have had enough doc- 
trines, let us have more saints. One John Paton is worth 
to us a dozen John Calvins, for in the maelstrom of modern 
life we must lay hold of the strong and sure hand of 
human love and sympathy, or we go whirling on to de- 

It has been stated that in John Lucas' home there was 
little or no talk of politics. The term is used in its nar- 
rower and meaner sense, indicative of the strife for party 
and not for principle. Of this there was indeed nothing, 
but of that broader and better politics there was a good 
deal. The idea that the family is the state in miniature 

90 University Magazine 

was often commented upon; the acknowledgement that out- 
side of and beyond individual rights there are the rights of 
the majority, which, however, can never mean the right to 
do wrong; the respect for law; the necessity for education; 
the high sense of personal integrity; the sinfulness of loaf- 
ing; the helping hand; the uncompromising adherence to 
what was*right; of such politics there was abundant evi- 
dence. But the success of this politician or that; the car- 
rying out of party orders under penalty af political extinc- 
tion; the subserviency to wrong because of a fancied emer- 
gency, or one created for the occasion; these were but as 
the wind blowing over the desert. 

It is no wonder that John Lucas grew up with but ill 
concealed contempt for current politics, and that the dis- 
taste lasted him through life. In this respect, perhaps, he 
was not a true American, but whether he was or not gave 
him no concern whatever. 

He did not observe, either in youth or in manhood, that 
the best men were selected as political leaders. The coun- 
try has to be governed, it is true, but the wonder is that 
we prosper as we do, considering the character of many of 
the men who rule us. When he was growing into man- 
hood there were such awful scandals in public life as would 
scarcely be believed now, credulous as we may have become 
on such points. The great leaders of political thought in 
the South were dead, and there did not seem to be an im- 
mediate prospect of any legitimate heirs. The fact is that 
there was little or no accomodation of political thought to 
the changed condition of political life. These conditions 
came too suddenly, perhaps, to allow of this, and men were 
dazed before the immensity of the problems on hand. It 
should have been enough for the wisest and the most pru- 
dent to rearrange the internal affairs of the country, after 
the termination of the war, without having to care for six 
millions of slaves catapulted into citizenship, without prop- 
erty, without education, without training in the duties 
thrust upon them, withont any thing but the sense of 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 91 

freedom for which they were not fit and the right to vote 
which they constantly misused. The Emancipation Proc- 
lamation was doubtless a humane step, but serious doubts 
of its political sagacity may be entertained even by the 
most sincere admirers of the immortal Lincoln. 

Slavery was gone, and John Lucas never felt the least 
sorrow over the departure of a system obnoxious in even its 
most pleasing features. What his attitude towards it 
would have been had he grown to full manhood under its 
blighting shadow, who can say? There are not wanting 
instances of its corrupting influence upon better men than 
he was, for it benumbed the sensibilities and dug at the 
very root of good morals. It did more. It was responsi- 
ble for the public callousness towards cheating for the sake 
of political gain, and brought about complacent acquies- 
cence in wrongs that were privately condemned and public- 
ly condoned. When there are two standards of morality, 
one for the house and the other for the street, we are drift- 
ing into dangerous waters. A yard-stick that varies in 
length according to the purpose for which it is to be 
used, is no standard at all, it is a fraud on the face of 

But the South is not the only section of the Union that 
suffers from a varying standard of morality. There are 
glass houses in other parts of the country, and the adage 
as to the flinging of stones bears with equal force on both 
sides of the famous line that has done so much to separate 
us. As we learn more about men and things we insensibly 
lose our skill with the sling. There were problems in the 
southern country which have never been presented to the 
world at large and which our northern friends knew noth- 
ing about. That dreadful mistakes were made in dealing 
with them no one who knows any thing of the matter can 
doubt, but it has not been observed that those who came down 
from the shadow of Faneuil Hall worked them out with 
any more success than the natives. Some of these mission- 
aries said that the lack of success was due to the perversi- 

92 University Magazine 

ty of the native whites, and that if they could have had 
the negroes off to themselves they would have wrought 
wonders. This may be true, but in those days the memory 
of the Freedman's Bank and the 'Forty Acres and A Mule' 
was too fresh. Snipe-hunting was a pastime in which 
many of the negroes had 'engaged and while they were 
thankful for the candle and the bag they felt that the 
night air was not good for rheumatism and preferred to 
stay by the fire. 

When a famous jurist, sitting in a United States case in 
thecapitol of the State, heard from a quiet lawyer the story 
of those days, told without an attempt at oratory, he ex- 
pressed himself as astonished that such things could go on 
in this country. 

The story of reconstruction days in the South has never 
been told, because it would not be believed. The rascali- 
ties, the scandalous transactions, the absolute disregard for 
the ordinary decencies of life, the wallowing in all kinds of 
social and political mud-holes; if the half were told soberly, 
as it was told to that eminent judge, the whole country 
would reverse its opinions. 

Southern people have often been accused of intolerance, 
bitter prejudices and unreasoning adherence to the ideals 
of a state of things long since past. But have the self-ap- 
pointed critics ever taken the trouble to inquire into the 
reasons for what they so loudly proclaim? The condition 
of things in the South twenty-five or thirty years ago fully 
accounts for what of intolerance, prejudice and conserva- 
tism is to be seen there today. The people of the North 
and West have never had such questions to face, happily 
for them, as human nature is pretty much the same over 
the earth and the veneer of civilization is but skin deep. 
It may be worn away here and reveal a disregard for polit- 
ical rights, so-called, and not a very lofty respect for hu- 
man life. Worn away there it shows underneath just as 
culpable a disregard for property rights and a very low 
standard of social and commercial ethics. The Kingdom 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 93 

of God and His righteousness is not yet established in any 
part of this country, in spite of the frantic advertisements 
to that effect. Dreadful occurences happened in the South 
thirty years ago and dreadful things happened in the North, 
and East and West. Terrible violations of law take place 
in the South today, and they take place in the North, and 
East and West, also. 

They may be and doubtless are of a different sort, for 
crime is as many-sided as human nature, and we are very 
much inclined to 'Damn the sins we have no mind to', and, 
prostrating ourselves before the alter of our particular deity 
shriek for vengeance on our neighbors, who, in the mean 
time, are calling just as eagerly for our destruction. 

No right thinking man should attempt to palliate evil in 
any part of the country, just as no sensible man will think 
of assuming to himself all the virtues. Taking the coun- 
try over it will average up about the same level, and good 
morals, good government and personal integrity will be 
found to be fairly well diffused. It is doubtful _ if we can 
correctly estimate the effect of our own actions at the time 
they are committed. The picture is out of focus, some 
things are too large and some are too small. The time is 
coming when there will be a proper adjustment of the 
lenses and the history of the South for the first ten years 
after the war will be written by some one who, while not 
attempting to excuse crime or to white-wash the devil, will 
be able to see things in their relations to the most perplex- 
ing problem ever presented to the Nation. It may be that 
the future historian will hesitate to pronounce between the 
evils that arose in the South after the war and the criminal 
folly that led the general government to make citizens out 
of six millions of slaves and then turn them over to their 
former masters. There are many accomplices in the terri- 
ble things that went on in that unhappy land, for, without 
attempting to shield the South, it must be said that any 
man of ordinary common sense could have foreseen what 
would happen. Of course it did happen and equally of 

94 University Magazine 

course it would have happened any where under similar 

It is a curious anomaly of our system of government that 
the Federal authorities are not to be held responsible for 
crimes committed within the States that are integral parts 
of the Union, and crimes, too, that do not so much affect 
the localities where they occur as the good name of the en- 
tire country. Offences against the majesty of the Nation 
are of a different sort from offences against the peace and 
quietness of the community. Time and again it has puz- 
zled other nations to understand why it was that the Fed- 
eral Government was not accountable for disturbances 
within the States unless they infringed upon certain pow- 
ers which the States are supposed to have conveyed to it. 
They gave it the right to imprison a man for making illic- 
it whiskey, but they did not give it the right to protect cit- 
izens in the enjoyment of what the Federal Government it- 
self conferred upon them! Herein is a mystery! If you 
make illicit whiskey you will go to the penitentiary, but if 
you deprive men of the free expression of their opinions 
you will go to the United States Senate! By all means let 
us go to the Senate and make more laws against the in- 
iquitous "moonshiner", who is ruining the country. This 
is a mad world, my brothers ! 

In the reminiscences of a famous American statesman, 
who played an active part in the political drama of those 
days, he says that the Democrats were able to make 'the 
South solid for the Democratic Party, without regard to 
the will of the majority, and that this is one of the most 
disgraceful chapters not only in the history of this country 
but in the history of mankind. Of course, he is right, no 
one disputes the correctness of the proposition, but when he 
awakes to the fact that in the matter of disgrace honors 
are easy, North and South, he will add other laurels to his 
fame. The end of all good government is neither the pos- 
session of the franchise nor the ability to use it freely, but 
to employ the material on hand in the best way under the 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 95 

existing- conditions. The salvation of the country did not 
depend on the universal triumph of the Republican Party, 
but the salvation of the South did depend on the triumph 
of intelligence, honesty and property-ownership. That 
these were represented by the Democrats and were not rep- 
resented by the Republicans is so well known to those who 
have not allowed their prejudices to outrun their percep- 
tions that further comment is superfluous. 

This is not a political story, nor is there to be any at- 
tempt to discuss the political situation in the South twenty- 
five years ago. It is an old story, already threadbare, and 
there is nothing to be said about it except that it was not as 
happy a condition as could have been wished, and that 
those who have said most about it have not been distin- 
guished either by fair-mindedness or by an intimate knowl- 
edge of the subject. 

A great many things that took place there can not be de- 
fended on any plea except that of self-preservation, and 
this plea has been stretched to cover a multitude of trans- 
actions that are dreadful to contemplate. What the Re- 
publican Party did during the days of reconstruction was 
equalled only by what the Democratic Party did after- 
wards. The question of blackness between pot and kettle 
may be left for the future historian. 
(To be continued.) 



YEARS ago the beautiful Valley of Virginia was without 
inhabitants, save for the wild animals that quenched 
their thirst in the clear waters of the swift Shenan- 
doah and the wild Indians who hunted them. But so fair 
a spot could not long - remain neglected by the enterprising 
Anglo-Saxons, who had come from afar to seek homes in 
the New World; and so soon as the lands along the Atlan- 
tic had been occupied, the Valley began to receive inhabit- 
ants from the North and East. 

With the exception of a few families from East Virginia, 
those who settled what afterwards became Martinsburg, 
were from Pennsylvania, and at the opening of the Civil 
War the town was largely in sympathy with the North, 
though there were to be found there a few of the most de- 
voted friends of the Confederacy. 

Among these Redmond Burke was the leading spirit, and 
a few months after the opening of hostilities, he determin- 
ed to enlist in the service of the South. For ten years he 
had been the husband of sweet Mary Fairley, the minis- 
ter's pretty daughter, and the night before Redmond left, 
was the saddest ever spent in their hitherto happy home. 
With his little four year-old Lucy upon his knee and his 
arm about Mary, they sat talking together during the twi- 
light, in low, sad tones, till it was time for Lucy to be put 
in her little bed. Her brother Redmond, just eight years 
old, had all the day been picturing with great delight his 
father as a soldier with a long, shining sword and a great 
pistol in each pocket; but now when he saw his father kiss 
Lucy "good-night" with a quivering lip, when he saw the 
sadness in his mother's eyes and realized that to-morrow 
"dear Fardies" would be far away, a lump big enough to 
choke kept rising in his throat, and springing into his 

A Story of the Civil War 97 

father's arms, lie cried out, "Oh, Fardies, don't go, don't 
go! We'll all die if you do, — just die right dead!" 

The father held him close, and in simple, earnest words 
told him of the dear Southland, giving him his first lesson 
in patriotism. With a listening heart the boy heard, the 
blood of his ancestors thrilled in response, and clasping his 
father about the neck, he exclaimed, "I am so glad you are 
my own dear Fardies, I love you lots and lots, but you 
must go, yes, you must go help the dear Souf . Then he 
added with a sigh, "Ain't it a pitty I'm too little to go 

"My boy," said Burke in a choking voice, "you can help. 
How could I go and leave Darling and little Lucy if you 
were not here to take care of them for me? You must be 
Fardies' brave, little man. Love God, speak the truth, 
look folks square in the eye and do not be afraid of any 

"I will, — deed, you'll see if I don't, and I'm going to love 
the Souf same as I do Darling and Lucy— mustn't I?" The 
father could only strain the child to his heart and cover his 
face with kisses. 

At midnight a friend brought the information that 
Burke's intention of joining the Confederates was known, 
and that a dozen Unionists were planning to waylay and 
capture him. In haste were the good-byes spoken, and 
taking a circuitous route Burke reached Staunton in 

The morning sun lighted up the faces of the two sleep- 
ing children, and the pale, tear-stained countenance of the 
wife, who had bidden her husband God speed though with 
a breaking heart. 

Oh, to watch and wait within the lines for news from a 
dear one on the other side! Martinsburg, the hotbed of 
Unionists, was thereafter forbidden ground to Redmond 
Burke, and but once during the war did he return, and that 
was to stand for one short hour beside a little grave in 
which slept a hero. 

98 University Magazine 

The morning- after his father left, the boy took his place 
beside his mother's chair saying- : 

"I'm going to begin right away 'bout helping Fardies to 
fight for the Souf . I'm going to take care of you, Darling, 
of you and Lucy. I'm going to tell the truth every minute. 
I ain't afraid of any body, I'm going to look plum straight 
at folks, and love God and our Souf as hard as ever I can,- 
see, if I don't." And during the long weary, wearing days 
that followed, the little man was true to his trust. He 
never for a moment was forgetful of Darling or Lucy, and 
it was wonderful how his childish hands did lift the bur- 

On one occasion some lawless Union soldiers invaded the 
home, and one of them spoke roughly to Mary. Trembling 
with excitement, the boy sprang in front of the soldier call- 
ing out, "Don't you sass Darling, don't you dare do it!" 

"And what would you do if I did?", said the man good 

"I'd just burst your head with a rock like David did," 
answered the child. 

"Ha! ha!" laughed the soldier, "I never heard a little 
grasshopper chirp so loud before." 

"Any how," said Redmond, "I'd rather be a grasshopper 
than to be you.' 1 ' 1 

"Why so, Master Tom Thumb Grasshopper?" asked the 

'"Cause," said the child, "you are pressing your country, 
that's what you are doing, and you ought to be 'shamed of 

"Pressing my country, am I? Pray, Master Grasshopper, 
what do you mean by that charge?" 

"Oh! you know well enough you have come down here 
trying to press the Souf." 

"Ah, that's the way the wind blows, does it, you little 
Reb? Now, Johnny, you should learn how to talk. I 
guess it is ^pressing you mean, not "pressing." 

"I mean just what I said," sturdily declared Redmond, 
"You are trying to press the Souf, just trying to squeeze 

A Story of the Civil War 99 

the rights out of her, and I should think your little boy 
would be 'shamed of his Fardies. I am sorry for him, and 
if he will only come down here I'll lend him part of my dear 
Fardies, deed I will." 

A few months after this incident, just as the children 
were returning- from school, a body of Yankee Cavalry 
came galloping through the town. Catching sight of their 
blue uniforms, Redmond started in a frantic run across the 
street screaming, "Oh, dear Darling is by herself! I must 
go to Darling, I must, I mustl" 

The trooper in front caught sight of the boy too late to 
prevent his horse's feet from striking him. The child fell, 
his head striking violently against the curb-stone. He 
was taken home insensible to Darling and Lucy. Neigh- 
bors and physicians watched with them through the night. 
At the dawn of day, the dark eyes opened and he knew his 

"Darling," he whispered, "I wasn't afraid. I tried to 
get to you but I couldn't. Tell Fardies I helped all I 
could, and that I'll ask dear God to take care of you and 
Lucy till he comes back. Kiss me, Darling." And then 
the sweet lips of the boy-hero closed forever. 

Some how the news reached the father, and some how he 
made his way, worn and wounded, through the lines. 
That night he stood with Mary beside the little grave. 
The tear that dimed the soldier eye and glistened in the 
moonlight bespoke a grief that betokened a deeper conse- 
cration to the cause for which the little hero had died. 

When Redmond Burke returned to Lee, it was indeed to 
do or die for the Southland, for from the hour he left his 
boy's grave he seemed as one set apart to deeds of danger 
and heroism, and at morning, noon or mid-night he was 
ever ready to answer the call for perilous service with 
"Here am I, send me." 

And ere long whenever the name of Burke, the Confeder- 
ate spy, was whispered, fear and dread fell upon the hearts 
of the foe, for that name presaged the sweep of the mighty 
. arm of our great leader. 



Published by the Dialectic and Philanthropic Literary Societies. 



WM. S. BERNARD: '00, Editor-in-Chief, Phi. 

Phi. Di. 

D. P. Parker, '00. D. S. Thompson, '01, 

A. J. Barwick, '00, H. E. D. Wilson, '00, 

J. W. Greening, '00. Whitehead Kluttz. '02. 

ALFRED R. BERKELEY, '00. Business Manager, Di. 

Address literary communications to the Editor-in-Chief: business communica- 
tions to the Business Manager. 
Entered at the Chapel Hill, N. C, Post Office as second class mail matter. 


Of the many problems the American College 
is now dealing- with that of athletics is not the 
least important. It presents itself in two 
general aspects. 1. What is the economy of athletics in 
interior college life? 2. What the moral influence of in- 
tercollegiate sports? 

It is not our purpose to discuss in this department the 
first phase of this problem. Suffice it to say here that 
even the business-man is beginning to appreciate the fact 
that mental power and endurance is to a large degree con- 
ditioned on physical strength and that some such previous 
training as college sports give is needed to endure and sur- 
vive the wear and tear, the strain and excitement of a bus- 
iness career. The Magazine; iti a subsequent issue will 
contain an able paper, setting forth the various possibili- 
ties of athletics and suggesting additional lines of work in 
this field, such as we conceive are needed in our Universi- 

Current Comment 101 

But it lies peculiarly in the province of this department 
to deal with the second phase of this problem. Whatever 
the final utility of college sports, the final judgment will 
be a moral one. Is physical strength and even consequent 
mental vigor to be gained at the expense of moral charac- 
ter? Is the gladiator and not the knight of chivalry to be 
the type of the modern college teamsman? The enemies 
of college sports vociferously assert the affirmative. Are 
they right, or only partly right? 

The popular protest against intercollegiate sports in A- 
merica is based on the assumption that they are a parasitic 
growth, not an organic part of the manifold life of an Uni- 
versity. A student is in such an institution primarily to 
grow morals, incidentally to sow his brains with thought 
germs. Any other occupation at any time is an infringe- 
ment of the rights of Christian Education. 

This view is shallow and unhistorical to say the least. 
Our friends have failed to note, first, that college sports is 
an embodiment of a force having its basis in the needs of 
academic life and in that third part of human nature which 
they leave out in their make up of a man. Like the Ren- 
ascence and present Industrial Revival, college athletics 
have taken the form of a movement. The sweep of a so- 
cial movement is irresistable because it expresses a need of 
human nature. It may be guided and modified but it can- 
not be shunted. 

In the second place they fail to note that, though this 
movement is towards fuller expression, it is also towards 
purity of practice. This is shown by the effort of colleges 
to organize into Intercollegiate Athletic Associations for 
the purpose of governing practice under rules which are 
formulated and applied as abuses arise needing correction. 
Even as our Common Law is not perfect, and social and 
civic relations will ever need regulating, until the golden 
rule obtains universally, so also intercollegiate sports must 
g> actually approach purity as guided by the same Anglo- 
Saxon love of right and fair dealing. The issue now emer- 

102 University Magazine 

ges into plain view: can moral character be cultivated or 
maintained in the prevalent college sports of base-ball and 
foot-ball? Yes. 

Obedience to law is the method both religious and civil 
of developing- character. If a rule of the sport imposes a 
penalty for infringement, the player's effort to obey the 
rule, restrain himself in the excitement and heat of the 
g'ame, developes strength of will and character just as 
surely as his effort to refrain from breaking" the moral, 
civil and social law "Thou shalt not steal." The Duke of 
Wellington is reported as saying- that the battle of Water- 
loo was won on the cricket and foot-ball fields of English 
schools. If all this be true, our aim should be to establish 
such laws, rules, be they on paper or in public opinion as 
will ensure a fair and undoubted test between teams of two 
rival colleges. Who cares for the issue of a match when 
one side has undue advantage? 

Now are there practices prevailing which hinder this 
perfect test? We feel that our Alma Mater should be fore- 
most in raising ideals and living up to them as it has in 
the past. Judge ye. 

What is the excuse for the popular 'guying', 
ttymg * 'rooting', 'gags', and 'drags'th at are often the most 
conspicuous feature especially of base-ball? Is the game a 
contest in billings-gate and 'chin music' or in manual dex- 
terity and nerve. The object of such clap-trap is to put an 
opponent to disadvantage not by any legitimate superior- 
ity of training and dexterity with ball and bat, but by a 
means altogether foreign to the game. Every laudable 
play should receive due applause, and either following 
should show its preference by college yells for its own 
team, but 'chin music' should not be used to place an op- 
ponent at a disadvantage. 

f There is too a disposition to mix the two 

games of foot-ball and base-ball in playing 

the latter. We witnessed a most pitiable exhibition of this 

in a game last season. Perhaps we are simple in this mat- 

Current Comment 103 

ter, but at present we do not believe dirty ball should be 
played "because the other team does." "Spiking-" also 
should not only forever disqualify a player but should 
make the tougfh that attempts it amenable to the police 
court. Interference with the base-runner, overturning- the 
base-man when he is in his proper position, though less vic- 
ious offenses, are nevertheless foreign to the spirit of the 

There is one other practice about which 

Professionalism. ,. , , *.„ . 

there seems to be some difference of 

opinion, yet, judging by the vehemence with which almost 
every college lays the practice as a charge against some 
other college, it partakes strongly of the nature of an 
abuse. We believe that ere long there will be an overpow- 
ering sentiment thoughout our reputable colleges ruling 
out of the team all whose primary work is not in the lec- 
ture halls of the institution wherein they have matricu- 

Our own Alma Mater may proudly point to her noble 
work. There are statesmen who are her statesmen, preach- 
ers who are her preachers,scientists who are her scientists, 
warriors who are her warriors, yoemen who are her yoe- 
men, and these be leaders of men. Let the same high 
standard be hers in athletics. 

Since formulating these ideas we find that the Harvard 
Monthly has taken practically the same position in a paper 
by Mr. Ira N. Hallis. We are indebted to that paper for 
clearer views and moral support. 

* * 

A college student should read. Most stu- 
Notes dents try to read, but under the pressure of 

lecture courses and the other manifold in- 
terests of halls and campus, some trifling, some important, 
yet nevertheless real, he is bewildered amid the innummer- 

104 University Magazine 

able books and magazines that crowd the shelves and space 
the tables of a well stored library. It is the aim of this de- 
partment to direct and guide the students of our University 
to what is good and away from what is worthless. Aided 
by the best judgements and experience in the University, 
the Editor of this department will endeavor to make it 
most valuable and helpful. We advise, you never to lay 
your Magazine aside without reading carefully the Libra- 
ry Notes. 

* * 

„ . . . The vignette which forms our frontispiece 

Frontispiece. & r 

is a reproduction of a crayon sketch of the 
Bust of Vance by Randall. The bust was presented to the 
University by the Class of '99 and now stands in the Li- 
brary facing from the right as you enter the door. 

Mr. Calder has ver}^ happily caught the inspiration of 
the sculptor. There is perhaps in the crayon a bit more of 
the fierce unconquerable fighting spirit of our great de- 


D. P. PARKEK, Editor. 

The year that is just closing- has been the most prosper- 
ous that the book trade has known since 189S. The vari- 
ety of publications and the extent of the sale of certain in- 
dividual books have been little short of phenomenal. No 
less than four books have made great popular successes in 
scarcely more than as many months. 

Prosperity on the part of the publisher however does not 
mean extraordinary merit in the thing published. The 
public has been unusually prosperous, has had money to 
spend, and has seized with avidity what the booksellers 
have offered. From the view.-point of the reader the year 
has not been remarkable. Its successes have been quanti- 
tative, induced by a demand, a considerable amount of at- 
tractive advertising and certain pleasing qualities in the 
books themselves. 

The successes have been, as in lately preceding years, 
historical fiction — the notable exception being that very ex- 
ceptional character study, David Harum. No book in the 
historical class approaches in merit its late predecessor 
Hugh Wynne, or possesses the enduring interest of Red 

Several problem-novels have had a large sale. A perus- 
al of the books furnishes no clue to their popularity. The 
average psychological novel is the most contemptible pro- 
duct in American literature. The public must always be 
eager for some new thing, however, and will pass unheeded 
Geo. Eliot, Hawthorne and Victor Hugo in a mad rush for 
Beatrice Harraden. 

Mr. Harry Thurston Peck places the best of the year's 
production of fiction in the following order of merit: The 
Greater Inclination, David Harum, The Maternity of Har- 
iott Wicken, Richard Carvel, The Market Place, When 

106 University Magazine 

Knighthood was in Flower. The list is of interest only as 
an intelligent guess at what the year has given us in good 
fiction. If three or four others be added to allow for a per- 
missable variation in the angle of literary vision we have 
all that may be called even passable. 

The most of our popular fiction is either hopelessly witty 
or hopelessly wicked. We welcome Mr. Ernest Seton- 
Thompson as an author without special capacity either for 

"Thexraiiofthesand- wit or intrigue. The Trail of the 
Hill stag." "wild Am- Sandhill Stag, and Wild Animals I 

jnals 1 Have Known." jj Known strike a new note _ fresh, 

E. Seton Thompson. 

scribner. natural and delightfully simple. The 

wonderful popular success of Black Beauty showed that the 
story of an animal, if told with sympathy, is not without 
human interest. Mr. Thompson has the sympathy, com- 
bined with great skill in narration. 

The stories while possessing intrinsic interest are par- 
ables of that most vital principle, "he prayeth best who 
loveth best all things both great and small." Lobo, the 
King of Corrumpaw, Silverspot, The Springfield Fox, and 
The Trail of the Sandhill Stag, are little classics of sym- 
pathy and simplicity. 


Maurice Hewlitt is another contemporary writer who 
constitutes a class by himself. "The Forest Lovers" com- 
pelled attention for its luxurious style, a daring innovation 
"Little Novels on the author's part to adapt some of the 
i«t tSl M»c«fi" beaut i es of Euphuism to a literature that has 
ia» & Co. lost most of its warmth and assonance. He 

was successful to a marked degree and continues his suc- 
cess in his latest production, Little Novels of Italy. These 
stories are pictures of Italian low life with no intricacy of 
plot, but full of feeling, with a dramatic climax always, 
and very picturesque backgrounds of word-painting. 

Library Notes 107 

Newspaper readers will not be unfamiliar either with 
the circumstances of composition or the contents of Great 
Books as Life Teachers. It is made up of the much-discuss- 

"Great Books as e< ^ literary lectures delivered by Dr. Hill- 
Life Teachers." is at the Plymouth Church during the 
N.D.eiiiis. «•*•«• p as t year. 

The title of the book shows its motive; such books as 
Tennyson's "Idylls of the King-," Browning's "Saul," Rus- 
kin's "Seven Lamps of Architecture" and Hawthorne's 
"Scarlet Letter" furnish the texts. At the time of the 
delivery of the lectures, Dr. Hillis was severely criticised 
for seeking illustrations of moral law outside the Holy 
Writ, but he looks on the authors of these masterpieces as 
the prophets of a new era and therefore regards the church 
as a most fitting place to have them teach, possibly with 
the idea that the great Teacher taught by parable and that 
whether the auspices be strictly orthodox or not, the story 
is the old, old story still. 

The style of the book naturally is oratorical, and though 
ornate at times, is very forceful. 

The author is not a critic. "Leaving to others the prob- 
lem of literary criticism, these studies emphasize the impor- 
tance of right thinking in order to right conduct and char- 
acter and the use of great books as incentives to the high- 
er life." He is a teacher and moralizer. There is a point 
to be made — that retribution will follow sin, that consci- 
ence should be very tenderly cared for, that a high ideal is a 
necessity, that it is easy to keep going wrong. One balks 
at the familiar medicine but the pleasant coating of Dr. 
Hillis makes the dose easy to take. He is more of a popu- 
larizer, however, than a teacher and less of a moralizer 
than a guide-post to a moral. Both of which functions are 
valuable since the books that he writes of are not the books 
of the crowd, and in them the moral is not spelled out: haec 
fabula docet. 

The book will have an extensive sale and perform a real 
service for that large class who prefer their lessons dia- 

108 University Magazine 

If the necessary elements in a successful novel are a good 

plot and good characters, supplemented by such side lights 

of graphic description and comment as shall aid in the pre- 

"The children of the se ntation of a well-rounded whole, 

Mist." EdenPhillpotts. m ■»«■•■, , 

Hew York and London. The Children of the Mist may be 
g. p. Putnam's sons. judged by this criterion. Consider- 
ed in this light, the book is and is not a success. There 
can be no doubt that the story, as such, interests in the 
long run by its closeness to nature and its true and often 
appealing portrayal of human passions; and yet, from 
chapter to chapter, the reader feels but little sustained in- 
terest, he has but trifling anxiety as to the final outcome, 
and his brain is taxed by a strange dialect. The charac- 
ters, too, by their strength and clearness of outline, bring 
us in touch with people of sturdy sinew and resolute fibre; 
but aside from human qualities of simple unaffected man- 
hood and womanhood, tempered by the hardships of a life 
worked out in fog and rain from unproductive soil, and 
lightened only by occasional good-cheer, too often soured 
by rankling of soul, there is but little to attract and noth- 
ing to delight or charm The settings for story and char- 
acters, afforded by the highly colored and elaborated pic- 
tures of English scenery need special mention. Often gen- 
uinely artistic, always forcible and pointed, never strained 
or overdone, they produce an atmosphere, redolent like the 
mists themselves, with the odor of the soil. But when the 
atmosphere is overladen, it sickens, and the descriptions, 
when long drawn out, weary rather than impress. 

In general, the novel has a ring that is genuine, whole- 
some and pure: while dealing with human struggles 
against passion and weakness, it gives no encouragement 
to vice, for of vice there is none, although folly, impru- 
dence, and ungoverned temper are the motives of the book. 

* * 

This, Mr. Howells' latest novel is another addition to 
modern realistic literature, such as we should naturally ex- 

Library Notes 109 

pect from its author. The style of it is terse, possessed of 
"Raaged Lady." w«. Dea» simple elegance, and clear; just 
Harper S a»d e Brot°Hers. the kind best suited to the realist. 

Narration is used throughout with here and there a short 
description or more often merely a descriptive phrase. 
Conversation holds a prominent place; and by means of it 
we are given a clear insight into the workings of the prin- 
cipal characters' minds. 

Clementina, the chief one, is the daughter of a New 
England peasant, and has inherited that simple old-time 
Puritan character, which Howells is so fond of depicting. 
By the kindness or rather selfishness of Mrs. Lander, an 
uncultivated rich invalid, she is allowed to accompany the 
latter in her ceaseless ramblings from one hotel to another, 
first in America and then in Italy. In Florence she sees 
something of society life at the house of Miss Milray. 

At this stage fortune seems to have smiled upon her 
bountifully in the guise of an inheritance left her by Mrs. 
Lander; this supposed inheritance turns out to be only a 
will-'o-the-wisp and she is left almost penniless; in all these 
experiences her simplicity of character is unharmed and 
her devotion to what she conceives to be her duty is un- 
broken. Her retention of these noble qualities compen- 
sates for the loss of her supposed riches, and we close the 
book satisfied with the result. 

The lover of modern realistic fiction will find a perusal 
of this book both pleasant and profitable. 


J. W. GKEENING, Editor. 

The expressed purpose of the college magazine is to en- 
courage literary work in the college and to this end contri- 
butions from all the students are earnestly solicited. If 
this is true, then why do so many of our exchanges give 
half or more of their space to editorials and college notes 
and nonsense? Is it because the students can not or will 
not contribute? If students have nothing to write, then 
there can be no excuse for the existence of the magazine. 
To approach the ideal stated above, we must have a month- 
ly consisting of a maximum of literary, and a minimum of 
editorial and other matter. Of course there is a place for a 
certain amount of editorial within the scope of the maga- 
zine, but there ought not to be a place for pages on inter- 
national current events. If there are criticisms to be made, 
make them and quit; it is no part of the exchange editor's 
business to say something about every exchange on his 
table. Students and Alumni always wish important col- 
lege events printed which are not generally known; but 
those notes which are usually inserted have already been in 
print in other periodicals, or are unimportant. How sense- 
less are pages like this in a magazine published to promote 
a literary spirit. "Rats!" "Hello!" "66." "Miss Jack- 
son, '02, mashed her thumb on the 6th ult. So sorry!" 
And so on, ad infinitum. In this connection we might state 
that of the magazines on our table, those freest from fault 
are the Harvard Monthly, University of Virginia Maga- 
zine, and Trinity Archive'. They may be taken as mod- 

We wish that every student would read the article enti- 
tled "Business Principles in Study," found in the Novem- 
ber issue of the Southwestern Presbytei'ian University Jour- 
nal. It is well worth a careful reading. 

Exchanges 111 

Such is the demand for poetry that in the absence of the 
genuine article there is a danger of putting in any kind of 
metrical trash. This is much worse than no poetry. Any- 
one who has heard how slowly England's sun was setting 
will understand the lines below taken from the Converse 

The sun was slowly setting, 

And there fell o'er all the way, 
The calm, thoughtful silence 
Of another closing day. 
Another stanza shows that the writer must have had 
visions similar to those of J. Gordon Coogler, — 
I looked away into the distance, 
The way was perfectly clear, 
I was sure to travel it safely; 
I knew there was nothing to fear. 
In the same issue we find three pages of "Reveries" from 
which we gather a passing thought: 

And giant drifts of snow-clouds 
With rarest, faintest blush, 
Reflected from the glowing red 
And colored soft, half tinted 
Like rainbows seen through tears, 
And distant shoals of burning gold 
Seem kissing purple seas; 
And witching nature's brightest smiles 

Intoxicate, bewilder 
My fond, adoring eyes. 


A. J. BARWICK Editors H. E. D. WILSON 

Mr. R. H. Lewis, '98, of Raleigh, visited his brothers, 
K. P. Lewis, '00, and I. P. Lewis, '02, a short while 

Dr. Alderman lectured October 1, in the Y. M. C. A. 
Auditorium of Charlotte, on "Jerusalem and Cairo." 

Dr. Hume delivered a lecture in Gerrard Hall on the 16 
of November. The subject was, "The Bible in Relation to 
a Liberal Education." A large and attentive audience was 

Dr. Hunter McGuire delivered his famous lecture on 
"Personal Recolections of Stonewall Jackson," in Gerrard 
Hall, November 24. 

The seventh of the series of lectures to the students was 
delivered by Dr. Alderman on December 7. Subject, "The 
Southern Boy and His Opportunity." 

Unusual interest has been manifested in the class games 
this season. The Freshmen have been especially plucky 
and they are to be congratulated for the banner they have 

The News and Observer of November 18, contained the 
translation, by Miss Moses, from the Spanish original, of an 
open letter written by a Cuban criticising Admiral Dewey 
for slurs on the Cubans. Miss Moses has paid special at- 
tention to the Spanish language during both of her years in 
the University. 

The University Forum has been organized with Mr. E. 
K. Graham, President, Mr. W. Frank Bryan, Vice Presi- 
dent and Mr. J. Ed. Latta, Secretary. The first meeting 
was held on November 22. 

Dr. Hume, of our English Department, delivered a lecture 

College Record 113 

before St. Mary's School in Raleigh, Dec. 2. On the 5, he 
addressed^ an appreciative audience at Davidson College. 

The query proposed by Vanderbilt University for the first 
of the annual debates between Carolina and Tenn,, is as fol- 
lows : "Resolved that the United States should not maintain 
permanent posession of the Philippine Islands." 

Dr. Alderman spent the second week of November in 
Washington, D. C, where the Committee for the estab- 
lishment of a National University met. Dr. Wilson, Pres- 
ident of Washington and Lee University, and Dr. Alderman 
are the only Southern representatives on the Committee. 

The query to be debated by the University of North 
Carolina and the University of Georgia, will be the follow- 
ing : ' 'Resolved that the English system of government 
answers better to the needs of a free and self-governing 
people than does that of the United States." 

On November 2, Dr. Venable delivered a lecture at Eliza- 
beth College, on "Justus Von Leibig, a Hero in Science". 
He also delivered one on the following Saturday night be- 
fore the students of Davidson College, subject : "Influence 
of Science on Modern Life." 

President Alderman has been invited to make one of the 
public lectures before the National Educational Association, 
which meets at the Auditorium in Chicago on February 26, 
27 and 28. 

Dr. Alderman has also been invited by President Harper 
of the University of Chicago to spend six weeks in Chicago 
next summer doing regular work as a Professor in the 
Chicago University. 


The first Semi- Annual Debate between the Societies was 
held on November 29. The contestants were Messrs. 
J. E. Avent, '01, and D. P. Stern, '02, of the Phi : and 
Messrs. W. A. Murphey, '01, and R. R.Williams, '00, of the 

114 University Magazine 

The query was, "Resolved, that the so-called trusts and 
combinations are injurious and should be prohibited." The 
committee, composed of Dr. Battle, Judge McRae and Pro- 
fessor Noble, decided that the Phi, which upheld the affir- 
mative, had won. Both sides had made good preparation 
and they deserve credit for their excellent speeches. 

Speakers for the Washington Birthday Exercises have 
been chosen and are Messrs. G. N. Coffey, '00, Di and J. Ed. 
Latta, '99, Phi. 

Also the Annual Inter-Society debaters have been elected 
and are Messrs. A. J. Barwick, '00, and J. C. Hobbs, '01, 
Phi ; and Messrs. A. R. Berkeley, '00, and H. h. Rankin., 
'01, Di. 


The second meeting of the Shakespeare Club was held 
Nov. 9. Dr. Hume presided and opened the meeting with a 
few remarks on lyrical forms in English drama, which were 
entertaining and instructive. Mr. G. V. Cowper gave a 
paper on "The Rhetorical and Literary Devices in Richard 
III." Messrs. W. S. Bernard and Whitehead Kluttz dis- 
cussed the authorship of Richard III, the former opposing 
and the latter upholding the Shakespearean authorship. A 
short story, read by Mr. McKie, closed the meeting. 


The last meeting of the Society was a very interesting 
one and was well worth attending. Professor Collier Cobb 
read a paper in which he told of his summer in the West. 
His subject was, "The Union Pacific Expedition to the 
Fossil Fields of Wyoming." Professor Gore then talked 
on "Polaris — A Triple Star." Such a subject would natur- 
ally excite interest at a time like that, when everybody was 
watching the heavens. A large audience attended, and all 
went away feeling that they had spent a profitable and 
enjoyable evening. 

College Record 115 

Whereas God, the Allwise Father hath, in one of those 
mysterious workings of his Providence, which we cannot 
understand, removed from our midst our beloved friend and 
fellow-member, John Howard Alexander, therefore be it 
resolved : 

I. That while submitting- in all humiliation to the divine 
will, we, the members of the Dialectic Society, cannot but 
feel most deeply the loss we have sustained in his death. 

II. That in his untimely death this Society has lost an 
earnest and faithful member and one whose future was 
bright with promise. 

III. That we extend our sincerest sympathy to the 
family so sadly bereaved. 

IV. That these resolutions be spread on the minutes of 
the Society, and copies be sent to the Tar Heel and Maga- 

R. S. Hutchinson, \ 

W. Kluttz, >- Committee. 

C. R. McIver. ) 



Last year this department inaugurated the plan of giving 
in each issue of the Magazine the roll of the alumni in the 
larger towns of the State, together with their occupations. 
As this plan meets the approval of the present editors, it 
will be continued and this issue devoted to the town of Sal- 
isbury. . The following is the roll of the living Salisbury 

J. A. Caldwell, A.B. '50, retired physician. 

J. A. McConnaughey, '54, mercantile business. 

Kerr Craige, '61, lawyer. 

S F. Lord, '64, mayor of Salisbury. 

J. S. Henderson, A.B. '65, attorney-at-law. 

E. R. Overman, '77, cotton buyer. 

J. D. Heilig, '77, member of the firm Brown Clothing 

W. S. Blackmer, '78, clothing merchant, 

H. J. Overman, '82, attorney-at-law. 

T. C. McNeely, '84, supt. railroad construction. 

Jno. M. Beall, '84, district passenger agent for Southern 
Ry. at San Francisco, Cal. 

W. H. White, '84, teller in First National Bank. 

A. H. Caldwell, '89, head book-keeper for Union Copper 
Mining Company, Gold Hill, N. C. 

W. W. McKenzie, '91, practicing physician. 

A. S. Heilig, '91, lawyer and dealer in real estate. 

John M. Julian, '92, member of the city school board, 

J. F. Gaither, S.B. '93, supt. Salisbury rolling mill. 

J. L. Rendleman, Law '94, attorney-at-law. 

Walter Murphy, Law '94, reading-clerk of State Senate. 

W. H. Crawford, '94, insurance agent. 

Alumniana H7 

K. B. McKenzie, '94, yard-master for Southern Ry. 

G. A. Bingham, Jr., '95, head-clerk in Salisbury post of- 

E. C. Gregory, A.B. '95, member of law firm of Overman 
and Gregory. 

W. C. Kluttz, S.B. '95, medical student at University of 

A. H. Price, '96, local counsel for Southern Railway. 
W. H. Woodson, S.B. '96, attorney. 

P. A. Heilig, '97, jewelry business. 

H. G. Heilig, '97, practicing physician Baltimore, Md. 

Burton Craige, A. B. '97, professor in Horner School. 

T. F. Kluttz, Jr., Law '98, attorney at law. 

J. H. Sloan, '98, laundry business. 

I. H. Foust, Med. '98, physician. 

J. H. Vanderford, Jr., '98, attorney at law. 

C. W. Woodson, '98, student at Columbia College, N. Y. 

J. A. Caldwell, Jr., S.B. '99, medical student at the Uni- 

W. L. Kluttz, Jr., A. B. '99, student at Columbia. 

E. H. Woodson, A. B. '99, clerk in office of Register of 

B. B. Miller, Law, '99, attorney. 


James T. Pugh, '93, second year Law student at Harvard, 
has been chosen business manager of the Harvard. 

Prof. James Lee Love, '89, who has been teaching math- 
ematics at Harvard for several years, has been appointed by 
the President and Fellows of that institution, Secretary of 
the Lawrence Scientific School, beginning January 1, 1900. 
This appointment also includes the secretaryship of the 
Harvard Summer School. 


On the 29 of November, Mr. W. A. Devin, '93, of Oxford, 

118 University Magaztne 

was married to Miss Virginia Bernard, of Geensboro. 

W. F. Harding-, '94, a rising young lawyer of Greenville, 
N. C. , was married to Miss Lillian Long, teacher of English 
at the Greensboro Female College, Dec. 21. 

John Sprunt Hill, a New York lawyer, was married to 
Miss Annie Louise Watts, daughter of George W. Watts of 
Durham, on the 20th of November. 

Dr. E. T. Bynum, who was a University student and for 
a year Professor of History and Political Economy here, but 
is now a Professor in the University of Arkansas, was re- 
cently married. 


Col. Cadwallader Jones, '32, who was the oldest living 
graduate of the University, died at Columbia, S. C, Dec. 
1, aged 89. He was a colonel in the confederate army and 
was at one time a prominent politician. Two of his sons 
were colonels in the recent war with Spain. In the early 
70's Col. Jones lived for a time in Charlotte and was an 
editorial writer on the Charlotte Observer. 




Old senes, vol. m. no. mhhr, 1900. New series, vol. xvii. 




THESE stories are true. Although I have left the 
strict line of historical truth in many places, the 
animals of which I write are all real characters. But I 
have written upon the principle that if I have a true basis for 
a story, I ought not to be so foolish as to spoil my chance of 
telling a good tale by being too scrupulous in regard to 

I believe that history has lost much by the vague general 
statement that is so common. What satisfaction would be 
derived from a six page sketch showing how a certain type 
of life is the result of the conserving and disintegrating 
forces of the traditionalist and the radical or showing that 
something else "is the concretized essence of past ideals." 
The real personality of the individual and his view of life 
are my theme, rather than the habit of mind of the race in 
general, as reviewed by a philosophic eye. 

The true stories of "Pussy," "Bo-Kitty," and "Rooster," 
with all that is tragic and comic in their lives show, that 
we and the beasts are kin and how, in the simple narration 
of diverse animal characteristics, we obtain a story that is 
most human in style and incident. 

120 University Magazine 


The blazing sun was pouring- down its rays of liquid 
heat upon the main street of Goldsboro. The 
railroad track which is laid on this street seemed on 
the point of bursting- into flames. It was a hot day in the 
early part of September 1896. 

A train pulled into the station and stood there puffing 
and steaming while the conductor with quickened breath 
called, "All aboard." With a sigh of relief the engineer 
pulled the throttle, and the engine began to move out. 

Only one passenger had boarded the train. After the 
train had begun to move we saw him, a lank, lean, half- 
starved cat, leave the hotel and leap upon the rear platform. 
He quietly stole into the car and without attracting atten- 
tion made himself comfortable in the first vacant seat. 
This was the first time I ever saw "Pussy." I surmised at 
once that he, worn out by the maddening whirl of his home, 
this great metropolis and emporium, had decided on a 
peaceful life in some quiet town. 

Three days after reaching Chapel Hill, as I walked into 
the South Building I saw an excited crowd of Sophomores 
chasing a cat, and on looking a second time I recognized 
"Pussy." He madly dashed up the stairs, a flight at a 
time, no doubt in the vain endeavor to reach the loft or, 
perhaps, even the ridge pole of the building where he 
would be out of reach of his ^pursuers. But he could get 
no further than the third floor where the heart of a gen- 
erous and sympathetic upper classman was moved to pity, 
and "Pussy" found a safe refuge and home in Room No. 26. 
D But ' 'Pussy's" career was not to be a quiet one. Although 
of a studious and pensive disposition, he would often be 
drawn out of his room by persuasive influence and brought 
into the mass meetings of the students. Here he was 
rudely treated and cries of "Scat," "Sks-s-s," "Me-ow," 
"Me-ow" would almost drive him wild. 

But "Pussy's" temper was not vindictive, and during the 
whole time that I have known him, I have never seen him 

College Characters 121 

attempt to inflict upon others the wrongs which he suffered 
at the hands of upper classmen. 

The brilliancy of "Pussy's" mind has been above the 
average and his scholarly attaiments have only been ex- 
ceeded by his political intrigues. Who would think of a cat 
having a gift for politics! We must pass over his cam- 
paign of '98-'99 as it was far surpassed in brilliancy by that 
of '99-'00. 

As the "Moon" rose and set on the last night of Com- 
mencement week in 1900, our "Pussy" set her eyes to- 
ward a brighter star that still remained above the horizon. 
Summer came and he set out on a wild tramp through the 
mountains. As he followed the rough mountain road and 
climbed higher and higher toward the sky, he was con- 
stantly revolving in his mind schemes for a great victory 
in the fall. Around him towered the massive peaks of the 
Blue Ridge, but unmindful of these "Pussy" was saying 
to himself, "Presidency"- "Class officers"- "yes the — Frat. 
will want two subs." Sometimes a troublesome cur from 
a farm house would rush at him and he would skuttle up a 
tree and sit there purring softly to himself. ' 'Two subs"-I 
believe Jones will carry his crowd for one sub." 

In October I found him at midnight perched upon an 
old bench that stood by the college well. As I paused I 
stroked his head and he uttered a confidential purr, as 
much as to say, "Where do you stand?" In fact if you 
knew the cat language as I do you would know what he 

And still our "Pussy is scheming. As I sit writing now 
I hear him on the Campus. Through my window I can see 
him dashing wildly about and now towards my door with 
a "Me-ow." — "Me-ow" which means, "Wont you give your 
influence for my candidate for two subs?" 

Soon the thing will be through with, "and then," he 
says, "I wash my hands of the whole affair." Poor "Pussy!" 

122 University Magazine 

"rooster," one of the cocks oe the walk. 

HOW many of us really know anything about chickens? 
Of course we have met with them in more than one 
place. We have seen them under the knife in the Biol- 
ogical Laboratory, in the stores confined in narrow cages, on 
the boarding-house table served in every variety of mutila- 
tion, etc., etc. But who of us has ever studied the every 
day life of this common domestic fowl? Can we not find 
one from among this class whose habits we can study and 
whose career has been one of signal importance among his 

Among the bovine species we have found more than one 
"Bull" and prominent among these he who in his stall in 
the New East would answer with angry bellowings to his 
mates who stood without demanding in anxious and rest- 
less tones "What's the matter with Bull?" 

No common "Monk" was he who with "Joe" used to 
steal around the campus at night, following "Bear" and 
"Hopsie" in their terrorizing visits to the new arrivals in 
their otherwise peaceful home. Before him the bravest of 
the new comers fled, knowing that he heaped upon them in- 
dignities under the powerful and protecting arm of "Bear." 
And how terrible was the great "Bear" himself until 
Thanksgiving Day 1898, when he at the head of his follow- 
ers folded his flag and marched from the field acknowledg- 
ing that strength had been overcome by skill. Such also, 
notable among his mates, was "Rooster", whose history, 
as far as I know it, I shall briefly tell. 

In Sept. '95 he first appeared on the campus. Unlike the 
plucky little Bantam, who in the strangest and most dan- 
gerous situations struts most proudly, our Shanghai with 
his slow and swaggering gait strolled out, first having hid 
for several weeks in his coop and concealed himself in the 
green of the Campus and Battle's Park. Then he became 
so bold as to show himself near the college well. ' 'Chick 
I" and "Chick II" gladly welcomed the new addition to the 

College Characters 123 

On the date of the Fresh election and on February 22 
his political characteristics began to be developed. Why 
should he not be a leader? was the thought that crossed his 
mind. However, rough treatment ruffled and tore his fine 
feathers and he was glad when the moulting season had 
come and gone and he had become a full-fledged Soph. 
Ah, how proudly he strutted about! For two years a ter- 
ror to the neophytes in the school of experience through 
which he had just gone! But his course had not been even 
and smooth all the way and in his fourth year there stood 
before him what seemed to be an almost insurmountable 
difficulty. He had always been conversant with the crow 
and cackle, the ordinary and every day language of his 
associates, but his desire for special distinction had led him 
into classic fields. For a year he led a straight and suc- 
cessful course but in the second he lost his way, and it was 
only by following a pony and the coercive influence of 
some of his keepers that he was able to reach the ultimate 
goal of his ambitions Commencement Day '99. 

This date of each year generally closes the history of my 
animals but as I pass from my room across the campus I 
still see the "Rooster," strutting about, His ambition has 
not been quenched and since his political schemes failed to 
obtain under the fateful light of the "Moon" he has fixed 
his eye on a judgeship and some day may prove the great- 
est of cocks. 

Note — It is a matter of regret that our author had not data 
at hand to continue his sketches. The delicate and sympathetic 
spirit he displays in delineating character as revealed in these hith- 
erto little understood orders of creation highly qualifies him for 
such unique work. Our Menagerie is quite well stocked. "Shrimp," 
"Bear," "Bull," "Bro Rabbit," and departed this life, "Monk," 
"Mink," "The Goblers" and "Bo Kitty", of the sweet influence of 
these we would know and read. — Ed. 



NO one had ever been able to explain satisfactorily why 
the State University had been built at Loveland. It 
was founded shortly after the close of the Revolu- 
tionary War and had grown to have some five hundred stu- 
dents just before the Civil War. When railroads were pro- 
jected and built through the State the influence of the Uni- 
versity authorities had prevented the extension of the lines 
to the village, so there was a great detour which left it 
twelve miles from the nearest station. 

There was a tradition among the students that when the 
committee appointed by the Legislature, after wandering 
in the forests for many weary days, came finally to a cer- 
tain spring where there was much pleasant shade and a 
goodly supply of mint withal, they declared they would go 
no further. They had been led by an Allwise Providence 
to this favored spot, and it would be criminal folly to search 
the forests for a better place, or indeed one so good. So, 
like Sturmi, they returned to their Saint Boniface and re- 
ported that they had found the spot, and must have work- 
men to fell the timber and make things ready for another 
Fulda. This was merely a tradition, perhaps not so true 
as the beautiful story of the founding of the real Fulda, 
but it served the purpose equally as well. 

The historian of the University rejects this legend as 
apochryphal, but as he could not have been there and was, 
besides, a notoriously poor judge of mint, his opinion has 
not carried much weight on the Campus. The true anti- 
quarian spirit inclines one to consider every minute detail 
that may affect the subject in hand. 

Doubtless the selection of Loveland, as the sight of the 
University, when there was nothing but forest for miles 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 125 

around, was inspired by all the wisdom that characterized 
the men of an hundred years ago. Far be it from us to ut- 
ter a single discordant note in the songs of praise that are 
wafted heavenwards on the annual return of Founders' Day, 
when the russet and gold and crimson of the great oaks 
proclaim the advent of autumn. 

" Dear University, thy sons right royally 
Thy praises sing." 

Though we sit by the waters of Babylon our hearts go 
out to Zion, and Loveland is — Loveland. The oaks, and 
the Campus, and the Old South, and all the tender memo- 
ries that sanctify home to the wanderer, rise up and criti- 
cism falls dead. 

There were great men in the early days and in that re- 
mote village, dedicated to learning 1 . Men who built one of 
the first astronomical observatories in the country ; who or- 
ganized and conducted the first geological survey in the 
Union ; who planned the construction of a great line of 
railway from the coast to the mountains, which was fifty 
years in building ; who organized schools, wrote text-books, 
stimulated all possible ambitions toward learning and good 
citizenship, and who feared not the face of man. Some of 
them had travelled widely, both in this country and abroad, 
and returned to that quiet haven as from some tiresome 
Vanity Fair. They had seen what was beyond and were 
content to come back to a handful of students in a hamlet. 

It has taken many years to eradicate the belief that the 
monastic principle is the correct one for the conduct of 
schools of learning. It is a legacy we have received from 
medieval days and has been drawing interest a long time. 

Loveland was a monastery, but would have scorned the 
suggestion. It was almost as completely cut off from the 
imperious currents of life as was Fulda a thousand years 
ago and that the professors kept abreast of the times at all 
was proof of their persistent vitality. The salaries were mea- 
gre and it was a long and tiresome journey to Philadelphia, 
New York and Boston. It was not until 1839 that the first 

126 University Magazine 

sleeping-cars were run on any railroad within reach, and 
those who, having abundant leisure, embarked upon them 
and commended their souls to God. Otherwise, travellers 
preferred to go by private conveyance. One arrived at his 
destination more speedily, and, too, was not harassed by 
fears of a rail working loose from the stringers and pene- 
trating the car, impaling every one in its course of destruc- 

All these considerations kept the Lovelanders at home, 
and there was gradually evolved a social and ethical condi- 
tion whose charm has outlasted the vexing years. The 
Loveland that is will never be loved as the Loveland that 
was. The modern Loveland is more progessive, more alive 
to what is going on, more active and better advertised ! 
Oh, Yes. It is all of these and has a base-ball and foot- 
ball team and a regular trainer therefor, and a college yell 
and no end of Greek letter fraternities and everything else 
that makes a University great and prosperous. But the old 
Loveland is gone and the very memories of the strong men 
who made it are on the wane. Only the oaks and the grass 
and the flowers remain to speak silently to the heart and 
make the tears spring from their hidden depths. We praise 
the noble deeds of those who have brought it from the dust 
into the light and glory of these our days, but we linger, 
fondly and sadly, over the vanished years and the vanished 
faces, wondering if we shall be found worthy to join that 
immortal throng in the great beyond. 

The village itself was a straggling sort of a place, with 
enough space about each house to make a respectable farm. 
It had grown up on one side of the University buildings 
and the perverseness of humanity was well illustrated by 
the fact that it was at the rear of one of the first erections, 
and that the beautiful campus did not come to the street 
except for about one hundred yards, although it had a 
frontage of fifty acres. The village -had limped along 
where it was neither expected nor wanted, but it was there 
and showed every inclination to remain. So, after some 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 127 

manoeuvering for position, the inevitable was accepted and 
peace declared. 

There was nothing in Loveland to attract teachers except 
the laws of teaching-, and nothing to attract students except 
good instruction. There were no athletic associations, no 
theatres, no saloons, no base-ball, no golf or polo or row- 
ing ; there was nothing of the modern University except 
sound scholarship and faithful teaching. It was a very old- 
fashioned place, as far back in the minds of the very 
young (and therefore the very wise) as the school of Duns 
Scotus. Why it should have flourished as it did and why 
it should have attracted students from ten or fifteen states 
is inexplicable to some of the present day. Yet so it was 
and there may be some food for reflection in the fact. 

But the old glory had vanished amidst the clouds of an 
evil War and a worse Reconstruction before John Lucas 
knew it, and the newer glories, shared between the profes- 
sors and the foot-ball and base-ball teams (with the latter 
somewhat in the lead) had not yet dawned. He was at the 
University during the transition stage when the reflection 
of what had been was tempered with doubts as to what 
would be. After the close of the Civil War the University 
struggled along for three heart-breaking years and then 
went down to what was hoped would be a decent burial. 

The new order of things had come, and the New Gospel 
was proclaimed. Hereafter everybody was to be as good 
as everybody else and a little bit better. The old professors 
were not suited to the emergencies that had arisen, so they 
went out, and ignorance and malice came in to an almost 
empty feast. The mockery was continued until the neces- 
sity of having at least corn-bread and bacon on the table 
forced the closing of the doors of the University. The 
former patrons refused to have anything to do with it while 
it was controlled by those whose sole claim for recognition 
lay in the possession of unlimited self-confidence and the 
reconstruction label. A story is told of one of the old col- 
lege servants, a respectable and respected negro, that he 

128 University Magazine 

was standing on the street one evening watching the new 
students come in, as had been the time-honored custom. In 
former days they came in carriages, hacks, the old stage- 
coach, and some in their own conveyances, and their arrival 
was equaled only by their departure after Commencement 
Day. The old janitor was standing at the hotel steps, re- 
garding the new arrivals, critical, observant, and diplo- 
matic. There was a notable difference in the character of 
the new students and one not altogether to his liking. But 
he held his tongue until finally there appeared a candidate 
for matriculation who had walked over from the railway 
station, and was bare-foot, with a bundle on a stick over 
his shoulder. This was too much for the old man and he 
took himself off, muttering: " Ise been yer at dis yer Col- 
lege gwine on forty years, and I aint never seen no sech 
sight as dis and I aint agwineterhave nut 'n to do wid no 
sech white trash. Dey moutabin some high ca'in on yer in 
de ole das, I aint a 'sputin dat, but Gawd knows I aint 
never seen no student come up de rode in his bar fut wid his 
close in a bun'le. I do' no what we's comin to. Nex thing 
dey'll be some sassy buck nigger comin up yer, and den I'll 
hatter tawk to dat nigger. I most shorely will." 

When the University was reorganized, Dr. Lucas came 
back to his old chair and John took up his student's life there. 
What he found did not give him a very high opinion of the 
possibilities. None of the professors had ever taught to- 
gether, and they had not the unity of purpose upon which 
so much depends. There were some first rate men, one or 
two of indifferent qualifications, and one or two who had 
mistaken the call to teach. 

No matter what the qualifications may be as to informa- 
tion, teaching should be forbidden to those who cannot 
command, by the uprightness and sincerity of their lives, 
the confidence and respect of their pupils. It is a point too 
often obscured, but is of more vital importance than either 
the possession of knowledge or the ability to impart it. 
The unconscious moulding of character that goes on at col- 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 129 

lege flerives its chiefest impress from the professor. A 
teacher is not to be a mere automaton, presiding- over so 
many square feet of black-boards and dealing - out marks of 
scholarship with the precision of a cash-register. He is to 
be a living force, and read of all men, a standard-bearer of 
the highest ideal of purity of life and correct thinking. 
Modern teaching is a heartless sort of thing, so many hours 
a day for so much money. The life has gone out it ; it 
is machine-made. 

We seem to have come to a period of the world's history 
when the intelligence of men is directed towards the in- 
vention of machines that will take the place of so many 
other men. If a machine will do the work of two men it 
is tolerable only ; if it will do the work of five men it is a 
good machine ; if it will do the work of an hundred men 
we build a monument to the inventor. It is impossible 
that the craze for machinery should not affect our whole 
national life. A successful machine is nothing but the 
embodiment of highly organized intelligence put into steel 
and iron and made to do a certain thing a thousand times 
a day and do it equally as well each time. It is not that 
it does it better than a man can do it, quite the contrary, 
but it does the same thing a thousand times just as well as 
one time. This is where it overcomes manual labor. No 
man can be at his best all the time ; his intelligence-, his 
creative power, his skill, ebb and flow, and he is now on 
the crest of the wave and now in the trough. But a ma- 
chine works along at the same dead level of uniformity, 
and what it makes today is just what it made last year 
and will make next year. What it makes are interchange- 
able parts of some other machine, and they must all be 
alike or they will not fit. If it is collars, they must all be 
bored to the hundredth part of an inch. If it is cut gear- 
ing the gears must all mesh to a nicety. If it is gun- 
stocks, they must all be grooved and slotted just alike, or 
the barrels that some other machine is making will not fit. 

When a nation is wholly given over to mechanics it is 

130 University Magazine 

inevitable that the same principles should not apply to all 
the affairs of life, very gradually, insensibly, it may be, 
but nevertheless surely. In material thing's we may pros- 
per greatly and the Patent Office may do a roaring busi- 
ness, but in spiritual things we lose individuality in 
acquiring interchangeability. There is a certain high 
plane to which machine made things can not attain, for 
they express mere intelligence ; they can not express that 
superior quality which, for lack of a better word, we term 
spirituality. They stand for the brain, but not for the 
heart ; they have a place in the world but they have no 
place beyond. 

It is, perhaps, the tendency of modern civilization to 
reduce people to a common level, to make them inter- 
changeable. Nature herself is constantly at work tearing 
down the loftiest mountains and sweeping them into the 
sea. The impress of her mighty forces may be stamped 
upon humanity, and in reducing men to a common level 
we may be acting under a tremendous necessity. Why 
should man be exempt from the operations of natural laws? 
They were in existence long before he came upon the 
scene, and will continue their resistless sway long after he 
is gone. He is himself but an exponent of those laws. 
We pursue certain courses of action and think that we are 
free agents working out our own plans, when in fact we 
may be doing what we are obliged to do in order to pre- 
serve the harmony of the universe. Be that as it may, it 
is evident that as we become more highly organized as a 
nation we shall lose the flavor of individuality. Of course 
it is impossible to reduce humanity to a common level, just 
as it is impossible for uature to reduce the mountains all 
to one level. The equilibrium is destroyed and we have 
earthquakes, upheavals and depressions, when all the work 
is to do over again. In America we approach by degrees 
to the common level, we are becoming interchangeable, 
for where else will you find such versatility? In how 
many different ways has your nearest friend made his liv- 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 131 

ing? Is lie not ready to turn his hand to anything-, from 
ploughing - to preaching? The true American believes 
himself to be interchangeable. 

John Lucas was a student when the old ideas as to teach- 
ing- were being supplanted. Perhaps they had served 
*their purpose in the world and it was time for them to go. 
But the result in his case was that he got neither the one 
nor the other. It is easy enough to announce that you in- 
tend to make a spoon or spoil a horn, but in reality you 
may have neither spoon nor horn by the time you have 

The University at Loveland was not modern enough to 
have been machine made— it had traditions, and who ever 
heard of a machine with traditions? By virtue of these 
traditions, when it was re-opened, a few students straggled 
in from various parts of the State, looked each other and 
the professors over with a critical eye and then made up 
their minds to give all possible help to building again the 
waste places. They took stock of the surroundings and 
then rendered that student judgment from which there is 
no appeal. The High Court of the Campus sat and dis- 
cussed the situation, and it was decided that the Univer- 
sity should be revived and that each student at the re-open- 
ing was to be a Committee of the Whole. There were 
sixty-nine then, there are six hundred now, but the Com- 
mittee has never been discharged and is still at work. 

Very few of the students had ever been together before, 
but they adopted the traditions of the place and made 
them their own. The High Court had many sittings in 
those days for it had to regulate many disturbing factors 
and settle many conflicting claims. The classification of 
the students was comparatively easy, but some of the pro- 
fessors gave a great deal of trouble. They would not 
stay classified after a decision had been reached, but were 
constantly showing some new characteristic which defied 
analysis. There had been no previous classes from whose 
infallible opinions one could derive some comfort. Every 
thing was new except the buildings. 

132 University Magazine 

There was one professor in particular who gave a great 
deal more trouble than his importance warranted. He had 
come from a distant state to take charge of a branch of 
learning- which had been added to the curriculum after 
some misgivings. He taught Biology, but as a matter of 
fact was a machine-made interchangeable part of the great* 
American Educational Equalizer. He knew a good deal 
about most of the latter day "ologies," and was prone to 
dilate rather more freely on physiology than the occasion 
demanded. A laudable curiosity as to how we are made 
does not necessarily demand detailed information, outside 
of a medical school. He had a vivid way of describing 
things that are just as well undescribed, and revelled in 
information which paid no tribute to his discretion. He 
was the first specimen of the so-called specialist that had 
been seen in those parts, and for a time was a puzzle to 
the Court. He had a wonderful acquaintance with bugs 
and 'varmints' and pursued them day and night. His par- 
ticular branch of learning was known as Bugology. He 
knew bugs, and they knew him, and they were all very 
happy together. But bugs in the class-rooms and bugs 
outside of the class-rooms are two different things, and the 
failure to appreciate this fact brought the bug man into 
disrepute. The traditions at Loveland did not include 
bugs. For a while he was considered a harmless sort of 
lunatic, and the long names he had at his fingers' ends in- 
vested him with a sort of halo. But after some months he 
began to lose ground, for he had been 'tried in the High 
Court of the Campus and an unfavorable decision sent 
down. He was not allowed to plead before the Court — no 
one is — but the matter was fairly put by Frank Liston as 
follows : 

"Who? Old Bugs? Yes, he knows lots about all kinds 
of bugs, but he will never get along here. Why, just the 
other day I asked him if he knew what ' bug juice ' was 
and he said it was composed of the organic fluids of the 
insectivora, which nourished the vital functions, and that 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 133 

the exact composition of it was not yet known ; probably 
it varied at different times in the same species." 

The case was closed and judgment rendered, the sergeant- 
at-arms being- instructed to acquaint the professor with 
the decision. He accepted the inevitable and took himself 
off, mourned by a large collection of bugs of all sorts and 
ages. But he left behind him the germ of Modern Biol- 
ogy, and it has since developed into rows of microscopes 
and scores of earnest students who see in bugs as much as 
we see in the things that interest us. It is said that if 
you look at a bug in the right way he becomes very com- 
municative and tells you lots of things. 

What Frank lyiston thought and said and did was ac- 
cepted by the younger students as a very close approxima- 
tion to what was right from the standpoint of the Campus. 
He was capable, good-natured, a good base-ball player, a 
very swift runner, a good jumper, and, possessed of a sur- 
passing impudence which endeared him to his companions 
because it never failed him in the class-room, or any where 
else. After he had been in the Sophomore Class several 
months he was called on, one day, by the professor to read 
the Greek before translating it. Liston was asleep at the 
time, but was hastily awakened and told of the order. 
Those who witnessed the scene can still recall it as one of 
the finest examples of impudence, that has ever fallen 
under their observation. With an appearance of the deep- 
est concern he said : 

"I beg your pardon, Professor, but I was so much struck 
with the line of thought you had just suggested that I did 
not hear you call my name. Is there anything I can do 
for you? " 

' ' Yes, Mr. Liston, there is. You may begin where Mr. 
Trainor left off and read the Greek," 

"Yes, Sir. I would do that with pleasure if I knew 
where Mr. Trainor left off, but, as I have just remarked, I 
was oblivious to what was going on. You had started my 
mind off on a train of thought that did not stop for Mr. 
Trainor, and I have no idea where he is now." 

134 University Record 

The patient professor was of the old stock of gentlemen, 
courteous to a fault and forbearing- to a degree that was at 
times angelic. So he replied : 

' ' Mr. Trainor left off where Socrates was explaining the 
uses of the facial features. Begin there, Mr. Liston, and 
read the Greek." 

Liston began, and went on, stumbling, halting and 
making a fearful botch of everything. Finally, the pro- 
fessor, fairly worn out, asked him why he seemed to have 
so much trouble over so simple a matter as pronouncing 
the Greek. 

"Professor, it may seem simple to you, but I will say in 
strict confidence, trusting that it will go no further, that 
in Bertie county, where I studied Greek, it was not consid- 
ered necessary to learn the alphabet, and I do not know 
what these letters mean." Mr. Liston was excused. 

But he did not always come off from such encounters 
quite so easily. The Professor of Civil Engineering had 
a way about him that was proof against Liston's blandish- 
ments. On one occasion a number of young men were at 
the blackboard, Liston among them, and it happened that 
the man next to him had appealed to him for aid and he 
was giving such surreptitious scraps of knowledge as had 
drifted into his mind. Whereupon, the professor, sitting 
humped over in a split-bottomed chair, with his legs far 
apart and his head bent over, as was his custom, looked 
up sharply and said in a deadly quiet way, that cut like a 
knife : 

"Mr. Liston, I beg that while you are in this class-room 
you will endeavor to monopolize your own ignorance." 

With all his foolishness, which was but the outflow of 
good nature and good health, Liston was very far from 
being silly, so he ' sized up ' the situation and was silent 
for once in his life, the only time on record. 



GILES Mebane belonged to a family which had been for 
three generations closely identified with the history of 
North Carolina. Emigrating- originally from the North 
of Ireland, Alexander Mebane settled in Pennsylvania 
whence he removed to Hawfields, in Orange County before 
the Revolutionary War and became the founder of the Meb- 
ane family in this State. Although he had received a com- 
mission as Colonel and an appointment as Justice of the 
Peace under the Royal Government, he did not hesitate to de- 
clare his convictions when the Revolution seemed immi- 
nent and being himself too aged and infirm to fight, he 
sent forth, at the outbreak of hostilities, his six sons to 
battle on the patriot side. 

Of these sons, Alexander became the most prominent, 
serving in the Provisional Congress at Halifax in 1776, in 
the Convention which postponed the adoption of the Con- 
stitution of the United States in 1789, in the State Legisla- 
ture ten years, and in the National House of Representa- 
tives in 1793. His talents were largely transmitted to his 
son, James, who was a member of the General Assembly 
seven terms and Speaker of the House in 1821, in addition 
to other public trusts. James Mebane married Elizabeth, 
only daughter of William Kinchen by whom he had six 
children. Among them was Giles Mebane born on Jan- 
uary 25, 1809 in that part of Orange county which has 
since become Alamance. He received his preparatory edu- 
cation under William Bingham the Elder, whom he assisted 
for a while and then entered the University of North Caro- 
lina, being graduated in 1831. He taught one year as tu- 
tor in the University, read law under Chief Justice Ruffin, 
and soon gained admission to the bar. 

On March 4, 1837, he married Mary C, daughter of Hon. 

136 University Magazine 

Bartlett Yancey. In 1844, the people of his native county 
elected him to the House of Commons and at the two sub- 
sequent elections returned him. In 1848, he introduced the 
bill to create the county of Alamance from Orange and 
gave the names to both the County seats. Its passage 
gained for him considerable local popularity, and when the 
new county sent its first representatives to the State legis- 
lature in 1854, he was among the number as a member of 
the House of Commons, although a Whig and his constit- 
uency was Democratic. In 1860, he was again elected to 
the same office. On December 10, 1860, when the Commit- 
tee of the legislature on Federal Relations made a report 
recommending the call of a State Convention if the people 
should so vote, a minority report signed by Giles Mebane, 
Colonel David Outlaw and Nathan Newby, in which the 
meeting of a convention was opposed as "premature and 
unnecessary," was also presented. 

Mr. Mebane was elected to the Convention of 1861 — bet- 
ter known as ' 'The Secession Convention" — with Ex-Chief 
Justice Thomas Ruffin as his colleague. His sentiments in 
regard to secession may be gathered from his own words; 
' 'Previous to the Convention, I had been opposed to seces- 
sion, but when our neighboring states had decided for it, 
and troops had been called out, and it became manifest 
that our state would be the battlefield of the war. I voted 
to go with them (the neighboring states), and from that 
time, I was as anxious for the success of the Confederacy 
as other citizens of the South." 

In 1862, he was elected to the State Senate and was 
chosen President of that body. He was returned at the 
next election and again became the presiding officer. When 
the Federal Army was in Raleigh, as Chief Officer of the 
' Senate, Mr. Mebane wrote to General Scofield to know 
whether he should convene the Senate to transact business 
for the State, the answer to which was in the negative. 
His constituents elected him to the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1865. In 1879 while Senator from the Twen- 

Giles Mebane 137 

tieth Senatorial District comprising- the Counties of 
Caswell, Person and Orange, he introduced a bill [• to com- 
promise and settle the indebtedness of the State which was 
ratified and did much to restore its credit to a sound basis. 
The legislature elected him a member of the Council of 
State during the administration of Jonathan Worth ..who 
was the last governor to have a council chosen by the 
General Assembly. He served many years as Chairman of 
the County Court of Alamance succeeding Chief Justice 

From the very inception of the University, the Mebane 
family have been closely connected with its development, 
Alexander Mebane Junior, was a member of the Committee 
to select the site for the institution, and his son, James, a 
life-size portrait of whom now hang-s in the hall of the 
Dialectic Society over the President's chair, was founder of 
that Society and its first President. Giles Mebane was, 
for many years, a Trustee of the institution and after the 
death of Dr. Armand J. DeRosset, its "oldest living 

To the construction of the North Carolina Railroad Mr. 
Mebane gave his ardent support. He was a member of the 
House of Commons in 1848-'9, when the act of incorpora- 
tion passed by the vote of the Speaker, Calvin Graves. 
When the charter stood in imminent danger of being for- 
feited by the failure of the subscriptions on the part of the 
people to make the required amount by the time specified, 
he with a few others came to the rescue and prevented a 
forfeiture, Mr. Mebane subscribing more than he was 
actually worth at that time. After the organization of the 
Company, he served as a director for eighteen years and 
was the contractor for building six miles of the road in 
Orange County. 

In his life both public and private, he was without re- 
proach, the duties devolving upon him were performed 
with such fidelity and discretion as to win for him a lasting 
place in the affections of the people, while an unfailing 

138 University Magazine 

fund of common sense supplemented by the humorous strain 
in his composition added much to his popularity. Pos- 
sessed of intellect and force of character, and by birth, 
training- and character, a gentleman, yet withal pliant, pure 
and practical, Giles Mebane was a typical representative 
of the State's best citizenship. 

No sketch of Mr. Mebane should omit the consideration 
of his christian character. Raised in the strictest Presby- 
terian faith, he was a firm believer in its principles. For 
nearly three score years, he was a communicant and for a 
long period a Ruling Elder in his church. 

In 1865, he removed from Alamance to Caswell County 
near Milton where he died on June* 3, 1899, having 1 passed 
beyond the ninetieth mile post on life's journey. 




ORN'S rosy blush on Spring's unclouded sky, 
And evening's dew when starlight softly gleams, 

Reflect no brighter radiance than thy eye, 
Which e'er with softest, purest lustre beams. 

And o'er that lip so richly, chastely wrought, 

The winning smiles like sunbeams brightly play, 

With melting power and inspiration fraught; 
Like fondest nopes they chase all care away. 

Clear pensive thought and virtue's sacred charm, 
Which on that brow and face so limpid glow, 

Bespeak a soul with rich emotion warm 
And pure as tears that Peri's eyes o'erflow. 

In dreams alone that soft eye falls on me, 
With old-time glance of joyous, fervent love; 

In dreams, alas! those absent smiles I see 

On lips which love's sweet impulse seemed to move. 

Though gloom like darksome night my heart invests, 
Its every wish and impulse turns to thee, 

For thee it beats, and at thy feet it rests; 
Reject it not but let it plead for me. 



THE purpose of this paper is to utter a protest against 
the method that usually obtains of teaching- the so- 
called dead languages and to suggest a method which 
some little experiment from the writer's experience has 
proved more efficacious. For illustration I take Latin be- 
cause it is more generally taught. 

In the first place I am not in sympathy with that most 
pious method of character building upon a foundation of 
Latin roots, though I have nothing to say against Herbart's 
" five formal steps." It were better for such an aim to use 
some more significant subject, either Poetics, Biography, 
the Bible perhaps, though the last may be a bit too old-f ogy 
for even the impartial. It seems equally a waste of energy 
and time on the part both of teacher and pupil to drag the 
latter through the snags and brambles, over the stones and 
ruts of the language for the amount of historical knowledge 
he may or may not acquire from the ' ' original sources. " 
The beauties and elegance of Latin poetry and oratory has 
likewise a most seductive sound, considering the meager- 
ness and barrenness of English literature in that respect. 
For general culture, meaning the profit that comes from 
an understanding of the mind, of the logical expression of 
the thought of a great people, for a better understanding 
of the secret of language in general and the English lan- 
guage in particular, for excellent mental drill, for that the 
bosses of our educational system require it — whichever mo- 
tive you please — Latin may be profitably studied perhaps, 
more profitably taug'ht with a view to dollars. 

But if it must be taught in our Common and High 
Schools, by the toga of Cicero ! let it be taught with a bit of 
common sense. The statute law should deal with the auth- 
ors of certain much used beginner's Latin books. Weknow- 
them all. They and their blind and lazy imitators have caus- 

140 University Magazine 

ed more suffering- and misery than the small-pox. A daily 

recitation in 's Latin Grammar or 's Latin 

Exercise Book will crush the vitality out of many a healthy 
mind and make all other study more than a weariness to the 
flesh. A man rolling a thousand pound rock up a steep hill, 
or better, The Man with the Hoe, does not see the beautiful 
foliage, smell the perfume of the flowers, or hearken to the 
voices of nature. The Man with the Hoe is dead to these. 

Ye educational reformers and theorists may have rele- 
gated to bon-fires the old blue-back Spelling Book (and ye 
did well) , may declaim about Christian education, the lives 
wrecked by improper discipline, and introduce every sani- 
tary and comfortable appliance, but as long as you leave 
the Latin Gradgrinds unslaughtered there will still remain 
a blight upon our educational system and here and there 
cases of mental deformity to testify to it. 

The chief mistake of this type of teaching is that the 
teacher calls into play but one sense of the pupil, employing 
none of his own in the operation. To memorize rules and 
exceptions, to measure out Latin sentences and write Latin 
"Choctaw" by the tape line of these rules is the unvarying 
task assigned the pupil by these text-books, and the unsym- 
pathetic, unthinking teacher leaves the pupil to dig out these 
unprofitable clods, aided by his eye alone. Look it up ; 
search the lexicon ; read the rule ; spell it out. 

What is the result ? How many college graduates have 
you heard say they could read half a page of easy Latin 
without the painful use of a lexicon, or gather the meaning 
of a Latin sentence by ear, or pronounce a word without the 
rising inflection of doubt as to correctness ? The writer re- 
members of last year's graduating class more than one 
man who had taken rank as a Latinist that could not 
read his " sheepskin." Is this their fault ? Many of them 
made high grades in this very study, even won certificates 
in it. 

A similar mehtod results in bad spelling of English 
words. The writer attended an old-fashioned school where 

A Dead Language — Who Killed It? 141 

the last exercise in the afternoon was to line up against the 
wall with fifteen or twenty more victims and spell from dic- 
tation a page of Webster's Common School Dictionary, the 
" head" place of this row being- invariably occupied by the 
best guesser in the class. Consequently he now spells by 
audile memory alone, having no visual memories of words 
to assist him. Words of the same sound he often spells 
the easiest way regardless of meaning, as in the good old 
times of the Kighth Henry. A few days ago he wrote 
bote for a thing that floats on the water and even in this pa- 
per, conceiving only primary sound images, he wrote buty 
for beauty. 

The mind stores memories but slowly and inaccurately 
through one sense only. How much more reasonable the 
method of training in our Graded Schools, by which the 
pupil hears the word pronounced, sees it written on the 
board, connects it, when possible, with the object or sem- 
blence of the object for which it stands, then repeats the 
process himself, thus gaining a mental image compounded 
of sensations through eye, ear, and muscle! 

How does a child learn to talk his mother tongue? Why 
do people of means employ a French nurse or governess 
when they wish their children to learn that language? 

But all the Roman nurses and governesses are dead! 
Yes, but we can approximate the same method. 

Right here I know I am going to fail in exposition, but 
from inexperience and lack of knowledge, not because of 
erroneous principles. 

In the first place, a text book of the simplest nature 
should be written, based on Aesop's Fables or some other 
easy Latin. The exercises and sentences should be thrown 
into the simplest form consistent with idiom. The first 
lessons should not deal with Alphabet, Vowels, Conso- 
nants, Diphthongs, and other preliminary matters usually 
found in the first pages of a beginners' Latin Book, but 
should consist of words and sentence-making; the words 
only such as are easily suggestive of their English equiva- 

142 University Magazine 

lents, e. g. rosa, poeta, gloria, schola, gemma, pecunia, ver- 
hum, mater, mea, longa, grata; with simplest forms of 
verbs esse, laudare, habere, etc. By a careful arrangement 
of the sentences, and recombination of the same words, 
and judicious leading- of the teacher, the pupil will quickly 
learn the significance of the cases, even if he should not as 
yet have learned their names. The declension paradigms 
should not be required (they were best placed in back of 
book) until the pupil has mastered inductively the use and 
significance of the cases. 

Each sentence should be pronounced after the teacher by 
the pupil with his eye on the written words. He should 
then translate it following the Latin order, in the earlier 
exercises made to differ as little as possible from the Eng- 
lish order. 

Then let the teacher orally combine the words into new 
sentences, the pupil translating by ear, then using the 
same vocabulary compose English sentences orally, re- 
quiring the pupil to translate into Latin. But the drill 
should not end here. The pupil should now be required to 
write the sentences on the black board as the teacher reads 
the English, the eye, the ear, the hand furnishing each a 
channel for the acquisition of the ideas. 

Gradually the translation from Latin into English should 
be dispensed with, the intelligent teacher readily perceiv- 
ing when the pupil has grasped the thought conveyed by 
reading, or hearing the Latin words pronounced in sen- 
tences. Further, as the pupil's knowledge of construction 
and his vocabulary^ increases, questions and answers may 
be asked and given in Latin, e. g. Quod pensum est? Pen- 
sum tirtium est. Quo in casu est verbum agricolae? 
Agricolae in casu Genitivo est. In quo constructione est 
Labienum venire? Haec constructio oratio obliqua dicitur, 
etc. Much good work in this line has been done in a little 
book called Bellum Helveticum, an inductive beginners' 
book, but rather difficult and complicated for young child 

A Dead Language — Who Killed It? 143 

The value of such work needs no comment. The teacher, 
if he is earnest and diligent, will find his own reward^in it. 

By the time the second declension is mastered, the Latin 
the pupil has studied will be as much a part of his thought 
as its English equivalents. 

This constant training- of hand, ear, and eye should con- 
tinue, and I believe that until the pupil has learned to 
read a moderately difficult sentence with a flash of the eye, 
he should not be allowed to construe into what is termed 
good English. 

Idiomatic translation is partly a matter of natural talent, 
altogether a matter of English and in so far as it can be 
acquired will come later, when the pupil has learned to 
think in Latin, or rather to think in the same sequence as 
the author he is reading. 

I know that the method I have tried to set forth is not 
new in theory, but I have seen few teachers attempt to put 
it into practice. In fact within the writer's experience 
only one has patiently followed it long enough to test the 

He has followed in detail this method, as an experiment, 
with a class whose average age was twelve, and to him 
the results were surprising. He had studied Latin six 
years, but in reading aloud a Latin sentence for oral trans- 
lation, these six-months pupils would catch the thought 
instantaneously, whereas he would often pause to construe 
in the old, old way. 

As for interest in the work, it was a common complaint 
during that term of the school from the other teachers 
that the pupils of the little Latin class would neither study 
nor think of anything else. 

In simple, the English boy should be led into the Latin 
language, in so far as possible, by the same steps the Ro- 
man boy came to be at home in it. Would Latin then be 
a "dead" language? 



A sketch, of any man's life written by another must be at 
best a thing- which has in it a large element of guessing. 
We can look at a life that is lived, and can recall the 
the deeds done in the flesh by him whom we are discussing, 
but when we look for the motives which prompted the deeds 
and how near right we are in the motives assigned, it is, I 
say, oftimes largely done in the dark. Especially is this 
true in the case of one who is not a contemporary, but who 
has been long time dead, and whom we must judge solely 
by his recorded actions and words, which probably appear to 
to us now in a very different light than would they, had 
we lived in the day of their direct inflence. 

With this idea in mind I hope to select incidents from 
the life of Benton which will help us to see the life and char- 
acter of the man who for thirty years played so prominent 
a part in the government of our country. 

Not to deviate from the usual order of such a sketch, 
we will start with that all important thing in a man's life- 
his birthday. Thomas Hart Benton was born near Hills- 
boro. Orange County, N. C, March 14, 1782, almost fifteen 
years after the birth of his political chief of after life, 

He came of good colonial stock on both sides; his father 
was a member of the North Carolina bar and had attained 
to some note in his chosen profession by reason of both his 
learning and ability. The father died, however, when 
Benton was almost too young to have felt his influence, 
and it was his mother who was his companion and teacher 
during his young life and to whom Benton owed most of 
what was good in his nature. She was a Virginian and, 
unlike some of her contemporaries, was imbued with a 
spirit of obedience in all matters that related to religion 
and morality, which smacked more of Puritanism than 

Thomas H. Benton 145 

was common among - the Southern Colonists. She was her 
son's companion in his studies and pleasures, sympathized 
with him in his boyish triumphs and trials, and gave to 
him the courage to stand up and say what he thought in 
after life and abide by it, even though opposed by his own 
party and friends. 

If you get this close connection between the mother and 
her boy and know the character of the father, it is easy, 
I think, to understand the man. 

As has been suggested, Benton was largely what we call 
a self educated man ; he attended a grammar school, how- 
ever, and also began a course at our own University here in 
Chapel Hill. He remained here only a short time. Some 
say he left here under a cloud and some say nothing about 
it. After he left college, the Bentons moved west and set- 
tled m a town which bore their name, Bentonville, near 
Nashville, Tenn. If you will recall the history of the time, 
you will recollect how Tennessee at this time was a part 
of that region about which not over much was known and 
which stood for a vigorous animal life and was known as 
the West. Benton was a child of this "Young West", as* 
Theodore Roosevelt calls it. 

Above all things he was vigorous and strong. He 
entered eagerly into the life of his new home ; he 
would go to Nashville when the young bucks raced their 
horses, fought their favorite cocks, drank and gambled. 
Benton, however, seems to have adhered closer to the 
straight and narrow way than his companions. He studied 
law and was admitted to the Tennessee bar in 1811. 

It is now that Andrew Jackson, judge of the Supreme 
Court, became the friend and patron of Benton. Notwith- 
standing this fact, in 1813 Benton came into collision with 
Jackson in a general fight, in which Thos. H. and his 
brother, Jesse Benton, were engaged on one side and Jackson, 
Gen. Coffey, a New Orleans duellist, and another friend on 
the other. 

The fight took place at an inn in Nashville with the re- 

146 University Magazine 

stilt that Jackson was shot, Benton was pitched headlong 
downstairs and all the other combatants were more or leas 
damaged. The Bentons are said, however, to have re- 
mained masters or the field, while Jackson was carried off 
by his less seriousty injured friends. Soon after this, 
Benton and Jackson became the warmest personal and 
and political friends. 

Benton's boyhood and youth are past now and he is ready 
to start his public career. And once launched on that, the 
steps are very many and rapid which he takes in gaining 
the confidence of his countrymen. 

I will not attempt to define his stand on the many and im- 
portant political questions coming up. One can get these 
from any history of the Senate, I will only give two or three in- 
cidents which, as I said in the beginning, may serve to sug- 
gest the character of the man, for it is that which we want 
more than a dry catalogue of political votings. 

His first public act of importance was the introduction 
in the Tennessee legislature of a bill providing that a 
slave should have the same right of trial by jury as a white 
*man. This, I think, was characteristic of Benton. He 
was too magnaminous and fair to take an unfair advan- 
tage of another, even a slave. 

He denied absolutely the right of secession. He favored 
the War of 1812 and served as a Colonel of Volunteers. 

Soon after this he settled in Mississippi practicing law 
in St. Louis and was editor of a sheet known as the Missouri 
Enquirer. Here it was he fought a second duel with a 
man named Lucas ; they fought twice ; the iirst time both 
were wounded and the last time Lucas was killed. In 1820 
Benton was sent to the U. S. Senate as Missouri's repre- 
sentative, and served there thirty years. His first work 
here was the presentation of a bill for the reform of the ex- 
isting land laws in the interests of pioneers and actual 
settlers. Benton, you will remember, had been himself a 

He, although loving the Union above all things, yet' was 
a jealous guardian of the rights of the States. 

Thomas H. Benton 147 

Benton was the most prominent representative of the 
Jeffersonian democracy in the Senate, a faction which was 
the revolt of the ordinary people against certain educated 
upper classes who, they thought, had too long- held the 
controlling power. He is quoted as having spoken of "re- 
ieving the country the deplorable condition in which the 
of enlightened classes had sunk it." 

Benton always opposed the introduction of the "spoils" 
system, although this was a measure favored both by Jack- 
son and his friends. 

He made an exhaustive study of the financial question 
during the controversy about the U. S. Bank, and it was at 
this time that some of his ablest speeches were made. 
Roosevelt says "Benton was the strongest hard-money 
man then in public life." You will remember how it is re- 
corded that he was called "Old Bullion," 

The foregoing shows up Benton as the statesman. As 
an orator he was not great; he did not rise to the standard 
set him by Webster, his contemporary in the Senate; he 
possessed, however, a mind like his body, strong, virile, and 
aggressive, and his speeches were always good, logical and 
strong. His memory was phenomenal and his mind was a 
storehouse of facts and information from which to draw il- 

There were two faults which marred somewhat his effec- 
tiveness as an orator. The first was the introduction into 
most of his speeches, on any subject, of some one of his hob- 
bies, notable among which were his theories of economics 
and his idea of releasing- salt from taxation. The second 
was that he often attempted in his speeches a cheap pseudo- 
classicism, which had come from the French Revolutionists 
through Jefferson, who had borrowed it. 

Yielding to this impulse, he frequently made use of 
"high, astounding," terms that weakened his speeches and 
gave them a bombastic effect. For instance, in one of his 
speeches on the Salt Question he alludes to New Orleans 
as Vthe great city which revives upon the banks of the 

148 University Magazine 

Mississippi, the name of the greatest of the Emperors 
(Aurelian) that ever reigned upon the banks of the Tiber, 
and who eclipsed the glory of his own heroic exploits by 
giving an order to his legions never to levy a contribution 
of salt upon a Roman citizen." 

His private life was such as one would look for who knew 
the man. He was zealously jealous of his own honor, was 
a most loving" father and husband. 

After following- Benton in his career as a Senator, seeing 
him the central figure in stormy debates, often abused, but 
always and ever a fighter, it is pleasing, while yet the 
picture is fresh, to turn to another and common scene in 
the same life, which shows Benton seated at the bedside of 
his invalid wife and writing, incessantly writing his book, 
the "Thirty Years." 

It is said that from the date of his wife's illness until 
her death, a period of ten years, Benton was with her 
whenever his public duties would permit, and never during 
this time went out to any place of public entertainment, 

There is a story told of him which shows up well how 
his affections, his loyalty and sympathy were all blended in 
an harmonious whole, which we may, for the want of a 
better term, call his chivalry, a feeling in which, at first 
glance, he would seem to be lacking. — 

"Mrs. Benton's mind became impaired by a paralytic 
stroke, but she always recognized her husband, and was 
fond of being near him. A certain French prince was vis- 
iting this country and some of the good people of St, Louis 
wanted him to meet the 'Great Missourian.' The matter 
was arranged and one evening a select party of Missou- 
rians called with the prince on Benton. 

As they were talking in the parlor, Mrs. Benton came to 
the door somewhat en dishabille, and stood gazing at her 
husband with fond and intense admiration. The attention 
of the company being attracted in her direction, Benton 
turned to see what the cause was. On perceiving his wife, 
he immediately rose, went to her, took her tenderly by the 

Thomas H. Benton 149 

hand and leading- her into the room with the majesty of a 
demi-god, said: 'My dear, Prince so-and-so; Prince, Mrs. 
Benton, sir.' Then affectionately placing- a bassoon for 
her, by the side of his chair, he resumed his seat, and leav- 
ing- one of his hands in hers for her to toy with he resumed 
the conversation and kept it up with that dig-nity which 
was so really his." 

There is another anecdote connected with Colonel Ben- 
ton, which shows a less lovable but no less real side of 
him — i. e. his egotism. People were telling how the Czar 
Nicholas had been the most conspicuous personage in Eu- 
rope and how strangers knelt before him. Some one said 
to Benton: "I suppose Colonel that you would not think of 
kneeling to the Czar?" To which he responded with his 
most imperial emphasis: "No, sirl No, sir! An American 
kneels only to God and Woman, sir." 

Benton, like all of us, could not lay claim to all the vir- 
tues, neither was the whole catalogue of faults to be laid 
at his door. He was pompous, overbearing, and egotisti- 
cal to a degree that was sublime withal; and he was loving, 
honorable and fiercely energetic and strong. He died in 
1858 and, as Dyer says, he was "Thomas H. Benton, sir," 
to the end. 



Published by the Dialectic and Philanthropic Literary Societies. 

WM. S. BERNARD, 00, Editor-in-Chief, Phi. 

Phi. Di. 

D. P. Parker, '00, D. S. Thompson, '01, 

A. J. Barwick, '00, H. E. D. Wilson, '00, 

J. W. Greening, '00. Whitehead Kluttz, '02. 

ALFRED R. BERKELEY, 00. Business Manager, Di. 

Address literary communications to the Editor-in-Chief: business communica- 
tions to the Business Manager. 
Entered at the Chapel Hill, N. C, Post Office as second class mail matter. 


We have heard it said frequently by alumni 
that the University is the place to learn poli- 
Politics. t j cs? a somewhat ambiguous statement until 
contemplated in the light of personal experience. Again, an 
opinion obtains among our seniors in the State at large that 
college politics are a good, forasmuch as they are a fitting 
preparation for like affairs in the broader world outside. 
By some, whose optimism is a product rather of paternal 
faith, the fond belief is entertained that the principles and 
knowledge acquired in this small school of experience will 
have a wholesome influence on the politics of our beloved 
State. ' 'Is not our University a school for the cultivation of 
true principles and right thinking? There, at least, the 
tone is pure, the aim high, the spirit magnanimous. And 
these boys, are they not soon to be the exponents of our life, 
the guardians of our rights? There are better times com- 
ing, cleaner practice, and loftier ideals!" etc. 

Current Comment 151 

As to count no. one, it is false ; we do not learn politics 
here — except in one short course, specified in the cata- 
logue as History 4. What we actually do is to experi- 
ment in the sharp practices and questionable methods 
which have become notorious in American politics — methods 
which, confessed by the very optimism of our forbears, 
they deplore and look to us to rectify. 

If this is true, then in the second place assuredly it is not 
true that ' 'college politics are a good, forasmuch as they 
are a fitting preparation." Thirdly, the confident hope, 
above alleged to be expressed by those who do not see things 
as they are, should give us pause. It is to such as these we 
should look for approbation, and it is such as these who, if 
they see us remiss in high duties and ideals, will lay the 
charge upon the University. Shall the University, truly our 
mother, bear our sins? Do we not thus hold her honor and 
usefulness in our keeping? There is evil among us, and 
the cynical, man-of-the-world smile with which we meet 
allusions to "politics" will not justify. The Fraternity 
stipulations published under College Record in this issue 
are a confession in themselves. 

The evil is twofold, immediate, and far-reaching. First, 
the offices and posts of honor open to students are strug- 
gled for, not so much by the student in a contest of merit 
as by organizations and ambitious individuals working 
through the organization. Secondly, no lecture is better 
prepared, no topic better assimilated, than that of getting 
ahead of your opponent somehow — anyhow, and were there 
a State Board of Politics, no applicant would pass an exam- 
ination more successfully than those here prepared, nor 
more ably apply his knowledge in after life. 

That such abuses obtain equally in other colleges is well 

There are two methods of correcting such abuses. In 
one great university south of the Mason and Dixon line, ! 
and in another in the far North, the faculty have stepped in 
and practically taken the distribution of honors and offices 

152 University Magazine 

out of the hands of the student body. But such a course is 
greatly to be deplored. The second method is for the stu- 
dents to take themselves in hand and reform. The stipula- 
tions above referred to show that a consciousness of the 
condition of things is dawning- in the mind of the student, 
and better that he has laid his hand to it. It does not 
speak badly for his love of justice and fair dealing, that 
in the midst of a hot campaign the two parties in the con- 
test, in friendly agreement, submitted a disputed point to 
a board of arbitration, and immediately thereafter bound 
themselves for the future to abide by the wise and just de- 
cision of the committee. 

This is a large stride forward. It should not stop here. 
Because all have been more or less steeped in the waters, 
is sufficient ground to none for holding off from actively sup- 
porting a reform they silently commend. Concerted action 
will do much, moral suasion will do more. I^et there be 
politics; politics are healthy, if methods are clean and pure 
and conduct honorable. It lies in the power of the student 
body of the University, independent of coercion, to set an 
example and wield a mighty influence for good in larger 

* * 

The spirit of progress is upon us, and step by step the 

old and less profitable must give place to the ne\v and more 

useful. The particular new, for the present, 

ix «. 2 ' is what may be called a Commencement 
Debaters. J 

debate, and the time-honored old, relegated 
now to the past, is Rep. Speaking. Instead of orators we 
will hear debaters, two from each literary society, elected 
as formerly from the Junior Class. The winning side will 
receive a handsome prize, or its equivalent, twenty dollars 
in gold, given by the President of the University. 

The advantages of the innovation are obvious. The 
audience, the speakers themselves, and the University 

Current Comment 153 

partake of the blessings of the change. The oration as 
an institution is well nigh dead, except on fourths of July, 
at school commencements, and displays of secret organi- 
zations ; this is a day of brilliant essayists and lecturers. 
The intelligence of the Americian audience is too fast for 
the dignified oration. A debate contains the life and 
creates the interest where the former is deficient and bores. 

The speakers themselves are stimulated to keener intel- 
lectual effort, cease to be wound up graphophones, but be- 
come instinct with life giving birth to thought. 

Indirectly these debates will be a training school for our 
intercollegiate debaters. It is safe to say that the Junior de- 
bater who wins the ' 'President's Prize" will win a place on one 
of the intercollegiate teams, and victory in two such con- 
tests is a splendid promise of victory in the final contests 
with our friends in the South and West. 

Finally, this debate will take place on Monday night of 
Commencement week, thus leaving vacant Tuesday night 
for the senior contest for the Wiley P. Mangum Medal. 
This arrangement makes it possible to extract some enjoy- 
ment from the final exercises of Wednesday, Commence- 
ment-day proper, which hitherto have been too long by 
exactly the number of minutes consumed by Senior Ora- 

To the kindly interest shown by President Alderman 
and the ready common sense of the Societies, acting upon 
his suggestion, is this arrangement due. 


D. P. PARKER, Editor. 

"Fisherman's Luck and ■ Some Other Uncertain Things," 

is the suggestive title of the latest contribution to lighter 

liter atue from the pen of the versatile Dr. Henry Van Dyke. 

•'Fisherman's L»ck Th e wr it e r of these notes has come out of 

and Some Other Un- . . . 

certain Things." Dr. so many disappointments from so-called 
Henry Van Dyke. ' 'Book Notices, " to think that what people 

New York and Lon- ., . ., .. . , ,, , . * 

don. MacMiiian&co. need m such matters is, not another's judg- 
ment'favorable or unfavorable, but such a judicious outlining 
of the drift as shall let the Book speak for itself and the pros- 
pective reader determine its appeal to his or her tastes and 
turn of mind. He will try to observe this caution now. It 
may not, however, be out of place to remark, en passant, 
that Dr. Van Dyke is a born fisherman, a Con amore 
Rambler, a connaisseur in pipes and tobacco, etc., as befits 
all this, ' 'with a fair sense of that sprightly humour with- 
out which Piety itself is often inspired." But withal he is 
a true "Fisher of men," who knows how to chose and 
adjust his bait and possesses rare tact for throwing his line 
and landing his game. And now to his Book — It consists 
of a series, seemingly haphazzard, of jottings from the 
happenings in the experience of this typical Fisherman and 
Rambler, brimful of a genuine good humour and a sun- 
shiny common sense that no mishaps can daunt. A 
glance at one or two specimens from the table of contents 
must suffice. 

The first of these is that which gives its title to the 
whole collection. The proverbial Fisherman's Luck is to 
to this loyal member of the craft but the type of that 
element of the uncertain and the unexpected which gives 
zest and interest to all life. After pointing out with a 
pithy and almost pathetic realism these elements in the 
fate of every fisherman he falls into what he calls "plain, 

Library Notes 155 

homely old-fashioned meditation" thereon and in thiswise: 
"I suppose that their meaning- is that we should learn by 
all the uncertainties of life, even the smallest, how to be 
brave and steady and temperate and hopeful, whatever 
comes „. * ^ ^ the only Philosophy that amounts to any- 
thing after all * * just the secret of making friends with 
our luck." Another random illustration of the treat for 
every reader of this book has the characteristic caption: 
"Who owns the Mountains?" "Tis a lad's question to his 
father as they wander amid Nature's wonders of mountain 
and woodland splendour — "Who owns the mountains, 
father?" Having learned the names of certain Lumber 
Co's. who had staked off their claims — "after a moment of 
silence he answered: "Well, I don't see what difference 
that makes. Everybody can look at them. " 

Who owns anything? Nay who may not most truly own 
everything that is worth having? That is the query open- 
ing up vast possibilities of ownership for us all. The real 
owner is not to be determined by the Laws of Property, 
but by the capacity to enjoy God, "the great Proprietor" 
He would "share His high ownership" with all who have a 
care to the "unfolding of the inward, secret, spiritual 
powers" which can fit the pauper or the King to 'reap har- 
vests of delight' from all the wide world. We might illus- 
trate further under such Titles as "A Wild Strawberry", 
"The Open Fir", "A Norwegian Honeymoon", and the 
like. But it sufficeth if we may succeed in persuading any 
poor self-torturers, (with whom life seems all awry) 'out 
into the open' of the breezy, wholesome atmosphere of 
"Fisherman's Luck etc." For surely they may return 
thence to business, books or burdens with a lighter heart 
and a hopefuller purpose. 

H, H. Mbade. 

* * 

To a free people such as we justly boast ourselves to be, 
no branch of study can be more helpful than the study of 

156 University Magazine 

popular government, its principles and their practical work- 
•'The Lessons of ings. Yet within the short period of our 
mettt." Gamaliel phenomenal growth we have been dashing 
Bradford. New forward at such a tremendous rate along 

York att d London. . , . ^ . . , r _ 

MacMiiian & Co industrial lines, the minds of so many of 
our people have been so absorbed in questions of material 
growth, that the average citizen has not found time to 
theorize on just what lessons our experience so far may 
have to teach us. It is, therefore, cause for pleasure to 
find before us a well-written work dealing with this 
question. This work is in two volumes aggregating more 
than a thousand pages. 

In the study of American political life "Mr. Bryce's 
American Commonwealth and Professor Woodrow Wilson's 
Congressional Government may well be said to mark an 
epoch"; they have done much to enlighten our people on 
our system of government. In this work of enlightenment 
the present treatise will aid considerably. The study of 
the question has been, as the author himself tells us, an ob- 
ject of devotion to him of half the allotted term of human life, 
and so the conclusions drawn are those reached after care- 
ful study. While evidently intended primarily for American 
readers, yet it will not be without considerable benefit to 
all others as well. 

After introductory chapters on Universal Suffrage, some 
Criticisms of and Organization in Democracy, the author 
gives in detail the experiences of both England and France 
with popular government, and points out valuable lessons 
to be learned from each. Then follows a study of our sys- 
tem, federal, state and city, in which pains are taken to 
point out in turn the excellencies and the defects of each. 
The two subjects of Colonization and Executive Responsi- 
bility come in for a proper share of consideration. The 
treatise closes with a general view of the new relations 
which we bear to the world to-day, and some suggestion 
of the problems which will demand solution at our hands 
in the future. 

Library Notes 157 

The style is clear and concise; the author's idea is put 
plainly and is generally well-developed. On the whole the 
work is very well done, and although personal sentiments 
may in a few places be detected, still clear reasoning gen- 
erally prevails. 

* * 

This, the first novel of a "writer already known to a con- 
siderable audience as a story-teller of exceptional ability," 
shows some literary power on the part of the writer. Th 
"if i were a Matt" s tory is based on the famous senatorial con- 

Harrisott Robert- 

sow, New York, test in the Kentucky legislature four or five 

Charles Scribtter's . ~. 1 . . , .. 

Soits years since. Politics and love are woven 

together into an interesting plot which is well-developed. 
Ogden Spurlock, the hero, is roused up from a life of leis- 
ure to look for some real work for himself, by a chance 
phrase of his lover, which by the way gives the title to 
the book. He stands for a seat in the state legislature, is 
elected, and while there, because of his devotion to what 
he understands to be right, he refuses to vote for the father 
of his love for U. S. Senator. This is the beginning of his 
career as a political reformer, in which he loses his for- 
tune but wins his bride. 

Narration predominates in the work, though some place 
is given to description; this description, however, while 
fairly good, is not of the best, and, indeed, the same may 
be said of the style in general. The diction smacks rather 
much of the newspaper article, yet with a somewhat great- 
er number of uncommon words than is usual in such writ- 
ing. A touch of realism runs through it and adds to the 
merits of the work. 


J. W. GEEENING, Editor. 

The short story has gained such a certain hold in all the 
Magazines, that a few remarks here concerning it may not 
be out of place. There are two types, it seems to us, and 
speaking generally, they come from the North and the 
South. The style of the one is slow but dignified. In the 
description period after period is used to portray what is 
often inconsequential details. For this there is a fondness, 
rather than a liking for activity. Inanimate natural scene- 
ry is preferred to life. The language is good, often beau- 
tiful, but pretty words strung along sentence after sentence 
in the same style, after a page or so become dull, monoto- 
nous. Everything is filled out for you; there is nothing 
left for the imagination to do. Such in general is the 
Southern story; but there is a tendency to get away from 
it, to become more active, more life-like. The other story, 
which is usually a product of the North, has movement, 
action, life. There is no worrying over detail; one is left 
to infer a few things. If the writer wishes to portray a 
scene of domestic trouble he does not begin with a rhetori- 
cal nourish bewailing in beautiful language the frailties 
of humanity; you do not have to read a page or so of set- 
ting and explanation; no, a good vigorous "cuss- word" to 
begin with, and you are in medias res at once. The bal- 
ance, we think, is in favor of our Northern brother. Of 
course, this is no hard and fast rule, but we are pretty sure 
that one will notice this difference after a little observa- 

A word about the December Magazines in general. Like 
everything else at this festive season of the year, many of 
them seem to be stuffed. We do not object to their filling 

Exchanges 159 

up just for once, provided they use discretion in the selec- 
tion of the filling material. But there is no reason in say- 
ing-: "It is Christmas, everybody is stuffing; therefore we 
will follow suit and print everything good and bad alike." 
Of course, if there is an abundance of good material at 
hand, Christmas is as good a time to print it as any, but 
just because Christmas happens to come in Debember is no 
sufficient reason for padding out a big holiday edition 
with scraps. At a season when most of us are deeply in- 
terested in all manner of fleshy amusements and attractions, 
it requires more than the ordinary college attempt in litera- 
ture to get our minds away from passing events. Except- 
ing this disposition to stuff which some of our contempor- 
aries showed, the December issues are the best we have 
yet had. 

The foot ball story is usually the most lame, wobbly and 
weak production that gets into our monthlies. We dare 
say it would not get there at all, but for the foot ball feel- 
ing among the students, which seems to crave a literary 
pabulum which has a flavor of the gridiron. The girl in 
the case is unable to decide between the lovers till one beats 
the other playing the immortal game. This is the regula- 
tion plot, with the changes rung on from time to time. It 
is a pleasure to find an exception to this in the Brunonian. 
"Twenty -minute Halves" has a naturalness about it. The 
plot is not intricate to be sure ; if you are on the search for 
excitement you will not get into a fever over this. But the 
plot business is over worked, seriouslv so. We want to get 
back to nature. The charm of the story in question is its 
simplicity. You feel as if the thing actually happened 
that way. 

There is a tendency for young writers to wander out of 
the regular walks of civilization to find themes to dish up 
to their readers. They seek for the strange, the unknown, 

160 University Magazine 

th e mysterious. This may possibly account for the nature 
of the stories in the Trinity Archive. Not that we mean 
to censure at all, for the Archive's stories are almost in- 
varibly well told. Especially so is "A Mountain Romance" 
in the last issue. One seldom finds better description than 
is found in the opening paragraphs of this tale of mountain 
life. But for several issues now we have had one or more 
of these mountain, or at least, dialect stories. Of course 
the mountaineer and his country are interesting ; we are 
proud of them. But would it not be well to shift the scene 
and characters before the audience gets wearied? 


A. J. BARWICK Editors H. E. D. WIESON 

Mr. W. S. Wilson, '99, has returned to the Hill and is 
taking a course in Law. 

At the December meeting of the American Chemical 
Association, Dr. F. P. Venable was elected a member. 

Mr. J. Ed. Latta has been elected associate editor of the 
Tar Heel to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of 
Mr. Whitehead Kluttz. 

Mr, J. S- McRae, Law, '99, of Fayetteville has come to 
Chapel Hill and is assisting his father in the practice of 
Law, having also marticulated for a B. L. degree. 

Dr. Alderman delivered a lecture before St. Mary's 
School on the night of January 26th on the subject "Free- 
dom of the Sex". 

Dr. Thomas Clarke, who has been the Assistant in 
chemistry for the past two years, has resigned and accept- 
ed a position as chemist with the Tennesee Coal, Iron and 
Railway Co. of Birmingham, Ala. Mr. Mills now fills the 
position made vacant by him. 

The ninth of the series of faculty lectures was given on 
January 11th by Prof. Collier Cobb, his subject was "The 
Yellowstone National Park." It was fully illustrated with 
steriopticon views from photographs taken last Summer 
while Prof. Cobb was in the Park. 

Mr. P. H. Eley, Ex-'98, of Memphis, Tenn., has entered 
the Senior Class. Mr. Eley has been teaching for the 
past two years in Tenn. He has recently been invited to 
prepare a paper on "The Origin and Nature of Languages" 
for the next meeting of the Western Tennessee Teachers' 

Ex. Judge Thomas B. Womack delivered a very interest- 

162 University Magazine 

ing address before the Law Class on the night of January 
16th. His subject was "Corporations", one with which the 
speaker knows how to deal, since he is preparing - a work 
for publication on "Private Corporations." A copy of his 
lecture will be printed and placed among the Literature of 
the Law Schnol. 

Dr. Henry Louis Smith, Professor of Physics at Davidson 
College lectured on the 19th of January. Professor Smith's 
subject was : "Intellectual Value of Scientific Study" and 
he handled it in an unusually interesting- manner. The 
lecture was thoroughly enjoyed by a large crowd and was 
pronounced one of the best of the season. 

The present Law Class composed of twenty four men, 
who will apply to the Supreme Court for license in Feb- 
ruary, have made Judge McRae a present of a handsome 
parlor lamp, and his associate Prof. Crawford Biggs, a 
silver handled umbrella. Mr. J. M. Shipmanmade the pre- 
sentation speech to Judge McRae, and %. V. Long to Prof. 
Biggs. With the present class Prof. Biggs announces the 
end of his connection with the Law School. 

Dr. Charles F. Thwing, President of the Western 
Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, was here on the 18th 
of Jan., and favored our students with an informal speech 
in the Chapel. Dr. Thwing called the attention of students 
to some of the things that college men ought to do in the 
first fifty years of the twentieth century. What he said 
was intensely practical and appealed strongly to the 

Our prospects for a winning base ball team this season 
are bright. Nearly all the old men are back and there is 
enough new material to convince the most confident man 
that he will have to work for his place. Mr. J. R. Carr, 
our efficient manager of last year, has resigned, and Mr. 
A. A. Holmes, '01, comes in as the best man for the place. 
He has considerable experience in this line. 

The Athletic Advisory Committee had an important 

College Record 163 

meeting on Jan. 17. Mr. Marvin Carr, '02, was elected 
foot ball manager for next year and the committee decided 
the University should enter the track contest at Oxford. 
Mr. M. L. Elliott, '02, was appointed manager and Mr. 
Francis Osborne temporary captain of the track team. A 
cup, presented by Prin. J. C. Horner, is the trophy to be 
won in the Oxf rod events. 


We neglected in our last issue to give an account of a 
very interesting meeting of the Society held just before the 
holidays, which cannot pass without consideration. 

President Battle called the meeting to order and announc- 
ed the programme for the evening. The first paper was 
an excellent one prepared and read by Mr. J. S. Atkinson 
on "The Career of Hon. Jesse Franklin." 

The next paper was a very instructive one by Mr. A. H. 
Jarratt, on "The Beginning of Reconstruction." 

The last paper of the evening was by Dr. Battle, being 
a chapter of University history during the administration 
of Pres. Chapman 1812-1816. 


The contestants for the Annual inter-society debate have 
selected the following question : ' 'Resolved, That the 
South should support the permanent control of the Phil- 
ippines by the U. S." 

Stipulations have been agreed upon by the two Societies 
to the effect that the "Rep. Speaking" is to be changed to 
a debate, and held on Monday night of Commencement 
week. The winning side receives a prize of two ten-dollar 
gold pieces donated by the President of the University. 



At the Shakespeare Club held on Jan. 22, the following 
papers were read : "The Lyrics of the Elizabethan Era," 
by Mr. J. B. Ehringhaus ; "Resemblances of Kyd's Spanish 
Tragedy to Hamlet," by Mr. Thomas Hume, Jr.; "The 
Mystery of the Magi," by Miss Bynum. 

164 University Magazint 


The regular monthly meeting of the EHsha Mitchell 
Scientific Society and the 123rd session of that body was 
called to order by the President in Person Hall on Jan. 23. 
The only paper read before the Society was an excellent 
and Carefully prepared one by Maj. Cain on "Strategy of 
Jackson's Campaign in the Valley of Virginia." With the 
aid of a map of the valley, Prof. Cain gave a very vivid 
and impressive description of Jackson's strategic work and 
"the untiring and dominating energy that directed his every 
movement. The Major gave the principles of war as laid 
down by the great commanders and showed how Jackson 
obeyed every principle. Jackson's great point was 
mystery that was always surprising to his enemy. The 
character of Jackson and Lee were spoken of and the 
thorough understanding between these two great leaders 
and their men was noticed. Prof. Cain gave many inci- 
dents and occurences that showed how truly great was 
Jackson as a warrior. The paper was very enjoyable and a 
large crowd listened to it. 


Jan. 1 8, i goo. 

In order that perfect justice be done to both sides in 
this contention, your arbitration committee beg leave to 
render this decision: 

1. A new election shall be held on Monday afternoon at 
2:00 o'clock at a place to be decided by you. All existing 
proxies shall be destroyed and all proxies shall bear the 
date on which they are given. 

We furthermore decide that hereafter the election for 
Chief Ball Manager and Subs shall be held on the 2nd Sat- 
urday in January at 3:30 P. M. The President of the Se- 
nior class shall issue the formal call for the election in the 
last issue of the "Tar Heel" before the holidays. 

College Record 165 

Those eligible to vote in that election shall be: 

1 All members of the Senior Class 

2 All members of the German Club who have paid the 
required fee 

3 All students of the University who shall pay the 
treasurer of the German Club the $5.00 fee. 

A receipt from the Treasurer shall constitute a certificate 
of voting - . This fee shall not be refunded. No proxies 
shall be predated but each shall bear the date of the day 
when given and the latest shall be valid. A proxy given 
before the payment shall not be valid. 

These regulations shall be printed in the "Tar Heel" 
and a record of them kept in the minute book of the Uni- 
versity for future guidance. 

( Edwin A. Alderman 
Committee < Eben Alexander 

( Jas, C. McRae 


We, the undersigned representatives, acting- by authori- 
ty vested in us by our respective Fraternities, do hereby 
adopt and pledge our Fraternities to act upon the follow- 
ing- stipulations embodying- the decision of the Committee 
of Arbitration in the case of Woodard vs. Lewis: 

1 The election of Chief Ball Manager and Subs shall be 
held on the second (2nd) Saturday of January at 3:30 
P. M. 

2 The President of the Senior class shall issue the for- 
mal call for the election in the last issue of the Tar Heel 
before the Christmas Holidays. 

3 Those eligible to vote in that election shall be: 

I All members of the Senior class and others receiving 
degrees at Commencement. 

II All members of the German Club who shall have paid 
the required Commencement ball fee of $5.00 to the treas- 
urer of the German Club. 

III All students of the University who shall have paid 
the required Commencement ball fee of $5.00 to the treas- 
urer of the German Club. 

166 University Magazine 

4 The receipt of the Treasurer for this fee of $5.00 
shall constitute a certificate of voting; provided that regis- 
tration cards of Seniors and other students receiving ad- 
vanced degrees shall constitute a voting certificate. In no 
case shall a receipt be given before the payment of said fee, 
and in no case and for no reason whatsoever shall this fee be re- 
turned. Further these receipts must be collected by the reg- 
istration committee and the treasurer must show moneys 
aggregating the full value of the total number of receipts. 

5 Any person attempting to buy or influence votes by 
paying fees for others or by furnishing the money where- 
with to pay such fees; and the person or persons in whose 
interests such votes are bought or influenced, shall be de- 
barred from holding any office or receiving any honor con- 
ferred by the election. 

6 A proxy given before the signer has a receipt from 
the Treasurer for the ball fee shall be null and void. 

Kadh proxy given shall bear the exact date of the giving 
and the latest date shall be valid. 

7 The Dean of the Law School shall be the last resort 
in all interpretations of these stipulations. 


K.A. per G. V. Cowper. 

Z.*. . . W. F. Bryan. 

S,N. . . W. Brem Jr. 

$.A.©. . . Win. S. Bernard. 

K.S. . . Chas. G. Rose. 

2.A.E. . . H. C. Cowles Jr. 

2.X. . . T. W. Jones Jr. 

A.K.E. . . S. E. Shull. 

A.T.O. . . R. G. S. Davis. 

n.K.A. .. HenryA.Rhyne. 




From time to time this department will contain sketches 
of alumni who are now filling positions of honor and use- 
fulness. This month we have the pleasure of presenting 
a sketch of 


The subject of this sketch, who represents the Third 
congressional district of North Carolina in the Fifty-sixth 
Congress now in session, has manifested devotion and loy- 
alty to his alma mater, the University of North Carolina, 
upon many occasions. When the Legislature of North 
Carolina met in 1887 an attempt was made, followed by 
subsequent efforts in that direction, to repeal the appro - 
priation for the University. Upon the floor of the House, 
when the future of the institution was involved to a great 
extent, one of the strongest speeches in its defence was 
made by him. 

Born on the 21st of August, 1861, the subject of this 
sketch has won success at the University, at the bar, and 
in public life. Entering the University and the Philan- 
thropic Society in the fall of 1877, in the same class with 
many who have since risen into usefulness and prominence 
in the State, he graduated in the class of 1881 with the de- 
gree of A. B. In the following year (1882) after the reg- 
ular law r course at the law school of Judges R. P. Dick and 
John H. Dillard, at Greensboro, he was licensed to prac- 
tise by the Supreme Court of North Carolina. Since 1882 
he has steadily and successfully pursued the profession of 
law, having been engaged as counsel in leading cases in 
his section of North Carolina. Among these may be men- 
tioned: the celebrated case of the State of North Caroli- 
na vs. the Board of Commissioners of Craven County, in 

168 University Magazine 

which it was sought to recover the large sum expended by 
the State for the expenses of the State troops in enforcing 
the writ of possession in the Ejectment Suit of Hon. James 
A. Bryan; the contested election case before the elections 
committee of the 54th Congress, in which Cyrus Thomp- 
son, the present Secretary of State of North Carolina, 
sought to oust the Democratic incumbent, John G. Shaw. 
Both these cases were won. 

In 1887 Mr. Thomas served in the House of Representa- 
tives in the State Legislature, He was a member of the 
judiciary committee, and won the esteem and regard of his 
fellow members. From 1890 to 1896 he served as attorney 
for the county of Craven, being engaged during that time 
in much important litigation for that county. In 1893 he 
was nominated and elected a trustee of his alma mater, 
the University, by the Legislature. In 18% he was nomi- 
nated and elected as Democratic Presidential elector for 
the Third congressional district, making a thorough can- 
vass of the district. When the electoral college met in 
Raleigh in January, 1897, in the Senate chamber, he made 
the opening speech nominating Mr. Bryan for President. 

The subject of our sketch excels as an orator. At the 
University, he was representative of the Philanthropic 
Society, Washington Birthday orator, and orator of the 
class of 1881. 

In 1898, after a contest, he was .nominated, and, after a 
thorough campaign he was elected to represent his State 
in the national House of Representatives. The class of 
1881 contained some of the strongest men whom the 
University has in the past sent forth into private and 
public life to fight her battles and reflect honor upon her 
teachings. In almost every walk of life her sons, have 
attained distinction, holding in State and nation the high- 
est offices within the gift of the people, maintaining ever 
their love and unfaltering devotion to their aimer mater. 
The subject of our sketch attributes in a large measure 
his position of influence and usefulness in life to the 

Alumniana 169 

training- which he received at the University, and the 
University takes just pride in his success and in enrolling 
him upon the long list of her alumni. 

The following completes the roll, published last month, 
of the 


Boydne, M. C, '95-'96. Dentist. Salibury, N. C. 
Pool, G. Van., '95-'96. Physician. Spencer, N. C. 
Henderson, Arch., '98. Assistant in Math. U. N. C. 
Newland, Thos. '96-'97. Machinist. Spencer, N. C. 
Heilig, L. E-, '87- '99. Merchant. Salisbury, N. C. 
Stalling, J. M., '53-'56. Minister. Editor of Index. 


William W. Peebles, A. B. 1853, of Northampton Coun- 
ty, died in December. He was a lawyer and State Senator. 
He was born July 17, 1831. 

Stephen C. Roberts, A. B. 1852, an Episcopal minister 
at Chestertown, Md., died Nov. 15 last. He matriculated 
from New Berne, and was born Oct. 12, 1831. 

Thomas F. Nixon, who was a student from Wilmington, 
at the University from 1856 to 1859, died Dec. 2nd last. 
He was a physician, and was engaged in the drug business 
at Raleigh and Wilmington. 

Frederick H. Harris, of Chapel Hill, who was a student 
at the University last year, died in New York Dec. 24, '99. 
He was in the mail order department of the Continental 
Tobacco Company. He was born Dec. 30, 1881. 

Marcellus Wooten, A. B. Davidson College 1896, died at 
Kinston Nov. 10, '99. He entered the University Law 
School July 5, 1899. He was engaged in teaching. Mr. 
Wooten was born June 10, 1875. 

Joel Hines, who was a student here from Pender County 

170 University Magazine 

1878-'79, died in January. At the time of his death he was 
State District Attorney of Missouri. He entered the Univ- 
ersity Law School in 1884, and practiced for some time at 
Whiteville, N. C. He was 37 years of age. 

Baldy A. Capehart, A. B. 1853, of Hertford County orig- 
inally, died in Raleigh Jan. 5, '99. He was a planter in 
Hertford, and then in Granville County. He was at one 
time chairman of the county courts of Hertford and Gran- 
ville counties. 


Spier Whitaker, '98, is a chemist in the employ of the 
Tennessee Coal and Iron Company at Birmingham, Ala., as 
is also A. W. Belden,'98. 

An event of interest to the alumni will take place on 
June 6 next during the annual commencement. On that 
day every living student who entered the University at 
the re-opening of the institution in 1875 is expected to be 
present in Memorial Hall to celebrate the 25th anniversary 
of that notable event. Addresses will be delivered by Presi- 
dent Alderman, Drs. K. P. Battle, Richard H. Lewis, Geo. 
T. Winston, W. B. Phillips, and Rev. J. C. Troy. It is 
hoped that it will be a veritable love-feast. 

It is interesting and instructive to note the number of 
University alumni, who are being put forward in North 
Carolina, at present for prominent offices. For Governor 
John S. Cunningham and C. B. Aycock are prominently 
mentioned. For the United States Senate, Marion Butler, 
Julian S. Carr, and Alfred M. Waddell also have strong 
support. Among others H. A. London is urged for 
Treasurer and Francis D. Winston for Attorney General. 
Including other candidates for the above offices and candi- 
dates for other State offices, the list of University alumni 
is not a short one. 

Jltlian S. Cake 



Old series, M m. no. 4 -march, 1900. New series, M xvii. 




LOVELAND was a university in name only, and because it 
was so denominated in the original charter. Of the four 
faculties it never had more than two and these not 
fully equipped. When John Lucas entered there was but 
one, philosophy, neither law, medicine, nor theology 
being represented. The administration of the internal 
affairs of the University was in the hands of the students, 
acting through the two Literary Societies. These made 
and enforced the laws as to the policing of the buildings 
and the campus, the regulation of sanitary matters, &c. 
Indeed not a small part of the funds of the two societies 
came from the fines imposed by the students upon them- 
selves for the violation of the laws which they had made. 
This principle of self government had been in use there a 
long time and had worked well. It was extended even to 
the class-rooms and more than one student had been sent 
home by his fellows for cheating on the examinations. It 
was a point of honor to sign a pledge that no help had 
been given or received during the examinations, and if one 
was suspected he was regularly tried by the class, and, if 
found guilty, was compelled to leave. In one noted case 
the culprit appealed to the faculty, but was told that he 
had been tried fairly and that nothing would be done to 

172 University Magazine 

set aside the verdict. The professor in charge of the exam- 
ination would frequently leave the room and be absent an 
hour or two, confident that the pledge would be given and, 
for the most part, rigidly respected. There were, of 
course, lapses from the path of honor, but when the mem- 
bers of the class had reason to suspect any one he was al- 
ways tried by a regular court assembled for the purpose. 
None but the members of that particular class were allowed 
to serve on the court, and the accused was represented by 
counsel of his own choosing. It was a serious matter and 
always treated as such. 

The lecture system had not then been introduced, and it 
seems, even now, to require for its perfect development a 
higher class of students than come from our schools; The 
old fashioned way was considered the best, and this was by 
diligent and frequent questioning. Some of the younger 
professors, imbued with modern ideas, attempted the lec- 
ture system but did not meet with any surprising success. 
Among these was the professor of chemistry, who was a 
bright, scatter-brained, plausible sort of man with about as 
much real grasp over his subject as an Apache lecturing on 
the three-phase motor. But he was an active, bustling 
man, very energetic and full of himself, and labored under 
the mistaken but elevating sense of being the only scien- 
tific member of the faculty. His imagination often sup- 
plied the facts that were missing, but he never seemed at 
a loss for explanations of these discrepancies. He would 
often refer to foreign writers, and appeared to the young 
men under his charge as having an uncommon memory for 
names. He was a business man by instinct, a preacher by 
profession, and a chemist by some mysterious dispensation 
of Providence. With the professor of physics he had a 
deadly feud, and it was all on account of an air pump. 
This particular pump would not work, but that was a 
small matter in those days. It was the construction of the 
pump that was in view and not its actual operation, and 
when the professor of physics came to the air pump in the 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 173 

course of time an air pump he must have. So he went out 
and laid violent hands upon the only one in the neighbor- 
hood. Now it befell that the professor of chemistry wanted 
the pump that very day and he objected to its being- carried 
off. Between the two the unfortunate pump was pulled 
apart, the professor of physics making* off with the bell-jar 
and the handles, while the piston and the frame were se- 
cured by the doughty chemist. Each claimed the victory, 
but the pump suffered the usual fate of neutrals — it fell a 
prey to both parties. It ended a long and honorable 
career after this unworthy manner, for after forty years of 
service even an air pump has some rights. It is true that 
it would not have exhausted the air from a tired flea, but 
it had merited repose and should have been secure from the 
unholy hands of crude experimentors. 

It was about this time that the rage for agricultural 
chemistry was spreading over the country, and no one was 
supposed to be very trustworthy who did not know How 
Crops Grow and How Crops Feed, and was surely in danger 
of perdition if he did not approve of a liberal use of acid 
phosphate. Some of our northern friends, with a deep 
conviction of the ignorance of southern farmers and a sub- 
lime faith in the virtues of sub-soiling, had come down to 
■ show how cotton should be cultivated. The first thing 
they did was to put in a twelve inch sub-soiler drawn by 
four mules, and the earth was turned up properly. For 
the first five years afterwards the hungriest grass-hopper 
that ever flew would have wept over the spectacle, and 
during the next five years there was one of the finest as- 
sortment of gullies ever seen in that region. The pro- 
fessor of agricultural chemistry would point to this instance 
of mis-directed zeal and warn his solitary pupil against the 
deceptions of sub-soiling, while the professor of general 
chemistry Would sigh over the degeneracy of humanity in 
attempting to carry on farming operations without a 
thorough grounding in the periodic law and the quanti- 
valence of the elements. He had over-heard some one speak- 

174 University Magazine 

ing of the periodic law, the expression caught his fancy 
and he was ever afterwards very much inclined to refer 
everything- to it that could not be referred to quanti- 
valence. Between the two he was never at a loss for expla- 
nations of scientific phenomena. 

Not to be behind the times there was established a de- 
partment of pedagogy. It grew out of the summer Nor- 
mal School and flourished amazingly until it was ascer- 
tained that, under the elective system of studies, it was 
being - used by those who had no sort of intention of de- 
voting- themselves to teaching-. The professor of mathe- 
matics never could be made to understand the ratio between 
pedag-ogy and calculus. How many hours a week spent 
over the problem of the position of the water bucket in the 
school-room are equivalent to six months in the higher 
mathematics ? Given the distance to the spring and the 
grade, how many buckets of water a day are equivalent to 
the calculation of a strain sheet for a bridge ? Under the 
elective system, he declared, such questions were coming- 
forward every day, and no man could reduce them to a 
common denominator. It was a nice discrimination. A 
student might not care for Greek, so he was allowed to take 
an equivalent number of hours in pedagogy. He had no 
love for chemistry so he traded it off for physiology and 
physiology for mental science and mental science for Ger- 
man. The determination of the ratio between these very 
diverse studies proved too much for the mathematician and 
he finally refused to have any thing to do with it. But he 
was considered old-fashioned, for as a matter of fact 
some ratio must exist because it did exist. Prank Liston 
took the case before the High Court of the Campus for ad- 

"Gentlemen," said he, "I have made an important dis- 
covery and hasten to acquaint you with it. Not having 
much to do yesterday I visited the class-room of the pro- 
fessor of pedagogy. He had an interesting- class of six 
pupils, to wit: Alex. Henderson, whose father is president 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 175 

of two banks and a railroad; William Simpson, whose 
father is a distinguished physician and expects William to 
take his practice, some day; John Exum, who has ample 
means of his own; Richard Baxter, whose father is one of 
the great lawyers of the State; Charles Alton, who has no 
more conception of the nature of pedagogy than a cow; 
and Adoniram Wilson, who came here for the purpose of fit- 
ting himself to be a teacher. It was an inspiring sight. 
Henderson was drawing on the blackboard a diagram of 
the interior of a country school-house; Simpson was calcu- 
lating how many boys should be allowed to sit on four 
benches each thirteen feet six inches long and two feet 
wide; Exum was playing with some squares of colored 
paper; Baxter was arguing the question as to whether the 
water bucket should be inside the room or outside; Alton 
had gone for a bucket so as to have an object lesson on this 
grave matter; and Wilson was deeply absorbed in the prize 
question, 'Should the girls and boys be allowed to sit to- 
gether? ' These are the facts, and I move that it be the 
sense of this court that pedagogy be stricken from the 
curriculum as an elective study; that Henderson, Simpson, 
Kxum, Baxter and Alton be ordered to discontinue their 
attendance on the lectures, and that Wilson be constituted 
the entire class." The motion prevailed and the professor 
of pedagogy followed the professor of biology, after 
awarding to Wilson a handsome copy of The Lady or the 
Tiger ? for his instructive essay. 

But pedagogy could not die, for one of the enthusiatic 
young women at the Normal School had said that it 
was a perfectly lovely study, all about the kind of dresses 
to wear to school, and how to arrange the hair, and where 
to sit for the best light effects, and what to do for cold feet, 
and ever so many things. 

The spirit of education was abroad in the land and 
pedagogy was firmly established, for there are as many 
people who know how to teach as there are of those who 
know how to conduct a news-paper. There is no lack of 

176 University Magazine 

The peculiar glory of the University in those days 
was the Normal School, carried on during the summer 
vacation. It was a new thing and took well from 
the start. Wide awake teachers and lecturers were 
brought in from the four quarters of the country. The 
art of teaching went hand in hand with discourses on the 
Travels of St. Paul and the wonders of the Yosemite and 
the Yellowstone Park. The younger people were greatly 
taken with the new thoughts they were brought to face, and 
there was aroused such a spirit of devotion to teaching as a 
profession as has lasted even to the present day and bids 
fair to outlive all of those who felt its first stimulating 
force. A great part of the progress that has marked the 
State within the last ten or fifteen years is directly trace- 
able to the Normal Schools at the University, for they opened 
the way to broader ideas. Even the older teachers were 
caught in the current and had to struggle to keep their 
heads above water. It did not altogether please some of 
them that younger men should teach them how to teach, 
but they submitted as gracefully as possible and soon came 
to praise what they had merely criticised. 

Of all these things John Lucas was, if not a quiet, 
certainly a very keen observer. He saw the old things 
going and the new things coming. He heard conclusions 
questioned which he had been inclined to accept as beyond 
question. Every thing was in a ferment, and there 
seemed to be as many authorities as teachers. It was the 
awakening of the public sense as to modern ideas, and it is 
no wonder that there were sundry stretchings and yawnings 
before the full light of day was let in. But it was let in 
and the new light is better than the old. It is not so soft, 
and the shadows it casts are sharper, but it reveals things, 
and in revelation there is hope. 

There was one thing taught which was not on the regular 
list of studies. It was that young men and young women could 
attend the same classes and recite from the same text- 
books without a disruption of social amenities. Why this 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 177 

should have been permitted during- the summer and not 
during the autumn, winter, and spring- is something of a 
pnzzle — in those days that the doors of the University- 
were closed to women while the doors of the Normal School, 
presided over by university professors, were wide open to 
them. During the summer the two sexes studied and re- 
cited together, but when some of the young women asked 
why it was that they could not be permitted to enter the 
regular university classes they were told that it was 
impossible. It took several years to convince the authori- 
ties that a system of education based on weather reports is 
apt to present some incongruous features. 

But the Southern idea that the higher education is for 
the men has shown wonderful vitality, and it still liug-ers, 
in places, as an illustration of the inertia of conservatism. 
It is not likely that this can be attributed to slavery, for in some 
of the northern colleg-es the same notion prevailed up to 
comparitively few years ago. 

It was gravely argued that women were incapable of 
assimilating the instruction offered to men, and that it was 
waste of time and money to endeavor to accomplish the im- 
possible. The absurdity of this proposition was its own re- 
futation. It was then said that it would be unwise to bring- 
young men and young women together in such close com- 
panionship, it destroyed the courtesy and consideration due 
by the one to the other, and substituted for them nothing of 
real or permanent value. Women were to be enthroned, 
set apart from the fierce strife for existence ; they should 
not be allowed to come down into the arena and compete 
with men. They were of a finer nature, and the risk was 
too great. They would lose much of the charm of woman- 
hood and the men would gain nothing - . 

This was the Southern view of the matter, and it had 
much to commend it. The Southern people were not 
then and are not now opposed to the higher education of 
women, but they were and are opposed to co-education. 
The general sentiment was ag-ainst it, just as it is against 

178 University Magazine 

the female ministry. The South holds, and that properly, 
that the type of woman developed under the new system is 
no higher than the type developed under the old system, 
and it sees no reason for changing - . The new type certain- 
ly makes more noise in the world, and if success is to be 
measured in this way there is nothing- more to be said. 
But in the matter of noise any ordinary political convention 
has greatlv the advantage of the New Woman, and it may 
be that her cries for political rights are provoked by 
jealousy. There remains only one more conquest, and 
when she gets control of a national convention the possi- 
bilities of noise-making will be exhausted. Then we may 
have peace. Now, co-education may not be accountable for 
this, just as slavery may not be accountable for the oppo- 
sition to co-education that maintains in the South. But there 
is a feeling that the New Woman would be less noisy 
if she realized that a noisy woman is just a shade more dis- 
agreeable than a noisy man. 

We speak now of things as they were in the South 
twenty-five years ago, before the fulness of its redemption 
had come to pass, and when the traditions of an hundred 
years had not begun to suffer eclipse. There was not a female 
student in any university within its borders, nor any dis- 
position to admit women to courses of study arranged for 
men in buildings erected for men. The common opinion 
was that the benefits, if any, would be more than counter- 
balanced by a loss of that indefinable quality in a woman 
whieh we term womanliness. It can not be described, and 
in some women does not exist at all. Whether the experi- 
ence of the last twenty-five years has convinced the Southern 
people of the error of their ways and brought them into 
full communion with the elect is an open question, and some 
will have it that they are still on probation. But the fact 
remains that there is a charm in the true southern woman, 
who has not had the stupendous advantages of co-education, 
that is sought in vain elsewhere. She is easily first in the 
hearts of those who know her. She may not be brilliant, 

John Lucas: A Southern Sketch 179 

she may not regard discussions as to the geometry of 
four dimensions as particularly agreeable, and her notions 
as to the color of the atmosphere in Mars may be a bit cloudy, 
but she is sweet and loving, and this is the greater part of 
life. The naturalness and the charm of womanhood has 
not been hardened by contact with the silicifying tendency 
of materialism. She has no cause of quarrel with those 
who devote themselves to the other side, she simply says 
her own side fills her mind and heart, and she is right. 

The agressiveness of the New Woman smacks too much 
of the small boy with his first pair of boots — he must go 
through the entire neighborhood and proclaim that he has 
them on. To wear them quietly and as if he had been 
accustomed to them is, perhaps, too much to expect of him. 
He can not understand why every body does not wear boots, 
with red leather tops and an inscription, ' 'See My New 
Boots." When he gets older he may learn that it is not 
necessary for every one to wear boots, for there are 
many people who are doing their share of the world's work 
without them. It is difficult, however, for even the best 
of us to realize that what we consider absolutely necessary 
may not be at all so. The same standards of living are 
not adapted for the entire country, and what is good for 
New England may not be good for the Carolinas. The 
South is conservative, but then conservatism is a very good 
thing, for it acts as a brake to the pace which is entirely 
too rapid for the enjoyment of what life can mean for us. 
( Concluded.} 


BT M. K. S. 

// TV ID you see Marse Henry ter-day, Ephrum? said "aunt" 
I I Judy, bobbing- her red kerchief covered head in 
rhymic time, as she made up batter for the evening 
"ash cake" soon to be a realization, with all its brown 
pores giving forth savory odors pleasing to the olfactory 
nerves of "Uncle" Ephraim, who was sitting by the 
broad open hearth and watching the proceedings with the 
liveliest interest. 

" Ner chile, nebber seed nuthin fall er ole marster dis 
day", and he shook his head sadly. "I went ter de young 
marster's house en axed fer him, but dat uppish nigger gal 
what opened de dore sed, 'no sich pusson live here', and 
uncle Ephraim sat speechless with righteous indignation. 

Not so aunt Jud} r , for the space of a few minutes she, 
too, was silent — "the dreaded calm before a storm" — then 
she burst forth. 

"De niggers aint bound to live long. Dey is dess too 
trifiin' ter live De galls an de boys ain' got no more 
raisin' dan dat chicken rooster out dere in de yard, not 
nigh es much, cos I done make him know his place des es 
well es if he wus er human. Sed, 'No sich pusson live here' 
did she? I wish I had de trifiin hussy here now, I larn her 
how ter answer back ter ole folks axin' 'bout ole folks. 
Do'an live dere! In de name uv de Lord, whut is dis world 
er comin' to! Wal, Lord, us poor ole niggers ain' got long 
fer ter stay in dis sinful place". 

Both old negroes grew silent and pensive. Little tongues 
of flame darted viciously towards the ashcake only to be 
repulsively swayed back by the gusts of wind coming up 
through the cracks in the floor in front of the hearth. 
Night had settled down over the cabin and all, just as the 
close of their lives, seemed about to be in silence and dark- 

"6>/e Marse Henry" 181 

The slaves of a rich planter, owning- a small army of 
negroes, the} 7 never fully realized what it meant to be free. 
Freedom, in name, had come to them when both had reach- 
ed the age of fifty, and the new conditions were never ap- 
preciated. Their "ole matster," just about the same age 
as "uncle" Ephraim had always treated them as if they 
were still his property, and they were more than willing to 
be regarded as such. 

Lately he had made a division among his children and 
it was this division that caused so much trouble to the 
faithful old servants. No sooner had everything been ar- 
ranged, titles made out and signed, than "Marse Henry", 
once almost a feudal lord, seemed to have lost a home — 
had literally given himself "out of house and home". At 
his daughter's, Mrs. Wilson, there was clearly no room; an 
improvident and spendthrift husband, who had run through 
her part of the property, in the way of bad debts, long be- 
fore she had come into actual possession of it, and a house- 
ful of children completely filled her household with drawn- 
faced misery and care; his son, Martin, after the manner of 
the youngest sons, spent his time in the best hotel of the 
county-seat, living the soul-killing life of a loafer; two 
other children, married sons, were in distant parts of the 
State; there was only one other, his son William, the eld- 
est. His was the old home place and it was here that the 
old man had intended to spend his last days, the place 
where he had begun life with his much loved young wife, 
Elizabeth, and which they had both loved to beautify for 
their childrens' sakes and the closing days of their own old 
age. She had been sleeping alone in her narrow grave- 
bed on the hill side for many years and now he felt that in 
the few years remaining to him there was no place on 
earth like the old place, the "Big House," as the planta- 
tion darkies called it. 

The place was made over to William, the eldest son, an 
instinctive obedience to English ancestry, and the former 
master reserved only one room in the big house for himself. 

182 University Magazine 

The son had been living - for some years in a small town 
near by engaged as a cotton factor and guano agent, two 
things consistent with his f amity connection. While there 
he had married a girl without the connection. She saw 
nothing but nonsense in the tradition which barred her 
husband from more active and seemingly profitable pursuits. 

The transfer to the "Big House" was so great a change 
of position that she felt awed and was oppressed by the 
family customs in an uncomfortable way. Soon the ple- 
beian strain crept out and lifted its head boldly in its out- 
of-place surroudings. "Improvements" was the watch- 
word and motto of the new regime. The trees which 
seemed, in their own antiquity, the witness of that of the 
f amity which had given them existence, went down before 
the axe of hired black labour. Ready mixed paint began 
to be used; at first sparingly and almost tremblingly and 
then more boldly with lavishness that bordered on reck- 
lessness. Nothing escaped. It madethe old master deathly 
sick, physically and at heart. The scene of active oper- 
ation was soon transfered to the interior. Here the old 
man attempted to make a feeble stand. His protestations 
were passed over as if unheard. When, in anger, he 
ordered the idiotic workmen ont of the old parlor where 
their sacriligeous feet had been directed by the "mistress" 
there was an open conflict. The young wife and mistress 
flew into tantrums and ordered them back, but there was 
something in the look of the old man they dared not 
brave. Seeing the hopelessness of the case she went to 
William and gave him "apiece of her mind". Several 
fragments had been offered "that old man" before leaving 
him master of the situation. Her husband heard her in 
silence, one could see the struggle he was undergoing. 
His first words were in sympathy with his father, but see- 
ing the determination of his wife to carry her point he 
lapsed into silence. This did not please her. She had a 
plan. He must tell "that old man" how to behave in her 
house. "In her house" — she caught her breath at her own 

"Ole Marse Henry" 183 

words. The Holmes place — tier house! In her childhood 
she had wondered what the "rich folk" there kept in that 
"Big" House" and now she was the mistress. A weak and 
narrow mind aggravated by superstitious training kept her 
from seeing her true position. Her husband demurred. 
She insisted with the result that he went to see his father, 
hoping to argue the point with him. The low-minded 
woman followed and eavesdropped them from behind the 
door as they stood talking in the hallway. The conver- 
sation between father and son was mild and gentle until 
the old man made a remark in which he referred to his 
son's unfortunate marriage with "this woman". It was 
too much for her predisposed disposition. Darting- from 
her hiding place she burst out upon him with no regard for 
the place, his gift to them, nor for herself, a woman, nor 
for him, his age or former position. The tirade spent, he 
calmly turned away and went to the room he had been call- 
ing his, and not long after he was seen leaving the place 
with a small hand satchel filled almost to the point of 

It was the morning after this scene that old Kphraim 
had stopped at the "Big House" to " 'quire atter ole mar- 
ster." The result has already been given and now he and 
Judy were discussing "dat 'oman and how she done treat 
ole Marster." 

"Whar yer reckon he is, Judy? " 

"De Lord only knows whar ole Marster done got it inter 
his head ter go. In de mawnin' you better go en sort er 
scout er roun' en see erbout de ole man. 'Twa'n do ter 
hab 'im er wanderin' roun ; in dis cole." 

Soon the next morning Kphraim had his apology for a 
"leetle wun hoss waggin'" hitched up and was out on the 
road ostensibly to gather up a load of pine knots, ' 'light- 
'ood" as he called it. He disdained to put any questions 
to the younger negroes that he met. "Dey ain' got no 
sense," he muttered. "Dey'd be tellin' all de po white 
trash in de country fo sun-down." All the older ones, his 

184 University Magazine 

companions in arms, as it were, he halted and engaged 
them in conversation like this: 

"Hi dere bruder Moore. Hows de good Lord er sarvin' 
er you dis mawnin? " 

"Mighty porely, Eprhuni, might} 7 porely. Whar you 
gwine dis cole mawnin' ? " 

"Wal," Ephraim would say nonchalantly, "I'm gwine out 
ter git ole Marster some light-'ood. Pears like dey cant 
git none rich ernough fer him up ter de house." And as 
he would say "ole Marster" he would glance up with a 
mild interrogation. Most of the old negroes in the neigh- 
borhood knew the the true status of affairs at the "Big 
House," and usually at this point the brother Moore, or 
whoever it happened to be, would raise his head and 
glancing around suspiciously, would say, in a lower tone, 
"How is dey gittin' on up dere, ennyway, brother 
Holmes? " (Ephraim alone of all the negroes had chosen 
the family name, and was exceedingly proud of his title). 
Then Ephraim would tell the dreadful tale. 

It was nearly eleven o'clock before he heard anything. 
One old darkey had seen "Mistah Holmes gwine down dat 
ralerode ei walkin'. " Caleb seized with great fear drove 
as fast and furiously as old Beck would allow him. Fur- 
ther inquiries revealed the fact that his master had left 
the railroad for the main public road leading towards 

"Dats des whar he's meanin' ter go, I do berleeve,' 
mused Caleb. Visions of the old Capitol city "before de 
wah" floated through the old darkie's brain, and he knew 
"It would be de wuss thing in de wurld fur ole marster ter 
go down dere befo' de quality dat way." He drove on 
hoping to overtake him. What he would do when he did 
find him did not trouble him then. On he went deeply 
greived at the turn of fate which he was powerless to avert 
or provide against. Late in the afternoon he found his 
old master feebly trudging on toward the city, fully seven- 
ty miles away. The severe cold of the night before had 

"Oh Marse Henry" 185 

never left his bones and his thin skin was perfectly livid, 
while his whole body shook from the chill brought on by 
the unusual exposure. The old negro was too much overcome 
to speak, at first. Finally, he said, "Git up here on dis side 
Marse Henry," edging away to make room for him. The 
old man made a feeble start, but was too weak to climb up. 
Old Ephraim got down and helped him in, and turned 
towards home. Hardly a word was spoken. At intervals 
Ephraim would ask, "Is you warm, Marse Henry?" 
"Quite warm, Ephraim," he would answer, but his chat- 
tering teeth belied the assertion. Aunt Jud} r met them at 
the door. Together they took their old master out of the 
little wagon and carried him in the house where a great 
fire of oak and ash logs roared a grand welcome. The 
fiery furnace seven times heated could hardly have excelled 
it. A "company supper" was awaiting them and "ole 
Marster" surrendered himself completely to their loving 
and respectful care. After he had tried to eat a little of 
what had been so carefully prepared for his sake they put 
him tenderly to bed between snowy white sheets and Eph- 
raim turned his attention to the fire which he intended to 
keep burning all night. The next morning fever had set 
in, brought on by the exposure of the night previous. 
Ephraim went over to se young "Marse William" about it. 
"Not at home," he was told. None of the other relatives 
were nearer than twenty miles, so he set out for the near- 
est doctor. It was quite late when the doctor himself 
reached the cabin and by that that time the old man was 
delirious. The doctor's examination was soon made. 
"Acute pleurisy, " he said. ' 'Will he git over it, Marster? , ", 
the old couple asked in an awed whisper. "Well, he may. 
Give him these powders every four hours." I will come 
again in the morning, and will tell William Holmes about 
this thing — a shame forever!" 

It grew night again, but there was no thought of supper. 
Ephraim sat before the fire with his head bowed in his 
hands. Judy sat by the bed watching the sufferer. Clear- 

186 University Magazine 

ly he was growing- worse and weaker. Going to her hus- 
band, she whispered that he'd better go for some white 
neighbor, Death is ever a feared mystery to negroes. He 
had just gotten up to go when the old man rose up in bed 
and with a startled return to consciousness asked, "Where 
am I? What am I doing here? " 

Then before they could answer he remembered and said 
in a piteous wail, "No home, no home." Both went to the 
bed to arrange the quilts. The sight of their familiar 
faces set his mind on another track, and Ephraim was help- 
ing him dress for his marriage as he had done, in fact, for- 
ty years before. When the old couple understood the 
meaning of his words they could no longer restrain them- 
selves. Both burst into tears and sobbed aloud with the 
nature of their race. All through the night, at intervals, 
these wanderings of the mind of the old man were kept up. 
Just before sunrise, as day was coming slowly on they 
ceased and Henry Holmes the master of many homes, but 
without one in which to die, lay still. 

The sun's rays creeping in under the door aroused aunt 
Judy. Going to the bed she pulled back the quilts gently 
for fear of waking the sleeper and stooped over to catch a 
sign of breathing. Her caution was unnecessary. His 
was the sleep that knows no waking, because the night 
endeth not. With a wild cry she turned to Ephraim "Er 
my Father in heben, Marse Henry done dead." 

He had found a home at last. 



lEFORE dealing - directly with the early settlements of 
the Moravians in North Carolina, let us consider for a 
moment the early settlement and condition of the 
"Province of North Carolina." 

The settlements began with straggling emigrants from 
Virginia, who sought to better their fortunes in regions 
farther South. Naturally they would settle on some river, 
and so these early emigrants did settle on rivers leading 
into Albermarle Sound, and the first record we have of 
them dates back to 1650. 

As religion was not the predominating motive that lead 
these emigrants into the two Carolinas, so religion for 
a long time seemed to have received but little attention, as 
the first spiritual movement was inauguratad about 1672 
and the first church built in 1705. 

During this period and for some time afterwards, there 
was much dissatisfaction in sections of Bohemia and 
Moravia, caused by persecutions from the Roman Catholics, 
driving a band of religious men to flee for refuge in 1722 
to the estate of Nicholas Lewis, Count of Zinzendorf, who 
was then made their bishop. 

On account of his religious energy and ability to do good, 
he made a visit to America in 1741 and founded missions 
among the Indians, the beginnings of the several settle- 
ments for those of the Moravians who might choose to 
emigrate thither. Such were the objects of the pleasant 
villages of Pennsylvania and of Salem in North Carolina. 

In 1747 negotiations between the United Brethren and 
the British Parliament were entered into and finally result- 
ed in the purchase of an hundred thousand acres of land, 
the territory of the President of the Privy Council, the 
Earl of Granville. 

188 University Magazine 

The purpose of the colony was to give such Brethren and 
friends as would desire it, an opportunity of settling- at a 
cheap rate in a country as yet but little cultivated ; also to 
serve both in a temporal and spiritual sense the inhabi- 
tants already here, the Cherokees, Creeks, and other 

The purchase of the land was not completed until the 
autumn of 1751. 

The surveying and the plotting out of the land was the 
next thing to be done ; accordingly in 1752 several men set out 
from Pennsylvania to survey the land. This was completed in 
December 1752 after several month's of "ill luck." About 
seventy thousand acres were included in this survey, but 
nearly thirty thousand acres more were added afterwards. 

I have been unable to find the exact amount paid to the 
Earl of Granville, noting only "a certain sum of money 
and a .'yearly rent to be paid annually." The general 
deed for the whole tract was sealed and signed on the 7th 
day of August 1753. 

In the autumn of 1753 the the first colonists, twelve 
unmarried men came from Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, to 
settle upon the land. 

They seemed to be very conservative in the selection of 
their first colonists, and it may be of interest to note the 
variety of trades existing in the colony. There was one 
minister, one warden, one surgeon, one shoemaker, two 
carpenters, one tailor, one baker, one miller, three farmers, 
nine trades being represented. 

They spent six weeks in making this tedious, fatigu- 
ing and perilous journey of nine hundred miles, across rivers, 
and over mountains covered with woods. 

On November 7th, 1753 they took possession of this land 
bordering on the Yadkin and Dan rivers and named it The 
Wachau or Wachovia, as Count Zinzendorf had the title of 
Lord of the Valley Wachau in Austria. 

The new settlers began with good courage to clear some 
acres of land, to sow it with wheat and to build a mill. A 

Moravians in North Carolina 189 

small deserted cabin, which they found, served them for 
a shelter or dwelling house during- the first winter. 

The second company of Brethren or Moravians arrived 
from Bethlehem on Oct. 26, 1774 and settled with the 

It was resolved that on the same spot, where the first 
settlers had made already a small improvement, a town 
should be built to be named Bethabara, "House of Pass- 
age," as it was intended only for a place of sojourn until 
the principal town could be built in the middle of the 
whole tract. 

On November 26, 1754, the corner stone was laid for the 
first house in this town, appointed as the church and 
dwelling house of the Brethren. There was a larger 
curch built of stone in 1778, which remains standing and 
is still shown to visitors. 

The land of the Brethren was in the year 1755 by an act of 
the Assembly declared a particular parish, and after the 
name of the governor of N. C. called Dobbs Parish. 

In Wachovia, North Carolna the Brethren enjoyed peace 
in the beginning of the Indian War, because the neighboring 
Chrokees, were at that time friends of the English. But 
in Virginia there was war with the Indians, and many 
murders were committed and consequently many people 
fled to North Carolina in 1756. The Brethren enclosed 
their town, Bethabara, and the adjacentmill with palisades. 

On account of the failure of the 'corn crop in Virginia in 
1757, scarcity followed, and a 'large number of people came 
down to the Moravian settlements to supply their wants. As 
there was a renewed outbreak of the Indians, they remain- 
ed and were given land to cultivate. These stragglers were 
unwilling -to go away, and asked permission to remain with 
the Brethren. 

This was granted and the fugitives constantly attended 
preaching and, as stated in one of their histories, "some of 
them were laid hold on by grace." 

In 1760 a tract of land was assigned to them for building 

190 University Magazine 

and cultivation, three miles from Bethabara. This new 
place was the beginning- of the second Moravian settlement 
in North Carolina and was called Bethany, later Bethania. 
These two villages were in constant dangler from out- 
breaks of the Indians, mainly the Cherokees. 

As an assistance to their g-overnment, the Moravians 
were allowed out of their number a Justice of the Peace, 
for the county in which Wachovia lies. 

Since the last colony noted in 1754, there had been 
several new colonies that came from Pennsylvania, includ- 
ing some women, until at the end of the year 1765, the 
number of inhabitants in Bathabara was 88 and in Bethany 

In 1766 the first colony direct from their "old home" in 
Germany arrived by way of London and Charleston, S. C, 
and a beginning was made to build Salem, five miles south- 
east of Bethabara. This has since become the principle 
settlement of Moravians in North Carolina. 

It was resolved that Salem should be built in the same 
manner and have the same regulations as their home town 
in Austria and as Bethlehem, where the unmarried men 
and boys and the unmarried women and girls, live in sepa- 
rate houses. The house for the unmarried men was 
built in 1768 and remains standing on the west side of 
"The Square" but is used for another purpose now. 
The house for the unmarried women and girls was built in 
1786 and remains standing, adjoining the south side of the 
school building-. 

They also laid the corner stone for a church in April 
1770, which is standing now. But in 1801 a much larger 
brick building was finished in which services are now reg- 
ularly held. 

During- the next few years the population in- 
creased rapidly, augmented by settlers from Europe and 
also from the New England colonies. In 1769 a school 
house was built about nine miles south of Salem and this 
new settlement was called Friedberg. Another settle- 

Moravians in North Carolina 191 

ment to the south east of Salem was begun in 1770 and 
called Friedland. 

On account of the increase in the number of settlers, it 
was thought advisable to begin another settlement in the 
south. western portion of this tract. This was done and 
the settlement named Hope. 

During- the Revolutionary war, the Moravians in North 
Carolina suffered great hardships and losses. They were 
not required to fight during the Revolution, as by their 
agreement to settle in North Carolina they were to 
be exempted from personal military service for a reason- 
able compensation. They were required to pay $125 for 
each substitute sent in the beginning of the war and af- 
terwards to pay a triple tax. 

Salem received in the year 1785 two fire-engines from 
Europe, and a fire regulation was made in the town. The 
fire-engines may still be seen in the Historical Society's 
museum in Salem. They were made out of wood and 
were simply force pumps, mounted on a bench, and are 
very crude and odd looking compared with any machinery 
now in use. 

In the year 1791, General George Washington honored 
Salem with a visit, remaining there several days. The 
room which he occupied while in Salem is still preserved 
in the "Old Tavern" as it even was something over a 
hundred years ago. 

But the first half century of their existence in North 
Carolina was quietly coming to a close, and they wished 
to commemorate the event by showing some signs of grat- 
itude to their Preserver; so the 17th day of November 1803 
was celebrated as a jubilee by all of the Moravian congre- 
gations in North Carolina They met in Salem and united in 
solemn praises and thanksgivings to their gracious Lord and 
Saviour for all the favors and blessings which He had 
bestowed on them during this period of fifty years. 

At the beginning of these fifty years there were but 
twelve people to be thankful for any blessings, but at the 

192 University Magazine 

close of these fifty years the number had increased to 
1305 people. 

The Moravian settlements in North Carolina still retain the 
same ideas as were' found in their home settlement — to have 
proper regard for the morals of the young- and for the comfort 
of the aged, for cheerful industry and pleasant social life, 
and to establish boarding schools for their boys and girls. 
Their school house for boys stands on the Northwestern 
corner of "The Square," and was built in 1794. The buil- 
ding remains standing and is covered with mud slabs, with 
dimensions about 6xl2xl>^ inches. 

Their school for girls, south of the church, was built in 
1803-4 and has been used continuously for the school and 
is termed "The Salem Female Academy," and has become 
one of the foremost colleges in the South for the educa- 
tion of g-irls. 

They also have a home for the aged, "The Widow's 
Home" and another called "The Sister's House." 

In visiting their settlements, one steps out of the busy 
whirl of the nineteenth century into the calm, and peace 
and dreamland of an hundred years ago, to the charm of 
which only a Goldsmith could do justice. 



Silence and darkness! Dim and mystic Past, 
That speaketh not with many voices as 
A later age! Thou hast a single voice, 
The song of many lives that speak as one; 
Not History nor Literature alone, 
Romantic message from that simple life 
Before the art of record was devised, 
Melodious anthem pouring through the mist 
That lies along the horizon of time. 



THOMAS KYD may be said to be the founder of the so- 
called "Tragedy of Blood." 
This seeming strange product was a natural out- 
growth of the time, if it was not the issue of the race-sprit, 
asTaine would have it. English audiences had to work up 
to the appreciation of soul-agonies, and in the meantime, to 
stir them, horrors must be physical and of the most bloody 
and awful nature. 

The Spanish Tragedy, written perhaps in 1584, certainly 
before 1588, is a fine specimen of this fantastically bloody 
species. Although we know very little of the author, 
unless he can be identified with the Kyd who was a school- 
mate of Spenser, yet it must be inferred that he had a 
g-ood academic education and that he was a great reader of 
the classics, for he has long and frequent classical allusions, 
and scatters through his play a number of Latin verses. 

Seneca evidently influenced him most, for from him he 
has taken the Ghost, and the equivalent of the Senecan 
messenger. The play opens with the appearance of the 
Ghost, a stock Senecan character, and of Revenge, who act 
together more as chorus than as persons vital to the 

The beginning is not the prologue proper but the connect- 
ion is thus made with the plot of an earlier play, Hieronimo, 
which is arttributed to the same author. A Spanish gen- 
eral takes the part which in the Senecan tragedy had been 
assigned to the prologue. 

We may remember that a trace of this modified Senecan 
method is kept in Shakespeare's Macbeth, Act I, Sc. II. 
where a wounded officer tells of Macbeth's victory over 

This is a typical Tragedy of Blood; after reading it we 
feel that we have indeed "suppedfullof horrors," for there 

194 University Magazine 

are at least one death in duel, two judical executions, three 
suicides and five murders, besides the description of the 
bloody battle by the Spanish general who makes us see 
dismembered bodies, heads, legs, arms, and broken weapons 
lying about on a field wet with gore. 

We may note that "Revenge" is perhaps suggested by 
the allegorical figures of the old morality plays, although 
it may be a changed form of the Fury of the Greek dra- 

In 1601-2 Ben Jonson made considerable additions to the 
play, but these, fine as they are in parts, are not vitally 
connected with the thread of the story and sometimes, I 
think, are far from being improvements. For example, 
Jonson's emendation makes Hieronimo run mad immediate- 
ly on seeing his son's corpse; this is not natural ; far better 
lead up to it by degrees and represent, as does Kyd, the 
old man crazed from brooding on his intolerable wrongs 
and his delayed revenge. However in these additions, 
written in a style so unlike Johnson's usual "scholastic 
mannerism," we find "passages which lie very close to 

For instance, compare Hieronimo's retort to the painter's 
assertion about his dead boy, "I had a son whose least 
hair would outweigh a hundred of thy sons" etc., with 
Hamlet's, "I loved Ophelia ; forty thousand brothers 
could not with all their quantity of love make up my sum." 

To a student of English dramatic literature the Spanish 
Tragedy is of great importance. Crude as it often is, it 
showed that the time had come when a good plot could be 
constructed, and no preshakesperian play, except perhaps 
Marlowe's Tamburlaine, attained to such a height of 
popularity, and at the same time was so much ridiculed and 
parodied. And laugh at it we may, to this Tragedy of 
Blood directly or indirectly Shakespeare's immortal 
'Tragedy of Thought," is much a debtor. 

Some of the -most striking resemblances and the differ- 
ent methods of treating them may well be noted. 

The Spanish Tragedy and Hamlet 195 

Both plays contain the ghost of a murdered man, but in 
Kyd it stands aloof and observes and comments on the 
action and the relentless progress of fate, beseeching- the 
infernal powers for veng-eance, while the unrestful spirit 
of Hamlet's father demands retribution from the living 
and, though a ghost, is a personality and a real part of the 

Madness is another element common to both — Hieroni- 
mo's madness, caused by the "unnatural murther of his 
sweet son" almost before his eyes, and Hamlet's agitation 
bordering on frenzy, which he tries to cover by feigning 

Both Kyd and Shakespeare made use of the device of a 
play within a play; the former used the theme of another 
of his tragedies, Soliman and Perseda, while Shakespeare 
probably adapted from an Italian source the "Gonzaga and 
Baptista" of his Hamlet. Although the device is the 
same, it is made use of in very different ways. In the 
Spanish tragedy old Hieronimo's son is murdered by the 
king's nephew and the Portuguese Crown-Prince, who is 
in custody at the Spanish court. The assassins are in 
favor with the king; so the bereaved father though ac- 
quainted with their guilt, cannot hope for justice through 
him. Nevertheless he is determined to be revenged, and mad 
as he is, there is "method in his madness." So he per- 
suades his enemies, who think him harmless, to act in a 
sort of masque which he gets up, and then he and the 
dead man's mistress, Belimperia, turn the mock-murders of 
the stage into real killings. 

Hamlet on the other hand wishes to assure himself of 
the guilt of his uncle, the incestuous brother-slayer and 
usurper;, he does this by having a play containing a crime 
similar to the king's represented before him, and is con- 
vinced by his confusion and hasty departure that the appa- 
rition of the elder Hamlet had spoken the truth. 

Both plays have a terrible closing scene, but that of the 
Spanish Tragedy loses much of its force on account of the 

196 University Magazine 

multitude of preceding horrors. Before we come to the 
end we are satiated with blood but are not surprised at 
more, while the indiscriminate killing- at the last in Ham- 
let is climactic and doubty effective because of its unex- 

In the Spanish Tragedy we see a crazed old man with 
but one idea, that of revenge, and a determination to put 
this idea into action at the earliest opportunhy; this he fi- 
nally does, although he loses his life in carrying out his 

In Hamlet we have a young man with many more oppor- 
tunities for vengeance and spurred on by the solemn urg- 
ing of his father's ghost, so "sicklied o'er with the pale cast 
of thought" that he cannot act, or so irresolute and uncon- 
vinced that he dare not act. And when the exposure and 
death of the guilty king do come about it is fate's work, 
not Hamlet's. 

Both Hamlet and Hieronimo fall with their enemies; 
but what a difference in the two cases! Hieronimo, old 
and mad, yet with the one purpose of his life carried out, 
stabs himself and goes glad and triumphant to join all 
those he loves. Hamlet, in the prime of manhood, be- 
loved by the people and with all those opposed to his ac- 
cession to the throne removed, dies like a poisoned rat and 
with no consciousness of duty done. 

Finally we can well see the difference between the art 
of a writer like Kyd and that of a writer like Shakespeare in 
the effect produced upon us by the conclusions of the two 
plays. There is no relieving- touch in the Spanish Trage- 
dy. For thongh Hieronimo has his way in Hades consign- 
ing his enemies to direst torments and leading his friends 
to the Klysian fields, there is no hope for those left on 
earth; while the re-appearance of the victorious Fortin- 
bras, the purposeful man of action, after the tragic events 
in "Hamlet", points to "better things to come for Den- 



The engravings herein printed give a general idea of 
a new building - which it is hoped will soon adorn the Uni- 
versity campus. The building proposed is under the man- 
agement of the Young Men's Christian Association of the 
University and is designed to be the headquarters of the 
religious and social life of the college. 

The long felt need 
for such a building 
cannot be questioned, 
and in this demand 
the building idea 
originated and has 
been sustained, very 
weakly sustained at 
times it is true, 
though never dead. 
Five or six years 
ago under the dili- 
g e n t management 
and exertion of cer- 
tain students and 
members of the 
faculty a scheme 
was projected for 
erecting a building 

BASEMENT PLAN. t0 COSt n0t leSS thaBL 

twenty thousand dollars and to this end half the required 
sum was subscribed mainly by the faculty and students in 
the University. 

To the first call for payments on subscriptions the an- 
swers were encouraging, but for some unaccountable reason 


University Magazine 

the matter rested there and all now depends upon the re- 
vival of the scheme in a modified form to carry forward 
the work to a successful end. The building as now 
planned is to cost ten thousand dollars and this amount 
will furnish a building- suitable to the present needs. 

These needs are apparent. For religious purposes the 
building is designed to have a chapel on the first floor for 
the religious meetings of the Association, three small 
rooms for Bible classes and parlors, and an office for com- 

m i 1 1 e e meetings. 
Upon such an occa- 
sion as the visit of a 
University preacher 
a place can be fur- 
nished where he can 
conveniently meet 
in private the stu- 
dents of the college. 
This will be head- 
quarters for all such 
work among the stu- 
dents and will be to 
the University o f 
North Carolina 
what t h e Phillips 
Brooks House is to 

An inspection o f 
first floor pi,an. the plans will show 

that on the first floor the parlor, chapel, game room, and 
reading room can be thrown into one large room by open- 
ing the folding doors thus furnishing a well arranged 
place for receptions and social entertainments. Space is 
reserved for the office of a General Secretary who will give 
his whole time to the affairs of the Association, The 

The T. M, C. A. in The University 


reading- room will contain daily secular and religious papers 
and will be found a great convenience to students who find no 
time to read these periodicals during the hours the Univer- 
sity Reading Room is open. 

Careful attention will be given to the arrangement of 
baths, which will occupy the basement floor. Five showers, 
six tubs, and a large plunge bath with lockers and rub- 
bing-down tables will be at the service of the students, 
foot ball, base ball, and track teams. 

The design for the large assembly hall with balcony seats, 
on the second and third floors, may be changed and this 

space given to dor- 
mitories. But fees 
from these dormito- 
ries and member- 
ship will be suffic- 
ient to pay the 
salary of a General 
Secretary and of a 
janitor who will 
give their full time 
to the Association 
work and building. 
By the time this 
building is ready for 
occupancy, the Uni- 
versity will have 
completed its new 
system of water 
works and an abun- 
second fi,oor PI.AN. dant supply of 

water can be had for the baths. Modern heating appa- 
ratus will go far towards making the building complete in 
the line of comfort and elegance. 

The ten thousand dollars subscribed to this building has 
been subject to slight shrinkage during the past few years 
through death and various other causes and the money now 
on deposit is less than a thousand dollars. 


The University Magazine 

Before proceeding 1 upon the new scheme of erecting- a 
ten thousand dollar building, it was necessary to secure the 
consent of the subscribers to this change. This has been 
done by personal letters and with few exceptions the sub- 
scribers have renewed their subscriptions just as they were 
first made. The subscribers are unanimous in their ex- 
pression of the practicability of the idea. 

The work of collecting these subscriptions is now being 
pushed forward and an auxiliary building committee of 
alumni throughout the State is being formed. This com- 
mittee will assist in 
soliciting new subscrip- 
tions and collecting 
those already made. 

The subcriptions 
vary in amount from one 
to a thousand dollars. 
The members of the 
faculty have responded 
most liberally and the 
students in the Univer- 
sity have not been back- 
ward. The alumni will 
now be given an op- 
portunity to contribute 
to this work. This 
will be done through 
the Auxiliary Building- 
Committee of Alumni 
and Students, which is 
balcony floor plan. under the direction of 

the Building Committee consisting of three students and 
one member of the faculty. 

If affairs turn out as planned, it will be only a few 
months before the order will be given for breaking- the 
ground for building. 


Published by the Dialectic and Philanthropic Literary Societies. 

WM. S. BERNARD, '00, Editor-in-Chief, Phi. 

Phi. Di. 

D. P. Parker, '00, D. S. Thompson, '01, 

A. J. Barwick, '00, H. E. D. Wilson, '00, 

J. W. Greening, '00. Whitehead Kluttz, '02. 

ALFRED R. BERKELEY, '00. Business Manager, Di. 

Address literary communicitions to the Editor-in-Chief: business communica- 
tions to the Business Manager. 
Entered at the Chapel Hill, N. C, Post Office as second class mail matter. 


Athletics We clip the following- from The Wake 
vs. Forest Student in the full conviction that 

Pedagogics. The Student has pointed out the greatest 
danger from over production in athletics: 

One of the growing evils of the modern educational 
system, in this State at least, is the tendency among pre- 
paratory schools to select for teachers men noted not so 
much for their intellectual ability and fitness for the place, 
as for their skill on the athletic field. Professionalism in 
college athletics is resting upon an uncertain footing, the 
sentiment now inclining rather against it, but in the pre- 
paratory schools, where its effect is more pernicious, it 
seems to be gaining ground. "Is he an 'all round' athlete" 
is the first question — it would seem — propounded to an 
aspiring candidate ; how he stands in his classes is a 
secondary matter The man whose intel- 
lectual ability is only mediocre, but who on the athletic 
field ranksfi rst, would seem to be the-made-to-order profes- 
sor for the preparatory schools in the future, judging by the 

202 The University Magazine 

past. A man who can show a degree, won in a way known 
only to himself, is preferable to an undergraduate, but even 
this is not always made a prerequisite. 

In the first place, if there is any one who believes that 
this tendency does not exist, a little honest inquiry will 
reveal more than one position filled by partiality for athletic 
qualifications to the neglect of intellectual ability and 

This practice strikes a double blow at culture. The 
State has gone to considerable expense to establish a depart- 
ment of pedagogy in the University, and its sole excuse for 
existence, is to train men who have elected teaching as a 
profession. Yet the athletic field has become a rival class 
room and a course in athletics guarantees to its candidate 
successful competion with the candidate from the depart- 
ment of pedagogy. 

Again, in the department of pedagogy there is assumed as 
a basis for pedagogical work and a condition of success 
therein a creditable record in courses of the University, or 
the mastery of some specialty, while scholarly attainments 
almost disqualify for success in the deparment of athletics 
as now conducted. If this tendency develops, it will be the 
death of pedagogical work at least in the University, for 
men who aspire to teach will come to realize that it is not 
pedagogy but athletics that gains positions. Why elect 

This is harmful enough, but the effects do not stop with 
the teacher. The youth of the State are in the preparato- 
ry schools. Athletics will do them no harm provided that 
it be accompanied by proper mental training under compe- 
tent and scholarly instructors. The "all round athlete" is 
a specialist and it is natural that he should regard the ath- 
letic stand of his school and pupils, as his primary work, 
the academic branches he is assigned to teach as accesso- 

Again, as The Student points out, the professional ath- 
lete is not usually the hig-hest type of moral manhood. 

Current Comment 203 


There are exceptions, of course. The writer can point to 

men in this University who are scholarly, of purest charac- 
ter and ideals, and at the same time "all round athletes." 
But they are exceptions. Is it not monstrous that morals 
and scholarship should be made secondary in a school to 
its athletic supremacy? And this brings us to the source 
of the evil. Economy; the school management sees that to 
attract students it must have a first class base-ball team, a 
winning- foot-ball team, a roster of names of students who 
have left its halls to gain fame on the Varsity team, or in 
the summer contests throughout the state. But the manage- 
ment cannot afford coaches and gymnasium instructors, 
they come high. Therefore a man must be secured who is 
a good "all round athlete," has won a 'rep 1 on some var- 
sity team, and who also knows a little about some academ- 
ic subject. Nothing is said here against the need or fit- 
ness of athletics in school life. The small beer that re- 
sults from the brewing of athletic professionalism with 
pedagogics is the text. Sooner or later the scholarship of 
that school that brews it will suffer and the patronage of 
the State will look elsewhere for true education. 


* * 

The task of censor is an unpleasant one, but when there 
is error in evidence it is not the part of duty to avoid the 

A Menace responsibility of pointing it out. In this in-, 
to Our stance as the well being of the Societies is 

Debates, concerned, we are well within our province in 
animadverting on the decidedly unpleasant impression con- 
veyed by the Annual Debate. 

The debate from the view-point of the audience was a 
total failure, and a few more such public exhibitions of the 
talent of the Societies will ensure empty halls in the 
future. The fact of the matter is there was no debate, 
but a series of papers read or repeated from memory. 
Actually there were arguments replied to which were never 

204 University Magazine 

made by the opposing- side. The speaker, who thus ex- 
hibited his speculative ability, assuming-, very correctly, 
that such arg-uments 'might be made, had written out re- 
plies to them, but when he reached the place in his manu- 
script where they were inserted,having no command of him- 
self or mastery of his subject, read "right on"in sublime indif- 
ference to the eternal fitness of thing's. Arg-uments that 
were made, but not anticipated by the opposing- side, were 
ig-nored or treated with an attempt at ridicule. A promi- 
nent lawyer who had been invited to the debate left the 
hall during- the exercises with the facetious remark that he 
must have misunderstood the invitation. While we do not 
approve his Yankee discourtesy, he no doubt, expressed the 
universal feeling-. 

Though speaking plainly, we do not mean to censure un- 
kindly. It is ag-ainst this practice of manuscript debating 
we wish to inveigh. It presag-es the absolute ruin of all 
true debating-. The readiness, resourcefulness, self- 
mastery, the memory work and thorough information that 
real debating- nourishes is absolutely lost to the speaker; 
while the energy, the fire, the intellectual thrust and par- 
ry, the flashing" eye, the voice intense and strung with the 
excitement of thought, the whole man in splendid action 
is absolutely lost to the audience. 

The Commencement inter-society debate is near at hand 
and the debaters chosen. Take the Magazine's advice and 
get to work on different lines. So much the more thor- 
oughly prepare that every fact, figure, quotation, analogy, 
etc., that bears on your subject is stored in your memory 
ready for instant use. Don't trust to your manuscript for 
refutation. Canvass every possible argument that can be 
advanced and be ready for it. 

These are very, very trite maxims, the mere rudiments 
of debating, but they have been wofull}- neglected along 
with most indispensable practice. And by all that is rea- 
sonable, if you write your speech, memorize it so thorough- 
ly that you yourself will forget it was ever written. 

Current Comment 205 

The April number of the Magazine will be issued under 
the management of Mr. J. W. Greening - , our Exchange 
April Editor, who has kindly consented to relieve the 
Number Editor-in-Chief of his staff duties for that month. 
We confide the Magazine to Mr. Greening in the utmost con- 
fidence that its interests will suffer no whit in his hands. 
He has proved himself a faithful, competent, and oblig- 
ing officer. 


The University has issued a small booklet with the title, 
"Plan of the Reorganization of the Alumni of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina." Therein is set forth briefly but 

To Reorgan- clearly and forcibly "The Necessity," "The 

ize Alumni. Problem," an outline of "The Plan," and 
the form of a drafted constitution for local chapters. 

The first meeting of the General Assembly of this or- 
ganization will be held in Gerrard Hall, June, 1900. Every 
alumnus who has the growth and welfare of the Univer- 
sity at heart should endeavor to be present at this meeting. 
He should desire to become infused with and take away 
with him some of the enthusiasm and dynamics that will 
be generated then and there. Affairs of vital interest of- 
ten look cold in print, but earnest words from the lips of 
those who ever bear the affairs of N. C. U. on their hearts 
will go far towards rousing each and every one to indepen- 
dent and concerted action. 

Each alumnus who has not received one of these book- 
lets should send his name and address to the General Secre- 
tary at Chapel Hill. 

Not only alumni but every student should make himself 
familiar with this work; it is probably the beginning of a 
new era in the history of the University, filled with prom- 
ise of greater things for the future. 

Few students there are who are not well versed in our 
athletic records, familiar with the career of each team and 
star player. Do they know as well the story of their alma 
mater as an institution of learning, her brilliant names of 
the past, her prominent sons of the present? Let us la} T 
the foundations for loyal and competent alumni while we 
are undergraduates, 


For four years a member of the Faculty of the University 
of North Carolina, to him the position was a trust, admin- 
istered with zealous purpose. To his colleagues he was re- 
sourceful of help and pleasure in a common service ; to his 
students a sympathetic interpreter of the Beauty and Ro- 
mance and Humanity of life ; to all a friend. In char- 
acter generously good and wholesome ; in personal rela- 
tions constant, thoughtful and gently courteous ; in the 
manhood of mind and heart and soul finished, he came to an 
environment that had not been his, knew it and was known ; 
he brought to its people a message of Beauty and Worth, ef- 
fective, as it was uttered in the silence of unobtrusive ef- 

Assume, my Soul, thy penitential garb, 
And fling away this insolence of pride. 
For I would seek my spirit's narrowest cell, 
And find a softer light, an air of little cheer, 
A presence, comfortless and unadorned, 
Secluded from the lighter mood of self, 
Where I may throw me on the goading stones 
Of true Humility, and scourge myself 
In saddest thought, until my soul shall utter 
Its deep emotion in a plaintive moan. 
For I have seen what strikes me to the heart, 
A mystic something which I do not know, 
That stills my confident mortality, 
Reveals the weakness of my little strength, 
The sad unwisdom of my dying mind. 

In confidence of all the happy world, 

But yesterday I looked on strength and zeal, 

And knew the service of a kindly hand. 

Secure, I thought the goodness of the day 

Assured a greater for the future years. 

To-day I looked where strength and zeal had been 

And saw them not, for they had swiftly passed, 

And with them passed my dream of permanence. 

Samuel May 207 

It seemed that I had looked on a morning - sky, 
A rising- sun with mild and ruddy light, 
That flashed to all the world a greeting, fraught 
With glorious tidings, that the night had passed. 
And in that scene I read the promise fair, 
That day would mount the clear unsullied blue 
From light to light until the radiant noon. 

An instant and it seemed that blackest night 
Had spread its mantle over earth and sky. 
The gleaming sun was, in that moment, gone 
And Nature's promise for the day recalled. 
Silence and Desolation, dim and cold, 
Were overspread the earth ; the birds of day 
Had yielded to the voices of the night. 
The fond assurance of a greater joy 
Had swiftly vanished, and the constant world, 
In that dread moment, seemed to halt 
Uncertainly, and, then, to veer its way 
To errant paths ; impelled by an unseen force 
To mock the vaunting confidence of man. 

So mercilessly swift the change from life 

And hope to death and grief's lament, it seemed 

That very day had turned to very night. 

Within the inmost cell of self, I kneel, 
In the damp, dark air that presses on my soul, 
To chant the rapt confession of my heart, 
Responsive to the harmony of grief. 

The Ocean, sweeping on its distant way, 
Beyond the far-sent glance of mortal eye, 
Unpenetrated by the light of day, 
Whose waters ebb and flow and never die, 

In depth and breadth and life shall be 

The emblem of Eternity. 

The quiet rivers in their narrow course, 
With softer waters and a measured strength, 
Fettered, yet growing from a feeble source, 
Are dying in their greater depth and length ; 

At last they widen to the sea, 

And yield their waters silently. 

208 Un iversity Mag azine 

And mortal life is like the gentle stream, 
Which leaps with rippling- of its childhood song, 
Fulfills, in manhood strength, the youthful dream ; 
Yet be its tranquil course, or short or long, 

Must ever widen to the sea 

And float into Eternity. 

H. P. Linscott. 


D. P. PARKER, Editor. 

Among- the permanently valuable books recently placed 

in the University Library, special mention is to be made 

"Les Gra»ds Ecri- of two important sets in the French 

vai«sdeia France- Department; the complete works of 

Moliere— Ifacine." , , ,. 1 t-» • <- • ~ . 

Paris. Hachette & Cohere and Racine, forming part of the 
Co series Les Grands Ecrvains de la France, 

published in Paris by Messrs. Hachette & Co. 

The purpose and plan of all the publications of this 
series are the same, namely, to offer complete editions of 
the greatest French writers, from the seventeenth century 
on, applying in the editorial work the methods of the best 
modern scholarship and furnishing all the critical appa- 
ratus needed for the through comprehension of the author 
and his work. So we have in the case of Moliere and 
Racine, full and reliable biographies, settling many details 
long in dispute. 

The text adopted is the result of critical examination of 
the most authentic readings and furnishes therefore a trust- 
worthy standard to which scholars may refer. Our 
practical working-editions prepared for use in schools and 
colleges, follow this text. 

Each separate production, (comedy, tragedy, poem, 
letter, etc.), is supplied with an elaborate introduction, dis- 
cussing the genesis and reception of the work, and treating 
at length the social, literary and historical questions invol- 

The foot-notes, which are extensive, deal chiefly with 
literary and historical allusions, but include also matters of 
diction differing from modern usage. 

The Bibliographies are especially full ; that of Moliere- 
literature composing the whole of vol. XI. We get here 
an idea of the vast amount of work that has been done in 

210 University Magazine 

France and elsewhere relating to Moliere, and if the 
student is often debarred from immediate access to the 
original documents, he will at least find in the volumes of 
the series under discussion, the results obtained from a 
study of these documents. 

For most of the authors there is a special Lexicon com- 
paring the usage with that of modern French. The 
Racine-lexicon is found in vol. VIII of his works, that of 
Moliere, which is not yet ready, will be vols. XII and 

Finally, each set of works is furnished with an Album 
containing copies of famous portraits, fac-similes, plates, 
etc., illustrating the life or works of the author. 

With so full a critical apparatus, these editions are large 
and costly. The Racine contains 8 volumes 8-vo, besides 
the Album ; the Moliere will be in 13 volumes ; Cor- 
neille, 12 ; Mme de Sevigne, 14 volumes, and there are 
several other authors now ready. 

Messrs. Hachette & Co., have spared no pains to give in 
these books a specimen of the printer's art in keeping with 
their high scholarly value. 

A full collectiou of these critical editions is an impera- 
tive need for the library of a University. We shall have 
them all in course of time, but it will be a long time ; for 
the annual appropriations are small. Besides, there are 
many other needs. To mention only one, we ought to 
have the Weimar edition of Goethe, now in process of 
publication. It is part of a scholar's outfit. 

Here is a matter which may well engage the attention 

of the sons of the University. For a few hundred dollars 

might be made an important contribution to the permanent 

scholarship of the Alma Mater. 

W. D. Toy. 

* * 

We should naturally expect anything written by Gold- 
win Smith to be interesting reading. Our expectations 

Library Notes 211 

are completely met by the work before us. It is written 

^^Pomic^t^To- in the happiest vein of his usually 
ry." Goidwin smith, clear and attractive style, which ren- 
N M e .« Y0I ^ ; The Mac " ders it much more readable than the 

MiJlan Co. 

average history. 

The author has the gift of making- an historical sketch 
truly interesting. With him the writing of history is 
more than the mere making a table of dates or collecting a 
long list of dry facts, which one reads only through neces- 
sity and then forgets very quickly. He has the true his- 
torical instinct which enables him to at once grasp the es- 
sential features in a people's development, the real move- 
ments of their life. He knows too how to present this 
conception to his readers in the most striking manner. 
He combines interest with adequate historical knowl- 

In the present work, though of necessity following in the 
main a chronological development, he does not, however, 
hesitate to drop that arrangement when the logical devel- 
opment of his subject demands it. 

This work consists of two neatly bound volumes aggre- 
gating nearly eleven hundred and fifty pages. After an 
introductory chapter on Old English Polity, it begins 
with William the Conqueror and from that time traces the 
political development of the kingdom up to the latter half 
of the nineteenth century. This development is traced in 
a way such as only the master can do. 

The purpose of the work, as stated by the author, is to 
give to the ordinary reader a clear and succinct view of the 
political development of the English nation; and we don't 
hesitate to say that this purpose has been admirably ful- 
filled. Indeed the author seems to have grasped the true 
style for the imparting of historical knowledge. 

The diction is excellent. I can express my impression of 
the work as a whole no better than by the phrase — clearly 
conceived and plainly yet ably presented. It is of all 
things distinctly not a great mass of historical material 

212 University Magazine 

thrown together without order. It is the finished product 
based upon such a mass of materials and a clear conception 
of their import. 

* * 

The present volume is a collection of twenty three es- 
says by different authors on various social, personal and 
economic problems and obligations. It is, as stated in the 

"Good Citizenship." _ 

Rev. j. e. Ha»d. preface, intended as an appeal to li,ng- 

P. 6 Harper. ; FfanCiS lishmen to take their citizenship more ' 
seriously." The essays are written from the point of view 
of the English High Churchman. The general trend of 
the work is to show that worthy citizenship necessarily 
has for its basis a Christian and ethical foundation. 

There are three sections of the work devoted respective- 
ly to Political and Economic Functions, Special Problems, 
and Social and Personal Obligations, Among the essays 
to which we would call especial attention are those on 
"The General Functions of the State," on "The Nation's 
Duties to the Empire," and on "The Obligations of Civil 
Law," though every essay in the whole book is well worth 
the reading. 

Mr. Reeves, the author of the last named essay above, 
recognizes that there is often a stormy side to empire-build- 
ing when inferior races have to be dealt with. His is an 
able discussion of the problem of combining democracy at 
home with empire abroad. 

In the first of those named above, Mr. Rashdall believes 
that the individual's only right is "equality of considera- 

A perusal of this book might be profitable to any who 
are interested in the study of economic questions. 


J. W. GREENING, Editor. 

Every magazine has its own peculiar field ; it is published 
for the benefit of the students of the college which it repre- 
sents. The editors are usually more painfully conscious of 
its defects than is . any one else. It often happens, then, 
that what is of value at home seems worthless abroad. 
This is why "Character Sketches" in this magazine have 
been published. We own that their literary value was not 
great , but these sketches have their place among us. 

And we critics are not accomplishing much in the world. 
The contributor, after his ' 'piece" is published, never again 
thinks of it . How many Miltons and Scotts we should 
have, if the young writers would only hear and heed the 
advice we so freely give! But if we criticise a writer ad- 
versely, he mentallv consigns us to the region under the 
earth ; if we praise him favorably or unfavorably, unmind- 
ful of us, he writes as before. 

Then we have trouble among ourselves. Some of us are 
weary unto death because the New England magazines 
confine their criticism to magazines coming only from tha}. 
section. So we want an extensive criticism; others desire 
but little. We praise those who praise us, and to those 
we smite, we turn not again the other cheek, but both 

What, then, shall we do? Continue to walk in the trod- 
den paths, serving no purpose save as fillers of space? 
Still tell our brother editors their "last issue is not up to 
the usual standard," when they already know it and can- 
not help it; still remark that "A's style is dry and unfin- 
ished," when A cares not a damson seed what we think of 
his style? The question is one which every ex-man ought 
to settle in his own way; if he believes he is doing service, 
though others think him a blankety-blank nuisance, it is 

214 University Magazine 

Would itmot be well for the editors to publish the names 
of contributors, or at least their class, or both? Criticism 
of an alumnus is useless, since he is set in his ways; it is 
the undergraduate who can be benefitted. Besides it is but 
right that readers should know whether the writer be stu- 
dent, alumnus or member of the faculty. 

It is the Richmond Messenger this time which suffers 
from an overdose of bad verse. We find some four pages 
devoted to "Mystery." Now mystery may be a good thing 
in its place and proper form, but after running through 
the meter-and-rime mill in this case, it presents a mildly 
mangled appearance. Phoebus, apostrophized in some 
"Lines," is a fitter subject for the aforesaid mill, but after 
passing through the college patent process, he is no im- 
provement on "Mystery." 

It is seldom one finds a readable dialect story written by 
a beginner, but the Ozark gives us an exception in "The 
Noblest Death." The whole thing is Southern without a 
word about the South in it. There is no ridiculous spel- 
ling in it; no foolish plot. It is the simple story of a squir- 
rel hunt, told in a manner charming as that employed by 
the author of the ••Dukesborough Tales." It is a genuine 
and true pen-picture. 


A. J. BARWICK Editors H. E. D. WILSON 

Dr. Thos. Hume delivered a scholarly address at Win- 
ston-Salem the first week in March. 

Mr. G. W. Lawson, brother to Capt. Lawson, has prom- 
ised a prize to the best batter of our 1900 baseball team. 

Messrs. J. C. Kelley and J. J. Asbury have been elected 
assistant chemists to the Tenn. Coal & Iron Co., Birming- 
ham, Ala. 

Col. Robt. Bingham gave two lectures to the students 
during the third week in February, one on the Bible and 
the other on "Expansion." 

Dr. Givens V. Stickler of the Union Theological Semina- 
ry, Richmond, Va., will deliver the Baccalaureate Sermon 
at our 1900 Commencement. 

Prof. W. C. Poteat, of Wake Forest College, delivered a 
brilliant lecture 'on February 9th. His subject was "The 
Biological Revolution." 

Dr. Alderman delivered one of the night addresses before 
the National Educational Assembly in Chicago which met 
the latter part of February. 

Dr. Hume delivered an excellent lecture on "Shakespe- 
rian Ideals of Conduct" before the Woman's College at 
Raleigh on the 3rd of February. 

Gen. John B. Gordon delivered his famous lecture "The 
Last Days of the Confederacy" in^Gerrard Hall on the 
night of the 19th of February, 

Dr. Eben Alexander lectured in the Chapel on the 2nd of 
February. His scholarly and practical discourse "The 
Study of the Classics" delighted the entire audience. 

216 University Magazine 

Mr. C. L. Van Noppen of the Class of '94 spoke in the 
Chapel March 17. He gave a his tor}' of the troubles be- 
tween the Boers and the English Government from 1867 to 
the present time. 

On the morning of February 14th, Hon. W.J.Bryan deliv- 
ered an address in Gerrard Hall on the subject "Pending 
Problems." A fee of fifty cents per head was charged the 
proceeds of which goes to establish a Bryan Prize for the 
best thesis on the science of government. 

Dr. H. M. MclllraneyJr., Secretary of the Y. M. C. A. 
in the South, was with us the second week of February. 
He conducted the seven o'clock student services in the 
Chapel and had private conference with all the officers and 
chairmen of the various committees on the several depart- 
ments of Association work. 

Dr. J. Wiiliam Jones, Preacher to the University for 
March, delivered a most excellent lecture in Gerrard Hall, 
March 19. His subject was "The Soldier in Gray, or the 
Private as I Knew Him." Dr. Jones is Chaplain General 
to the Army of Confederate Veterans and served as Chap- 
lain to the Army of Northern Virginia during the Civil 

Mr. W. C. Smith, who for the past three years has ac- 
ceptably filled the Instructor's chair in English and Histo- 
ry, has tendered his resignation as a member of the Facul- 
ty and has accepted a position as travelling salesman for 
Allen and Bacon, text-book publishers of Boston. In the 
English Department, Mr. E. K. Graham '97, Librarian 
this year, will succeed Prof. Smith, and Prof. Noble will 
take the History classes. Mr. Geo. McKie, Instructor in 
Expression, will act as* Librarian for the rest of the term. 

Rev. N .M. Watson, of Greenville, was here the second 
week in February as University preacher for that month. 

The lot of the exchange editor can not bcproperly called a 
happy one. Usually, we do not know what or whom we are 

College Record 217 

talking- about. An alumnus of a college in a neighboring 
State, for years the editor of a noted journal, consented to 
write an for his college magazine. Though the editor in- 
troduced him, yet it seems that some ex-men forgot it, for 
he gaae wise suggestions how the style might be improved, 
and the subject matter beteer handled. 


Debaters for the Commencement "Rep" debate have been 
elected. From the Phi, Messrs. G. V. Cowper and L,. T. 
Johnston, from the Di, Messrs. J. K. Hall and D. S. 

In the Carolina-Georgia debate of this year, Messrs. W. 
H. Swift, Di, and D. P. Parker, Phi, represent us. 

Messrs. W. S. Bernard, Phi, and Whitehead Kluttz, Di, 
go against Vanderbilt in the first contest between Vander- 
bilt and Carolina. 

Tne following is the programme for the exercises held on 
Washington's Birthday: 

Mr. J. K. Ross, Di, President; Mr. E. D. Sallenger, 
Phi, Secretary. Speakers : Mr. J. Ed. Latta, Phi, subject 
"Industrialism," and Mr. G. N. Coffey, Di, subject "The 
Saxon versus the Latin." Closing address: Judge J. C. 
McRae, subject, "Washington, the American Patriot and 


There have been two meetings of the Historical Society 
since our last issue. In the first, interesting papers were 
read by Mr. McKie, subject, "A Sketch of Gov. Tryon," 
D. M. Swink on "The Early Settlements of the Moravians 
in North Carolina, " and Mr. Bitting, '03, on the life of "Dr. 
David Caldwell." Dr. Battle closed the evening with a 
"Review of Philip Pithian's Magazine." 

The second regular meeting was held February 27th. 
Mr. Thos. D. Warren read a paper on "The Quit Rents 

218 University Magazine 

Controversy in Gov. Johnston's Time." Mr. J. S. 
Atkinson gave a short history of Nathaniel Macon. Dr. 
Battle read a section from his' "History of the University," in 
the preparation of which he is engaged. His subject was 
"Military Land Warrants at the University." 


The reguplr monthly meeting of the Shakespeare Club 
was heldonNov. 6th. Mr. F.M.Osborne read the first paper 
on "Shakespeare's Self as Revealed in His Sonnets.". Mr. 
P. B. Watkinsgave a comparison of George Sand's, "Comme 
II Vous Plaira" and Shakespeare's "As You Like It." The 
the third paper was by Mr. H. E. D. Wilson on "The 
Reconstruction of Touchstone." Mr. Whitehead Kluttz 
closed with a paper on "The Elder Eddas." 


At the February meeting of the Elisha Mitchell Society 
papers were read by the following: Dr. Venable on "Iron 
in the U. S. in 1899," Prof. Howell, subject, "Small-pox— 
Infection and Innoculation," and Prof. Gore, subject, "The 
Steam -Engine — -A Return to the First Type." 

On March 13th the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 
held its 177th meeting. Drs. Venable and Baskerville 
read papers. The former on "Some Twentieth Century 
Problems," the latter on "Chemical Economics." 

The twelfth annual debate between the Dialectic and 
Philaathropic Literary Societies took place on March 16, 
in Gerrard Hall, on the question: "Resolved, That the 
South Should Support the Permanent Possession of the 
Philippine Islands." The Di. representatives, Messrs. A. 
R. Berkley and F. B. Rankin, supported the affirmative, 
and Messrs. A. J. Barwick and J. C. Hobbs of the Phi, ar- 
gued for the negative. The committee composed of Dr. 
Linscott, and Professors Gore and Cobb, decided in favor 
of the affirmative. The officers for the occasion were Pres- 
ident, F. B. Watkins, Di., Secretary, J. C. Brooks, Di., 
Marshals, F.B. Foustof the Di. and H. B.Short of the Phi. 

College Record 219 


MARCH 21, 1900. 

Whereas, In the death of Samuel May the Philanthropic 
Society realizes that it has lost a most loyal member, the 
University one of its most faithful servants and the stu- 
dents a sincere friend, therefore be it 

Resolved, That we, the members of the Philanthropic 
Society, desire to express our deep sorrow at the loss we so 
keenly feel. We who respected and loved him take this 
means of extending- to his family and friends our sincerest 
sympathy in their bereavement. 

D. P. Parker. 
Committe { W. F. Bryan. 
A. J. Barwick. 




Whereas, In the death of Hon. Elihu A. White we real- 
ize that the Philanthropic Society has lost one of its best 
and most faithful members, and that the University of 
North Carolina has lost one who was eminently zealous in 
its behalf, and 

Whereas, He was honored as a true citizen of our State 
and was honorable and incorruptible in all the affairs per- 
taining- to his noble life, we, as fellow-members of the 
Philanthropic Society, deplore the fact that he has been 
removed from his sphere of usefulness; therefore, be it 

Resolved 1, That these resolutions be recorded in the 
minutes of the Society, and 

Resolved 2, That copies of the same be sent to the Tar 
Heel, the University Magazine and the News and Observer 
for publication. 

{ A. J. Bar wick 
Committee < B. S. Skinner 
( W, Davis 


Jan. 20, 1900. 

Whereas, God in His all-wise providence has removed 
from our midst our friend and fellow-member Frederick H. 
Harris therefore be it resolved: 

I, That while bowing in humble submission to the Di- 
vine will, we the members of the Dialectic Society, can but 
deeply feel the loss we have sustained in his death, 

II, That in his death the Society has lost a faithful 
member and a true friend. 

III, That we extend our heart-felt sympathy to the be- 
reaved family, 

Alumniana 221 

IV, That these resolutions be spread on the minutes of 
the Society and that copies be sent to the family of the de- 
ceased, to the Tat Heel and the University Magazine. 

( C. R, Mclver 
Committe X R. S. Hutchison 
T. B. Foust 

This month we have the pleasure of presenting to our 
readers a short sketch of that noble benefactor of the Uni- 


In the early 60's there attended the University of North 
Carolina, Julian S. Carr, a man destined to play no incon- 
siderable part in the history of his State and his alma tna- 
ter. Leaving - here before graduation, he took up arms at 
the call of his country and marched to the front to follow 
the varying fortunes of the Confederacy, until it was 
forced to yield to the inevitable at Appomatox. After the 
surrender of Lee's army, he returned home on foot, without 
a dollar with which to start in the struggle of life. To- 
day his wealth is variously estimated between three and 
four million dollars. 

For fifteen years or more Gen. Carr was at the head of 
the great Blackwell's Bull Durham Tobacco Company, 
whose trade mark is found all over the world. This fac- 
tory was not controlled by the great trust and Gen. Carr 
was always known as the friend of the leaf dealer. Al- 
though a close buyer, he found a way to distribute the 
patronage of business so as to help as many deserving 
dealers as possible. 

A short time ago Gen. Carr retired from the presidency 
of the Bull Company. Among the many enterprises in 
which he is now interested, a few of the more important 
may be mentioned. Gen. Carr is president of the First 
National Bank of Durham, owner of a large hosiery mill, 
a very extensive bag factory and a large roller mill. He is 

222 The University Magazine 

largely interested in the Durham Furniture Factory, owns 
almost exclusively the Durham electric power plant, and is 
a large holder of cotton mill stocks. He is a member of 
the executive committee of the board of trustees of the 
University, president of the board of trustees of Greensboro 
Female College, director of the Oxford Orphan Asylum, and 
chairman of the School Committee of Durham. Gen. Carr's 
principle business, at the present, is dealing in southern 
securities and investments. He is said to be the best 
authority on these questions in the South. 

Gen. Carr's life has been one full of good works, with 
love and charity towards his less fortunate brethren, 
who are not supplied so bountifully with this world's goods. 
Many poor students in North Carolina owe their education 
to the generosity of Gen. Carr. An illustration of this 
came under the eye of the writer. A poor girl wrote to 
Gen. Carr telling him that she was not able to pay her 
tuition. His only question of the teacher was, ' 'Is she 
worthy?" The answer was, "Sh e is. " The bill was seat to 
him and paid by him, the world knowing nothing of it. 
His life has been full of just such instances. The first girl 
to enter the Baptist Female University did it through his 

When war was declared with Spain Gen. Carr gave 
notice that he would provide for families left in Durham, 
and dependent on Durham volunteers for their support. 
He invited the families of one white and one colored com- 
pany of volunteers to send all bills for living expenses to him. 
While the First North Carolina Regiment was in Jackson- 
ville, there was some trouble as to their pay. Some of the 
men were in actual distress on account of lack of money. 
Gen. Carr gave his check for $25,000 to the colonel in com- 
mand, saying that he desired to see the North Carolina 
boys provided with every comfort consistent with camp 

This generous man during his life has given a large amount 
of money to curches, colleges, and charitable institutions. 

Alumniana 223 

It might be said in this connection that he was the first 
southern man to make a donation to any educational insti- 
tution north of the Potomac, since the war. He subscrib- 
ed $10,000 to the American University at Washing-ton sev- 
eral years ago. The land upon which Trinity College 
stands was given by him. 

Although Gen. Carr has never held any high political 
office in the State, he has always been active in politics of 
the better kind. Any man or any measure that stands for 
the advancement and welfare of the State has found a 
friend in him. Recognizing this the Democratic party, 
eight years ago, offered him the nomination for Governor. 
He did not find it convenient to make the race and declined. 
Today he is considered by many friends and admirers as the 
best man that could be sent to the United States Senate, if 
the Democratic party is successful. He would worthily 
represent North Carolina in the hall of our National 

Gen. Carr in his generosity, has not been forgetful of his 
alma mater and her interests. When Dr. Battle resigned the 
presidency, the Alumni Chair of History was established and 
Gen. Carr gave $10,000 for that purpose. For several years 
the University has been sadly in need of dormitory buildings. 
Gen. Carr recognizing this need, added to his former gift, 
and the beautiful Carr Building with all modern appliances 
and conveniences has been erected by him, at a cost of 
$18,000. He is a generous contributor to Alumni Hall, now 
in course of erection, and a number of books in the Library 
bear his name as donor. The University looks upon him 
with pride and considers him one of her noblest and most 
generous alumni. Here's to him! May he have a long 
life full of riches and honor and the plaudits and good 
will of his fellow men. 


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Old senes, vol. ill no. 5 APRIL, 1900. New series, 1/01. xvii. 



AN inquiry into the character and operations of such an 
organization as the Ku Klux Klan should be prefaced 
by an inquiry into the condition of that society from 
which it could take its rise. Without a clear understand- 
ing - of such conditions, it is impossible to understand how 
such an organization should grow into power and exercise 
such a great influence over men as the Ku Klux Klan did. 
Therefore I shall open this paper with a description of the 
state of affairs in the southern states, from the close of the 
Civil War through the Reconstruction Period. 

The Reconstruction Period was nothing more nor less 
than a social and political revolution. Immediately after 
the surrender of the Confederate .armies the intelligent 
men of the South began the work of re-establishing their 
government and rebuilding their institutions. For a time 
all went well and order and security of life and property 
were maintained. But following hard upon this came the 
days of reconstruction and military rule, when control of 
affairs was taken from the intelligent white men and given 
to ignorant negroes, led by ignorant and unscrupulous 
whites. The change was from order to anarchy. 

The negroes had not only been freed, but had been vest- 
ed with all the rights, powers ond responsibilities of citi- 
zenship without having been qualified to exercise them. 

225 University Magazine 

To make the conditions worse, intelligence and property, 
represented by prominent white men, had been disfran- 
chised. Together with this, hundreds of adventurers 
poured into the South from the North and to these strang- 
ers the reconstruction government was given. It was a 
change from intelligent, responsible government to one of 
violence, responsible to no one, since from its decrees there 
was no appeal, as the courts were either closed or incom- 
petent and corrupt, and by an act of Congress, no civil 
government existed. Even when military rule was with- 
drawn and the courts opened, they were presided over by 
incompetent, corrupt judges who used their power for po- 
litical purposes. 

The condition of affairs- finally came to such a pass that 
in 1871, the United States Senate appointed a committee to 
"investigate the state of affairs in the late insurrectionary 
states and to report to the Senate as to the security of per- 
son and property in the said states." The committee met 
and examined many of the most prominent men in the 
southern states. The report was a divided one, there 
being a strong minority. 

In describing the condition of the South, the minority re- 
port says, (page 302) "The elections pretended to be held 
were mere farces; all the registrars, judges, ballotcounters, 
police, militia and other machinery were in their (carpet- 
baggers and negroes) l^ands and officials were often candi- 
dates at polls held by themselves." And again it says 
that when negroes could not be incited to sufficient hatred 
of their former masters to vote against them for loyal- 
leaguers and carpet-baggers, they were forced to do so, 
(page 5 — 505). In consequence incompetent men were 
elected to places of trust and laws were broken with im- 

The evidence taken by the committee bears out these 
statements. Men of ability and unquestioned integrity, of 
both political parties testify to this state of affairs. Gener- 
al Grant made a tour of inspection through the South and 

The Ku Klux Klan m North Carolina 226 

in a letter to President Johnson dated, December 18th. 
1865, he says, "I saw and conversed freely with citizens of 
those states, as well as with officers of the army who have 
been stationed among - them. I am satisfied that the mass 
of thinking men of the South accept the present situation 
of affairs in good faith. The presence of black troops, 
lately slaves, demoralizes labor, both by their advice and 
by furnishing in their camps a resort for the freedmen for 
long distances around. The late slave seems imbued with 
the idea that the property of his late master, should by 
right, belong to him. There is danger of collision being 
brought on by such causes." The inferences to be drawn 
from this letter, from this high authority, were not heeded, 
with the result of the collision foreseen. 

The negroes imbued with all sorts of foolish ideas were 
incited by carpet-baggers and unscrupulous leaders to al- 
most every known crime. The courts were either closed or 
filled with judges in sympathy with the carpet-baggers 
and negroes, so that it was almost impossible to have these 
criminals, both white and black, punished. Quoting again 
from the above mentioned report, we find the following, 
(p. 502). "innocence is no protection; the worst men are 
set free provided they will implicate respectable gentle- 
men." One more quotation will sum up the situation. 
On page 508 we find, "We have shown, General Grant 
being our witness, that after the close of the war the peo- 
ple of the South were honestly and earnestly striving to 
comply with all the requirements of the Federal govern- 
ment; that discontent did not begin till after the soldiers 
were licensed to plunder them, when they were denied 
representation in Congress and Freedmen's Bureau agents 
broke up and destroyed their labor, taking absolute posses- 
sion and control of the negro population, whose minds in- 
cited by the novelty of the situation, were taught to be- 
lieve that the property of their former masters belong-ed to 
them. The successful efforts to engender bitterness and 
hatred to the whites, on the part of the colored population, 

227 University Magazine 

putting - the ballot, and often the bayonet, into their hands, 
while large masses of the intelligent whites were disfran- 
chised and forbidden to carry arms, created of course hos- 
tility to the men and party by which such outrages were 
perpetrated, encouraged or tolerated. When it became ap- 
parent that the object of all this oppression was robbery 
and plunder; when corruption and ignorance were pass- 
ports to power, men in many instances became reckless and 
took the law into their own hands." "We think that 
from the glimpse that we have enabled Congress and the 
country to obtain of the southern states, there will be little 
difficulty in understanding how Ku-Kluxism sprang up 
there. It was the legitimate offspring of misrule; it fol- 
lows and disappears with its parent." 

Perhaps I should justify myself in taking the minority 
report in preference to that of the majority. I think my 
reasons sufficiently good. The report of the majority does 
not differ in regard to essential facts, the difference in the 
two reports lying mainly in the conclusions reached from 
the same evidence. Passing by the fact that the minority 
report has sig-ned to it the names of S. S. Cox, A. M. Wad- 
dell, F. P. Blair, and Thomas F. Bayard, which alone 
would give it title to consideration, I have adopted its de- 
scription because from a careful, and I think, an impartial 
study of the evidence, I am convinced that this report pre- 
sents a truthful account of the situation. The character 
of the witnesses upon whose testimony this minority report 
is based, is in every case unimpeachable, the leaders of in- 
telligence and property in the South. 

On the other hand, while the mass of testimony seems 
to bear out the majority report, yet it is the testimony of 
men who had held office under the reconstruction govern- 
ment, or negroes or victims of the Ku Klux outrages. I 
may be pardoned for the long quotations I have used, as 
they seem to be a just account of the conditions. 

Whatever then may have been the character of the Ku 
Klux Klan and its work, there can be little doubt that it 

K The Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina 228 

was the outgrowth of the condition of southern society at 
the time. 

The birth place of the Klan was at Pulaski, a small vil- 
lage in Tennessee. Its original purpose was amusement. 
All sorts of devices were resorted to in order to afford as- 
tonishment for the neighbors and fun for the members. 
No one dreamed of the power it was eventually to assume. 

But its pranks soon revealed to its members the power it 
could exercise in controlling- and subduing insolent ne- 
groes. It became a favorite amusement to play off on the 
suspicious black as a ghost come from some well-known 
battle-field. The frightened negro would drop on his 
knees and sue for mercy or flee in terror. If overtaken, a 
few words of warning were given and the ghost would dis- 
appear, leaving the negro to go his way to spread all sorts 
of tales of the marvellous sights he had seen. Repeated 
scenes of this sort soon showed the Ku Klux what a great 
power they held and it was not long before it was to be 
put to more serious tests. The negroes urged on by un- 
scupulous white leaders committed grave crimes from 
which the government afforded no protection. Thus it 
came about that the Ku Klux conceived the idea of becom- 
ing a band of regulators and to spread their organization 
over the entire South. It now began to develop that pow- 
er and wonderful organization which so long defied inves- 
tigation and came to an end only when the conditions 
which had given birth to it had ended. 

It has often been charged with being a political organi- 
zation operated in the interest of the Democratic party. 
The evidence on this point is so conflicting, good, reliable 
men differing in their testimony, that it is almost impossi- 
ble to get at the truth of the case. Men of reputation and 
influence testify on both sides of this question. Dr. Pride 
Jones, an outsider and one who was largely instrumental 
in breaking up the organization in Orange County, N. C, 
did not consider it a political organization. (Report of the 
Senate Investigating Committee, Vol. on North Carolina, 

229 University Magazine 

pages 2 and 3). This view was also held by Plato Dur- 
ham, an eminent North Carolina lawyer and a prominent 
member of the Klan (Vol. on N. C. p. 330). On the con- 
trary Judge David Schenck testifies that it was a political 
organization and that he joined it for that reason (Vol. on 
N. C, p. 363). 

Of the inner evidence we have the constitution of the 
Klan and the oath administered at initiation. The former 
says nothing about politics. Of the latter some forms com- 
pel the candidates for admission to swear that he "rejects 
and opposes the principles of the radical party" and anoth- 
er form binds the member "never to initiate or allow to be 
initiated any one holding radical views or a loyal-leaguer." 
The radical party was identical with the Republican par- 


Still other forms of the oath have no mention of political 
purposes, simply binding the members to secrecy, to help 
widows and children of Confederate soldiers and to succor 
one another when in distress. Some of the witnesses tes- 
tify to Republicans having been initiated into the Klan. 
Many testify to the whipping of Democrats by the Ku 

From this evidence there seem to be two conclusions 
either of which is worthy of consideration. 

The Democratic party was the party of the white man: 
the Republican party was the party of the negro, led by 
carpet-baggers and "scalawags." It was known that this 
element of the population incited the negroes to crimes, 
barn-burning, riots, rapes and general lawlessness. The 
barns burned were generally the property of prominent 
Democrats. The courts failing to punish these crimes, the 
Ku Klux took it upon themselves to do so. Their attacks 
being generally against negroes and their leaders, mem- 
bers of the Republican party, it was naturally inferred 
that the attacks were against the Republican organization. 
If so, what else could the Ku Klux Klan be but a Demo- 
cratic organization. 

The Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina 230 

Another probable explanation is that in certain sections 
local dens were organized for specific political purposes. 
Nothing- else can explain the conflicting- testimony of rep- 
utable and reliable men when questioned, on oath, on this 

The origin and general history of this organization are 
well-known and do not form a part of this paper. Our 
attention must now be directed to North Carolina and its 
operations in that state. 

The general observations on the South with which this 
paper opened, apply peculiarly to North Carolina and ex- 
plain the powerful hold the Ku Klux took on this state. 

It was first introduced into North Carolina in 1867 and 
grew into power during the winter of 1866, and spring of 
1869. It spread rapidly for it found suitable conditions, 
and soon occupied an area covering at least twenty-five 
counties. Those most infested were Orange, Alamance, 
Caswell, Rutherford, Cleveland, Moore, Gaston, Lincoln, 
Catawba, Chatham, Harnett, Lenoir, Sampson, Guilford, 
and McDowell. The report of the Senate Committee gives 
a larger number of crimes committed in these counties than 
in any others. These embrace whippings, mutilation and 
murder, often accompanied by the cruellest torture. The 
time of the majority of these outrages was between 
December, 1868 and December, 1870. 

In Alamance County a poor fool who saw the Ku Klux 
whip a man named Outlaw, was drowned in a mill-pond. 
Two negroes were severely shot only escaping by a hair's 
breadth : fifty or more men were whipped. In Catawba 
county twenty-three men were whipped. Other counties 
suffered equally as much. Incases where men were hanged 
papers were always found pinned to their bodies, on which 
were written such words as, "Hang-ed for barn-burning," 
"Hanged for threatening to ravish" some one. It may be 
mentioned that such inscriptions were reasons why some of 
the witnesses examined by the committee did not consider 
this Ku Klux Klan a political organization. 

231 University Magazine 

One of the most noted of the murders committed at the 
period was the killing of John Stevens of Caswell County, 
a white man and Republican member of the state senate. 
It occured in broad day-light during a large political 
gathering at the County Court-house. Stevens was a man 
of unscrupulous character and had been making incendiary 
speeches to the negro population, inciting them to barn- 
burning, theft and other crimes, to the disgust and indigna- 
tion of the respectable citizens of Caswell. After one of 
his fiery speeches he was enticed into one of the rooms of 
the Court-house, a rope was thrown around his neck and 
he was throttled and stabbed. His body was left lying on 
the floor, the door locked and the key thrown into the creek 
about one mile distant. In spite of the great crowd present 
it was all so quietly and secretly accomplished that no one 
ever knew who committed the murder and it was charged 
to the Ku Klux. But in after years one of the participants, 
who had guarded the door and thrown the key away, con- 
fessed on his dying bed to the part that he had played, and 
while refusing to tell the names of any of the others, clear- 
ed the Ku Klux of all charges. It was nothing more nor 
less than a crowd of indignant citizens bent on administer- 
ing justice to an enemy of the public welfare in the case 
where the law could not or would not.* Undoubtedly many 
of the crimes charged to the Ku Klux were affairs of this 
sort with which they, as organizations, had nothing to 

Growing out of the Ku Klux troubles in Caswell and 
Alamance counties, occurred one of the most interesting and 
important events in our history. These troubles gave 
Governor Holden an excuse in 1870 for declaring these 
counties in a state of insurrection and of putting them 
under military rule. However, some months passed after 
his proclamation before he took active measures to restore 
order and he only sent troops just in time to control the 

*Note — For a fictitious account of this, see Chap. XXX in "Fool's 
Errand."— Ed. 

The Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina 232 

fall election; this tog-ether with his introduction of foreign 
troops and illegal suspension of the privilege of the writ of 
habeas corpus, lead to his impeachment at the hands of the 
next legislature, the overthrow of Republican and negro 
rule and the restoration of order and capable government. 

The history of this period is filled with these Ku Klux 
outrages. It is impossible to give au account of all. But 
in order to give an idea of their method one or two typical 
ones will suffice. 

The whipping- of Aaron Biggerstaff was one of the most 
interesting of the cases that came before the investigating 

Samuel and Aaron Biggerstaff were brothers, between 
whom there was a most bitter feud. Aaron Biggerstaff had 
given aid during the war to Union soldiers and had guided 
Federal cavalry through the county in their raid after 
horses. Among the farms they visited was Samuel Bigger- 
staff's whose horses were taken along with the others. In 
this way the quarrel began. It grew until it came to in- 
volve the friends of both men. Ayear or two after the de- 
parture of the Union soldiers an attack was made on the 
house of one of Aaron Biggerstaff 's friends, a man named 
McGahey. He was not at home at the time and his wife was 
brutally treated. He accused Samuel Biggerstaff of being 
one of the party. Together with Aaron and others of their 
friends, he went one night to Samuel's house, and he and 
Aaron fired three shots into the corner in which Samuel 
usually slept. It happened by the merest accident that he 
was not there at the time and so escaped serious injury and 
probably death. He procured indictments against the 
trespassers, who were all Republicans. Samuel was a 
Democrat. The case was tried before a Republican judge 
and the defendants convicted. The judge fined Aaron 
Biggerstaff $25 and the others $15 each. This outrage 
against justice aroused the indignation of Samuel Bigger- 
staff and his friends. One night Aaron's house was sur- 
rounded, he was pulled out of bed and severely whipped. 

233 University Magazine 

He procured indictments against men he claimed to have 
recognised. When on his way to the trial he was compel- 
led to spend one night on the road. That night the 
house was attacked, he and his nephew were threatened 
with death. In the discussion which ensued between the 
members of the attacking party, the nephew managed to 
effect his escape. Fearing his testimony in case any in- 
jury was done to Aaron, they released him, contenting them- 
selves with exacting a promise from him not to appear in 
court. He gave the desired promise, and returning to his 
home from which he would not go to obey the summons of 
the court, was troubled no more. It was the opinion of the 
witnesses who testified before the committee, that had 
Aaron Biggerstaff been properly punished for his attack on 
his brother's life, there would have been no further trouble. 

Another case which excited great interest and is typical 
of the Ku Klux method, was the raid made on James M. 
Justice, a lawyer of Rutherfordton, Rutherford County. 
His offense was that he was a Republican and had been 
active in law-suits against the Ku Klux. In one of the 
secret meetings of the order he was condemned to death. 
About eighty men were chosen to carry out the decree. On 
the night appointed, protected by a heavy thunder storm 
they surrounded his house, broke in, and dragged him out 
of his room. He cried out for help and was knocked sense- 
less by a blow on the head with a pistol. Then they drag- 
ged him out of the house, dressed only in a night-shirt, 
and carried him several hundred yards into a neighboring 
woods, where they informed him of the punishment in store 
for him. He begged earnestly for his life, and though a 
majority of the party were for carrying out the decree of 
the Klan, the leader succeeded in sparing his life, on 
the conditions that he would cease his prosecutions of the 
Ku Klux and take no part in the political campaign in his 
county. He promised these things readily enough and 
was allowed to return to his home in safety. 

Dozens of just such cases were described by witnesses be- 
fore the Senate Investigating Committee, though many of 

The Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina 234 

them were proven not to have been committed by the Ku 
Klux. The majority of the outrages were in retaliation 
for similar ones or for threats on the part of the victims. 

It is easy to understand the power such an organization, 
shrouded as it was in mystery, almost perfect in its organiza- 
tion and with perfect obedience on the part of the members to 
the orders of the officers, could have in such a condition of 
society. It is easy to understand how it could have degen- 
erated into a band of cut-throats and mid-night marauders 
no matter what may have been its original character. As 
long as it remained merely a local organization, with only 
a few members, the precautions used to get only men of 
good character to join it were successful. But when it took 
the entire South for its territory and its membership in- 
creased from a few individuals to thousands, these precau- 
tions failed and the worse sort of men not only got in but 
obtained control of its actions, and gave character to the 
organization. Good men then ceased to take part in its 
proceedings and it went from bad to worse. 

While no one would attempt to justify its methods, it is 
undoubtedly true that not all its punishments were justi- 
fiable. It is also true that many of the outrages attribut- 
ed to the Ku Klux were committed by other organizations 
or by men belonging to no organization at all, who sought 
protection under the name of the Klan. 

But after all has been said, it cannot be denied that it did 
some good. Witnesses of the best character expressed 
opinions that the trouble grew out of bad government. Up 
to the time of the Reconstruction Government and Consti- 
tutions no such troubles had been heard of. If the Ku 
Klux Klan did no other good, at least its outrages opened 
the eyes of the country to the real condition of affairs in the 
South, which began the work of reform. When this 
was accomplished, order was restored, and the Ku Klux 
Klan passed out of existence. "Ku-Kluxism was the 
legitimate off-spring of misrule : it followed and dis- 
appeared with its parent." 


BY B. C. M. 

//T would ]ove and be loved infinitely," Esther had said 
with that earnest look in her brown eyes which lin- 
gered, long- after the eagerness had faded utterly. 
Ten years had passed since that day under the apple trees. 
Ten years that had changed the girl into a woman; yet 
Esther still remembered the look in Teddy's grey eyes as 
he answered slowly, "I am sure we want the same thing, 
Esther, but I am not sure that we shall find it in the same 

Esther had not understood. She very often did not un- 
derstand Teddy's enigmatical speeches. So she said noth- 
ing, and some one had interrupted just then, so that it was 
only at the end of the afternoon, as he was going, that he 
had spoken to her again. "I hope that you will get what 
you want," he had said, "Are you going to lead a crusade 
to find it?" "A crusade of two, if you will join the 
ranks," laughed Esther lightly. "By all means. Then 
I shall of course be required to report progress to head- 
quarters," he answered, laughing too. Esther looked a 
little grave. "You know that my plan in travelling as I 
intend is to cut myself off entirely from old plans and old 
friends, and to find what I long for in a new environment. 
There is nothing now to hold me here." Teddy here an- 
swered more soberly than she expected. "I think you are 
making a mistake." he said quietly, "Our lives come to us 
without our own seeking, and when we do not find what 
we want, it is never because what we want is not there. 
It is our own blindness. You know 'Eove comes unsought, 
unseen.'" Esther colored. She did not want a sermon 
and she said so. "I was taking the privilege of an old 
friend to explain where my point of view differed from your 
own," he answered with a little hurt look about his sensi- 
tive mouth. Esther relented a little. "In ten years you 

A Message 236 

may make your report," she said still lightly, but less un- 
kindly, "that will give you time to make sure of the suc- 
cess or the failure of your search." "I don't know," he 
said, "sometimes it takes a lifetime to make sure of that. 
But I am glad of so much grace. I will report then — but 
ten years is a long time, Esther." He had waited a mo- 
ment, Esther remembered, as if waiting for a reversal of 
the verdict. Then he held out both hands and took Es- 
ther's for a minute. Words were trembling on his lips but 
he did not say them. "It is too soon," he thought, "she 
must know the world, and her own ideal first. " So he did 
not speak, but his eyes said "Good-bye; God bless you, 

And that was ten years ago. All this Esther remem- 
bered quite distinctly as she looked out of the window that 
morning. Perhaps because that speech had come to her 
with such bitter irony. The thought of those ideals made 
her wince. She had thought them dead, quite killed by the 
last five years of her life. Those years in which she had 
sought to stifle her very soul that she might still its pain — 
and had sought in vain. The old thoughts came back to 
her mind with cruel persistency that day. The years had 
not served to fit the ideal to the reality. The one had 
sunk lower with each recurring day, widening the chasm 
between them. The other had changed no iota save for 
an inevitable broadening. 

Esther herself sometimes wondered how this could be. 
How this thing which she had sought to kill had lived and 
grown up out of herself into a higher light forcing her 
vision ever upward. She had known the Vision Beautiful 
and she could not forget. Yet she sat to-day with the 
pinched, starved look of soul-hunger on her thin face. "I 
wonder why," she said. And yet she knew. 

Finally she rose mechanically, and seating herself at 
her desk began to write. At first, rapidly, with feverish 
haste; then more slowly as the thoughts grew beyond her 

237 University Magazine 

"Dear Teddy," she wrote, "I am quite sure that you 
have forgotten the strange compact that we made ten 
years ago, out under the apple trees. And yet to-day I 
feel compelled to tell you of the failure of my quest. 

"Ten years has been time enough to determine my life. 
Yet I am only thirty — and you are thirty-five. Ten years 
out of eternity is a little while, but our measure of time is 
so different from God's, isn't it? A thousand years in His 
sight is but as yesterday, but to us the yesterday is as a 
thousand years. 

' 'But my report is official and must be to the point. I 
looked for love a long time, Teddy, and many gave me 
love. Yet somehow I did not care for it. I thought then 
it was because one man was commonplace, and one was 
sentimental, and one was dull, and so on, through the list. 
But in my heart of hearts I knew they did not love me per- 
fectly. Their love was not the love of my dream. 

' 'I am afraid that I disregarded the feelings of others in 
my desire to find what I sought. I longed for love; my 
soul hungered for it, and yet it did not come. I had sacri- 
ficed many hearts on the Altar of my Quest, and at last one 
man told me so. I had not known, and I was sorry, but 
five years had passed and my crusade had been in vain. 

"It was then that I determined to make an ideal of a 
reality since I could not realize my ideal. I married a man 
who had loved me for a long while, as men count love. 
He loved me enough to go without his breakfast for my 
sake — and I have heard women say that a man can do no 
more. He — my husband — told me that he would die for 
me. Perhaps he would have — then. I have sometimes — 
Oh! I know it is wrong, sinful, wicked! — yet I have some- 
times wished he had. He might have done that well. He 
has proved that he could not live for me. 

"You will ask if I loved him. Looking backward now 
upon my heart I know that I had no love to give. I had 
consecrated it to my ideal. I had dishonored it by offering 
its semblance to a lower thing, but I had changed it no 

A Message 238 

iota. Yet I persuaded, not myself, but my seeming self, 
that I cared for him. I benumbed my reason; I stilled my 
heart. I even stifled my soul. And to-day — O God! — it 
will not be hushed. It cries aloud for love, for help! God 
could help me, but He is so far away. I have put Him far 
away, I know — but is there no human being- to answer my 
cry to-day? Oh Teddy! You were right! I did want the 
highest, but I did not look for it as I should. I have cho- 
sen the lower way instead of the higher. The higher 
ideal is still enthroned, calm, serene, trustful, trusting, un- 
utterably perfect, but the low thing that I chose, the false 
god that I bowed down before has ground me down. His 
heel is on my neck. My soul is crushed. I am utterly 
alone — more alone than the world can dream. 

"Perhaps it is my loneliness that makes me write. I 
cannot tell. It is my heart that I am showing you, you 
know; but no one knows that I have one. Do you remem- 
ber that I used to have a heart in those brave bright days 
under the apple trees? 

"I hope that you have been a more successful crusader 
than myself. I pray God that such happiness may be yours 
always, if not my own, for, Oh Teddy! I know too well 
that I have failed in my quest." 

The proud, overcharged heart had found a voice at last. 
The uncontrollable longing for human sympathy surged 
over her with an aching intensity, as she sat there in soul 
loneliness, in a silence that was as the hush of death. 

Esther folded and sealed her letter, but she did not send 
it; only laid it away reverently, with the gentle hands of 
one who is touching a sacred thing. Laid it away in the 
grave where her dead hopes lay quite cold and still. She 
turned the key upon it, thinking of her heart that lay 
there too. 

Then she went to the window and looked out. The rain 
was falling heavily, slowly, with a dreary monotonous 
persistency. The earth was dull and sodden along the un- 
smiling street, and the sparse vegetation looked pale and 

239 University Magazine 

spiritless. Nothing- human was visible; only a dejected 
fowl that crept along- as if ashamed of its drooping, 
draggled appearance. 

Esther's lips forced themselves into a hard smile at the 
grim sarcasm. ' 'Ten years ago to-day the sun was shining" 
she thought in a hopeless, uncomprehending way, "and 
all the earth was glad and bright with life." She did not 
form her thoughts into a definite speech. She only stood 
there looking out into the grey, dull distance knowing that 
her life was there; realizing in a numb sort of fashion that 
before her lay this long, pale stretch of colorless years. A 
tired feeling, an almost physical weakness swept over her 
and she sank into a chair and closed her eyes. 

She did not open them when her husband entered. He 
did not expect it. But he spoke without waiting for any 
apparent recognition of his presence. "Here is the last 
paper" he said, abruptly, holding it towards her. Esther 
opened her eyes languidly, but with some surprise. "You 
know I don't care for the papers," she said quietly, "I have 
nothing to do with the world. Is there anything of inter- 
est to you?" She knew there would be nothing of interest 
for her. 

"Oh well, there's an account of the last battle," he said, 
with a clumsy attempt at lightness which did not deceive 
his wife. 

She looked at him steadily with a scorn in her eyes 
that she could not conquer. The man's look of bravado 
faltered and fell before it. He knew that her look said, 
"You a coward who failed your country, dare to speak of 
the men who fight and die for her!" He knew too that 
whatever remnant of respect Esther might have had for him 
had vanished utterly when he resigned his commission in 
the army at the beginning of the war. 

Presently he recovered himself and looked at Esther with 
a swaggering air. She was still looking at him, but the 
scorn had faded from her eyes, leaving a look of pity^- 
ing wonder that he did not understand. She held out 

A Message 240 

her hand for the paper. Her new look perplexed him and 
he gave it to her quietly. Then he ran his hand down 
into his pocket and fished out a letter. Very soiled and 
crumpled it was, and had a ding-y look like that of a letter 
worn with much reading. 

Esther was not surprised at its appearance. Her mail 
always reached her in that condition. So she took it and 
regarded it curiously. 

It was not a business letter, so much she could tell from 
its appearance. It was a thick letter with a heavy square 
envelope and directed in a man's clear strong writing ; a 
writing she did not know. Esther turned it over feeling 
it and speculating as to its contents and wondering as 
women will. 

Her husband scrutinized her wan face closely. His love 
for Esther had been only a short-lived fancy, and the 
single plating of romance had soon worn off their mar- 
ried lives, leaving some few places bare. He wished to 
hurt her in some way. He felt vaguely irritated by 
her manner and wished to retaliate. 

"Letter from some old lover?" he queried coarsely, 
with an intention Esther could not fail to understand. She 
gazed at him thoughtfully, but she said nothing. Again the 
weaker spirit quailed before the stronger, and the man 
strolled out with a would-be-careless "see you later." 

Esther opened the letter slowly, her eyes quite unseeing, 
her mind unconscious of what her fingers were doing. A 
folded sheet fell out, and Esther stooped and picked it up 
mechanically. But she did not read it. Only laid it on the 
table beside her, and opening the closely written sheets of 
the letter let her eyes, still unseeing, fall upon them. 

But a look of interest, even eagerness, dawned in her 
eyes as she read on. "Have you forgotten that day under 
the apple trees so many, many years ago?" she read, "and 
the compact we made then? We started out with a dif- 
ferent theory of life, though at first, I had none formulated. 
You always knew your your own mind, Esther ; I only 

241 University Magazine. 

knew the thoughts that forced themselves upon me. Men 
are less often self-analytical than women, I think. 

"The big- things didn't seem to come at first, Esther, 
after you were gone, and after a while it came to me 
that I must seek the beauty of the little things. So I 
did, and found it too. 

"Things were pretty uneventful for a long time. You 
know how they always were at home, and I jogged 
along with the rest, but I held fast to my ideal and it has 
never failed me. 

"I tried to fancy myself in love once or twice, but it 
wouldn't work and I dropped it. Finally, I formulated my 
own theory. It was the mate to your own quotation, 
Esther, its complement, and to my mind, its perfecting. 'I 
would love infinitely and be loved.' So I gave all of my- 
self to the world that I could give, and my whole being I 
consecrated to my ideal. 

"One very beautiful friendship taught me many things, 
but it was the one great human love of my life, that made 
my life worth living. You will wonder at this, Esther, 
but that love, utterly unrequited, has made my life a hap- 
piness to me, and, I pray God, to some few others. 

"I would not give all of my love at first. My false pride 
held my heart with both hands, and said "No." But I 
killed the pride and loved on, as I love to-day but without 
hope of return. That love has lifted my life up to God 
and given it to Him, and I know that only in Him is human 
love made perfect. 

"Oh! my feelings are human enough, I assure you! Do 
you suppose I haven't 'striven and agonized'? that I haven't 
prayed for that love as I had never prayed before? I 
know too that love is made perfect through love, and my 
own would have grown had things been different. Yet it 
could not be more to me than it is to-day. 

"I have loved infinitely and been loved some little, and 
to-day I shall wear that love for a shield when I go to 

"I hope that your married life has been a happy one. I 
know that you could never have married an unworthy man. 

A Message 242 

"I have learned of you all that I could through all these 
years, but I didn't dare to write before. This letter is to 
fulfil my compact ; to tell you that my quest has not failed 
utterly, for love has taught me how to live, cheerfully, hap. 
pily, even blessedly, my daily life ; and to say 'good-bye' if 
I should pass across to-day. 

"Good-bye. God bless you, dear." 

Esther's eyes were dim as she reached over for the sheet 
that lay upon the table. "A post-script written after the 
battle," she thought tenderly, "Dear Teddy, how consider- 
ate he has always been." 

It was written after the battle. That was clear. But it 
was in another hand. "Dear Madam," it began, "We are 
deeply grieved " 

Esther's eyes took in the rest of the brief contents at a 
glance. It was from the Colonel of his regiment. A let- 
ter full of grief for the loss of a personal friend as well as 
a fearless officer,but his grief was little to Esther just then. 
She was thinking that she knew why she had lost her 
crusade, and she could be glad at least of failure. "I am 
glad he knows," she thought, and a blessed quietness stole 
over her. 

She sat quite still, looking out into the gathering dark- 
ness. The sound of the hush, the gentle noise of the soft, 
swift rush of rain, soothed her now, as if a choir of angel 
voices whispered to her. "Perhaps it is God's voice," she 
said in a half whisper. 

The feeling of calm still remained with her after her 
husband came in that evening. He was looking at her 
thin white face with the heavy bronze hair all about it, 
and he did not understand the new look in her great deep 

"What is it, Esther"? he asked more kindly than usual. 
The almost transcendent beaut} 7 of her face had awed him, 
and he spoke again, lightly but more than half in earnest, 
"Was your letter a message from the Lord to teach you 
how to die?" 

Esther looked up with a sweet strange smile on her pale 
lips. "No" she answered very gently. "It was a message 
from the Lord to teach me how to live." 




FAR up in the northern sea, in the region of eternal 
winter, lies the island of Iceland — a remarkable land. 
The hardy Icelanders showed Columbus the way to 
America ; but that is not Iceland's chiefest glory. Rather 
that there was made the only record we have of the relig- 
ious belief common to all branches of the Teutonic race. 
Christianity literally swept the old pagan faith, which had 
prepared the way for it, from the earth, leaving hardly a 
trace of it in Teutonic literature. But for Iceland and the 
Eddas a sublime and simple faith would be lost to 
us. It was Saemond, author of the Elder or Prose Edda, 
and Snorre Sturleson, author of the Younger or Poetic 
Edda, who wrote down some fragments of that religion. 
In words that cannot die these two Iceland prophets, wrote 
the Old and New Testaments of Teutonic faith, preserving 
for posterity the grandest mythology that the world has 
seen. Let us go back with the authors of the Eddas to the 
dim dawn of our race and behold what manner of men 
they were that fathered us, whose blood still ebbs and 
flows in our hearts. 

The character of a people or race may be best determined 
by studying the nature of their religious belief. He who 
thoroughly understands the real faith, not the theology, of 
a people, knows what they thought, what they did, what 
they were. Not only because it was the faith of our fathers' 
but because it gives us an insight into their ways of think- 
ing, feeling, and acting, should the Odinic mythology be 
regarded by us with anything but contempt or ridicule. 

It is true, in a sense, that this religion has been supersed- 
ed. But in a larger sense much of it still lives and will 
live as long as the Germanic race, because it embodies, it 
is instincts, aspirations, characteristics which run with 

The Odinic Mythology 244 

Teutonic blood and are perennial in the Teutonic brain. 
True it is paganism. But it has much of universal truth 
in it ; much that is still worthy of imitation and admiration. 
When darkness was over all lands, these stern sincere 
forefathers of ours, in their bleak northern home, had a 
truly marvelous measure of light in their heroic souls. If 
they bowed before thing's of wood or stone, they were 
worshipping, not the thing, but the god of whom the 
thing was but a symbol. When we who are the heirs of 
the ages, sitting in the glare of 19th century civiliza- 
tion, censure or sneer at those old fathers of ours because 
in early ages, in the child-hood of the race, they bowed be- 
fore idols, we are cruelly unjust. It is a fact that every 
religion, Christianity included, uses symbols. The human 
mind calls for something tangible — an outward and 
material expression for an inward and spiritual truth. 
Our rude fore-fathers saw God, as would we might see him, 
everywhere and in everything. The divine mystery was 
in every tree of the forest, every flower of the field. The 
divine presence was real there in the thunder-cloud, and 
the flame that darted from it was the messenger of 
divine wrath. 

It is just here that we strike the key-note of this faith. 
The early Teutons, brought face to face with the 
tremendous problems of the material and spiritual world, 
did not try to explain the unknown and unknowable by 
formulas. The universe, they thought, cannot be a 
machine. Rather it is divine, with gods ruling and guid- 
ing it. There is much beyond and above us and we must 
worship. It was the true worship which Carlyle so well 
defined as "a boundless admiration." 

That was paganism. But doesn't the world need to a 
very considerable extent to get back to such faith, implicit, 
sublime and to realize that the universe is still a wonder, 
and the being, man, still a Sphinx's riddle, unsolved and 
unsolvable? O, that in an age of artificialness, insincerity, 
shallowness that thinks it is depth, we might catch a 

245 University Magazine 

breath fresh from Teutonic paganism and breathe in some- 
thing - of the solemn earnestness, the awe and wonder 
growing up into adoration of something above them, mys- 
terious, unexplainable, which dwelt in the great souls of 

our ancestors. 

* * * * 

In the old Teutonic faith, and the Norse form of it which 
the Eddas have handed down to us, the god Odin is 
the central figure. He is called Allfather because he 
is the father of gods and men. He sits in his hall 
and looks over the whole world. Carlyle thinks he was 
a living man — a hero — the teacher and prophet of his 
people. He is said to have invented the Norse alphabet 
and poetry. When he was gathered to his fathers, his 
people erected him into a divinity. Then from Odin, as 
the seed-grain, the whole mythology is supposed to have 
sprung up. The next God to Odin is Thor, who carries a 
hammer which crushes where it strikes. The lightning 
bolt is this hammer flying from the hand of Thor. Like 
Odin he is the representative of force, physical strength 
indomitable courage, fearless valor. 

We are, however, too apt to think of our fathers in this 
light, — as fighters, stern, unconquerable men who fought 
like wild beasts in an amphitheater. There is this side. 
But there is another and a gentler side of which we think 
too little. There is Balder, the beautiful, the benignant, 
who has been compared to Christ. "He is so fair of face 
and so bright," says the Younger Edda, "that rays of light 
issue from him." Nothing unclean can enter his abode, 
for he is purity itself. The Elder Edda speaks of this 
abode : 

Breidablik it is called Where Balder has 
Built for himself a hall In the land 
Where I know is found The least of evil. 
Of all the Norse deities this Balder is by far the most 
interesting to me. He is the god of life and light; — him- 
self the light of the world. When the demon Loke slays him 

The Odinic Mythology 246 

it is the victory of darkness over light, and everything in 
nature weeps. The rude Norse mind is wonderfully im- 
pressed with the infinite sadness and pathos of the death 
of Balder. Read the laments in both the Eddas over the 
death of Balder — Balder who never fought a battle or 
caused a drop of blood to flow, but was rather an apostle 
of peace and good-will — and you will get some idea of the 
deeps of pity, tenderness, and love that were in the hearts 
of those lovers of battle and strife. 

Odin, Thor, Balder, and many more are gods. They 
represent the forces of good which are always at war with 
the forces of evil, the giants or Jotuns. The hostile agen- 
cies of nature, such as tempest and fire, are Jotuns. Loke, 
flame, the crafty demon who slays Balder, is the most rep- 
resentative. The gods dwell in Asgard; the giants in Jo- 

In Vingolf dwell the goddesses. The chiefest is Prigg, 
the wife of Odin. With her ranks Freya, one of those 
Valkyries who doom warriors to die in battle, and after 
bear them to be happy with Odin in Valhal and drink 
great draughts of mead. Thus to attain Valhal it was 
necessary to be brave. Another goddess was Gef jung who 
attempted to compensate those of her sex who in this 
world had not known conjugal joys, by taking them for her 
hand-maidens in the next. 

There is one god whom his worshippers did not dare to 
name. He is the highest god, higher than Odin, the 
heathen's conception of the true god. In the younger Ed- 
da, Gylfe is told that he "lives from everlasting to everlast- 
ing, rules over all his realm, and governs all things, great 

and small What is most important: he made man and 

gave him a spirit which shall live, and never perish, 
though the body may turn to dust or burn to ashes." Call 
them idolaters if you will. But I say that these old Teu- 
tons, with their sublime faith in the soul's immortality, 
the life everlasting, and their belief that virtue alone can 
raise to heaven and vice alone can drag to hell, were rest- 
ing upon the bed-rock of eternal and universal truth. 

247 University Magazine 

"Those who live a life of virtue," says the Edda, "shall 
dwell with this god in Gimle," Thus says the prophecy of 
the Vala: 

A hall I know, standing Than the sun fairer, 
Than gold better, Gimle by name. 
The virtuous there Shall always dwell 
And evermore Delights enjoy. 

This is the highest heaven, the real heaven, higher than 
Asgard or Valhalla. In the king-dom of Hel or Death 
dwell the spirits of the peaceful. 

But the Odinic mythology is not all heavens. There is 
Naastrand, the awful hell, where the wicked are torn by 
the dragon Nidhug. The torment, however, is not unend- 
ing. The wicked may be purged of their crimes, eternal 
goodness may wash away evil, and the gates of Naastrand 
swing wide. The Vala commands: "Sink thou of giant- 
hood," and the great serpent Nidhug's reign is ended. I 
am glad that stern, severe, just, liberty-loving though they 
were, our pagan fathers could not conceive of endless pun- 
ishment, an irrevocable doom. 

One of the most colossal conceptions in their mythology 
was that of the world-ash, Ygdrasil, the tree of existence, 
whose branches spread over the world and reach higher 
than heaven. At its roots sit the Norns in whose hands 
are the fates of men. • Under one root is the well of Mimer, 
"Wherein," says the Edda, "knowledge and wisdom are 
concealed." At its foot lies the serpent Nidhug. Its roots 
are in the dim dawn of the world and its top-most boughs 
are lost to view in the clouds of eternity. It is the tree of 
life. "Its boughs," says Carlyle, "are histories of nations. 
The rustle of it is as the noise of human existence onwards 
from of old." It is indeed a Titanic conception. The 
minds as well as the bodies of our progenitors were giant- 

One of the strangest things about this Norse mythology 
is that its gods are not immortal. They renew their 
youth by eating Idun's apples, but to the fatalistic minds 

The Odinic Mythology 248 

of the Northmen they were all doomed. Ragnarok, the 
twilight of the gods, is coming-. Then shall gods and Jo- 
tuns, good and evil, meet in the last great conflict — a 
world-grapple for the supremacy. The fearful Fenris- 
Wolf gets unchained, and breathing out fire, rushes upon 
Odin and swallows him. The terrible Midgard serpent 
fights beside the Wolf. Thor slays it, but, like Beowulf 
in his last great fight, is poisoned by its venom. Then the 
sun is dimmed; the moon vanishes; the stars are hurled 
from heaven; and the earth shakes while the sea rushes 
over it. Says the Edda: 

The sun grows dark ; The earth sinks into the sea. 
The bright stars From heaven vanish; 
Fire rages, Heat blazes 

And high flames play 'Gainst heaven itself. 

Heaven and earth are consumed in the conflagration. 
Shadows and darkness and gloom flit over the universe. 

And is this the end? Ah, no. Gloomy and fatalistic as 
it was, the Norse mind could yet see the dawn beyond the 
night. A man and woman escape the wreck of all created 
things, and from them a new race springs up. Hear the 
Edda: "The earth rises again from the sea, and is green 
and fair. The fields unsown produce their harvests .... 
Balder and Hoder come from Hel. They sit together and 
talk about the things that happened aforetime." All ills 
now cease, and Ragnarok is succeeded by Regeneration. 
Thus the rude Norse mind, looking deep into the heart of 
things, grasped the eternal verity that there is no death; 
that what we call death is but a re-birth into a new and 
better lite. 

We have here some idea of what our ancestors believed 
and therefore of what kind of men they were. We might 
compare their faith with the Greek and Roman mythology. 
There are resemblances, just as all religions and mytholo- 
gies are necessarily more or less alike. But on the whole 
it would be a comparison of depth and sincerity with arti- 
ficialness and frivolity — the great untutored strength of 

249 University Magazine 

the Teutonic mind set against the light grace of the Greek. 
Our ancestors walked with heavy tread, shaking the 
ground. Masterful, aggressive men were they, loving vir- 
tue and truth, whose ambition was to die in battle and go 
to Odin in Valhalla. Restless, conquering men — Vikings 
who roved the sea — the progenitors of Nelson and 
Dewey. Cast in heroic mould, without fear of death, such 
were they; such the faith which was a part of them. They 
died as they had lived, heroically. Sometimes an old Teu- 
tonic king, drawing to the end of his days, preparing his 
funeral pyre on his ship, and setting fire to it, drifted in 
stately and lonely majesty out into the sea — into the un- 
known — his soul ascending in flame — the boundless ocean 
his body's grave. 

This manly faith has vanished from the earth. It lies 
overthrown among the time-wrecked faiths with which the 
path of human progress is strewn. Odin is no more, and 
Thor the thunderer is silent now. Odin's maidens choose 
no more the deathless warriors who are to fill Valhal with 
the noise of joy and battle. Gods and Jotuns fight no 
more, and Nidhug and Naastrand are sunken. The 
spreading branches of Ygdrasil are no longer above us, 
and Balder the beautiful is dead. The old faith has passed 
completely away. It had its part to play in the evolution 
of a race and a civilization, of liberty and law, and grand- 
ly did it fulfill that part. It existed not in vain, and 
though it be now but a beautiful memory, it should be a 
memory that can never fade. 

Surely the faith of those fathers of ours is right worthy 
to be meditated and remembered, for pagan and of 
the past though it be, it did a great work and had in it 
something stupendously great and grand — many a thing 
that is true yet and will be forever. 



WHEN he first crawled out into the warm sunshine from 
beneath a rotten log- in company with a dozen brothers 
and sisters, the ordinary observer would not have 
noticed anything markedly demoniacal about him. If the 
huge, diamond-backed mother lying- near by, had kept her 
rattles still perhaps the on-looker would have merely 
thought: "Where can all those big- fishing--worms be going 
in this fine weather?" But the gleam from a dozen pair 
of little, almost microscopic eyes, soon would have expelled 
that fishing worm delusion from the observer's mind. The 
family lay sunning- near a log-heap on the far side of Mrs. 
Marshburn's new-ground. Mrs.Marshburn by the way, was 
a New Yorker who had built a cottag-e — with her pension 
money people said — near the shore of a small sound in 
North Carolina. She was away now in the Adirondacks, 
so it was no concern of hers if a dozen young - rattlers with 
their mother were trespassing upon her North Carolina 
possessions. But it was a matter of concern to her manager, 
who happened to pass an hour later. He took a seasoned 
sapling from the log-heap and at one blow crushed the life 
out of the coiled mother. At the first alarm all the young 
ones had taken refuge in the mother's mouth — ex- 
cept one, the Demon. The man threw the dead mother 
with her imprisoned living young, upon the pile of logs, 
then set fire to it, and coldly walked back to the house. The 
escaped young one, from under the root of a near by stump, 
watched the destruction of his kin and declared war against 
man and all the animals which were friendly to him. 

But the Demon could not carry this declaration into effect 
at once. He was a little snake then, certainly no demon 
except inspirit and capabilities, and he must wait. A year 
passed and he had done no damage; a second and a third. The 
fourth came, and with it three feet of length and the third 
rattle. The Demon could sing merrily now when provoked. 

251 University Magazine 

Soon after his fourth birth-day he had his first taste of re- 
venge. Lying in coil one day by the road-side, without warn- 
ing he struck the manager's dog. Next morning the dog, a 
valuable deer-hound, lay dead at his master's door. It was 
without avail to rave and issue warrants for the poisoner, 
for the power of the law reached not the Demon, lying 
secure in a mole-track behind the garden fence. 

Three more years the Demon passed within a 
mile of the Marshburn farm, now in the field, again 
in the swamp , and the thicket, or crawling lazily 
and stealthily through the high, thick marsh-grass 
which grew upon the shore, fringing the very water's 
edge. All this time he had found no opportunity to in- 
jure man and his friends, but the cherished hatred grew 
deeper, more intense day by day. Besides he was a big 
snake now, nearly five feet long with fangs that could sink 
half an inch into the flesh of his victim. 

One calm September day when the tide was out, he drag- 
ged his lazy length over the seaweed and yellow sand, and 
crawled into a hollow log which the out-flowing waters had 
left lying there. That night a storm came staving in from 
the Southwest, piling up the waves and tide. The log 
drifted out upon the Sound, bearing its freight of poison. 
Next day the Demon was tossed np and down, hither and 
thither all day long. On the second morning a North 
wind sent the log drifting steadily toward the fishing 
settlement on the Banks. When near the channel of the 
Sound, the Demon crawled through a knot-hole and 
managed to keep himself on top of the log. The en- 
gineer of a passing tug which had several barges of 
lumber in tow, spied him. "Great God! What a rat- 
tler!" he exclaimed, as he ran for the captain's rifle. Bang! 
A chip flew up in front of the serpent, but he only raised 
his rattles. Another report of the rifle sounded and the 
rattles with the last joint of the tail, fell into the water. 
The pain caused the Demon to topple over and before he 
had regained his place the tug was out of range. There 

The Demon of Wilson's Ridge 252 

was one more count against man, and never again could 
the Demon warn his victim. 

He floated all day, and at mid-night when the log - was 
left lying near a fishing-camp, he wriggled out into the 
drift piled upon the shore. For a week he stole in and 
out among the bunches of tall marsh-grass. Late one 
afternoon, when the distant prows of the fishing-boats 
were pointed toward the deserted camp, he struggled under 
the weather-boarding and crept into the cot of the cook. 
That night he struck his sharp fangs into the ankle of the 
sleeping and wearied man, then secretly crept out into the 
thorny shrubbery behind the camp. The sleeper stirred 
slightly, then became quiet again. But soon after he a- 
woke, with his brain in a whirl, his limbs aching and 
his blood boiling. He would have called his comrades 
but he could not control his lips. No word escaped from 
them. Shaking and trembling with the chill of the eter- 
nal sleep upon him, the man tried to think of his wife and 
child but his thought became dim and blurred. Shortly 
he grew still and stiff and cold. 

Next morning the fishermen not noticing the pale still- 
ness of their companion, repaired to their boats to make 
ready for the day's work. When they returned to the 
camp for breakfast the cook was still abed. Outside the 
hut, a deep-printed trail three inches wide in the loose 
white sand showed where serpent had been. Later in the 
day when the men bore their dead companion slowly and 
sorrowfully to their boats, from out a geen thick thorn- 
bush the eyes of the Demon gleamed merrily as he count- 
ed One. 

A month later he had taken possession of the dune run- 
ning up and down the length of the Island, called Wilson's 
Ridge. This was his permanent home which he left only 
at short intervals to forage on the shore, but a few hun- 
dred yards away. The haze of October was predicting 
frost and suggesting thoughts of winter-quarters to his 
snakeship, when he made his final excursion for that year 

253 University Magazine 

into the marshes. A herd of ponies were feeding - near by, 
not scenting - their enemy. The prettiest little mare in the 
herd came too near the fatal coil, when the curved fangs 
pierced deeply into the shaggy fetlock. With a snort, the 
pony turned and galloped madly into the briny waters of 
the Sound. A week later the crew of a passing oyster 
boat looked with pity upon the bloated carcass as it rose 
and fell upon the waves. 

Secure beneath the roots of an upturned tree the Demon 
lay torpid that winter. When the air grew heavy with 
the fragrance of the bay and yellow jessamine, and the 
sands on the shore seemed quivering with the first heat of 
May, he began to stir once more. But he was not very ac- 
tive for some time. When the burning days of July came 
he slowly pushed his way through the cedars and dense 
shrubbery two miles down the Ridge toward the settle- 
ment. One night at dusk when he came home from a fish- 
ing trip, old Billy Smith, the oldest member and king of 
the settlement, found his favorite sow swollen and panting 
beside the gate. He drenched her with blockade rum, and 
doctored her all night but it was no use. Next day they 
dragged her into the Sound. It was pathetic to see old 
Billy's grief, for the sow was an important member of the 
family. Every night she slept in a corner of the yard and 
kindly waked the family next morning with her grunting. 
She was always at hand on wash-day to eat the soap or to 
chew her masters fishy overalls. "She was better than 
a wash-board," old Billy whined. "'Sides that, she was 
the faithfullest sow I ever seen. W'y, that 'ere sow was 
natchally 'shamed to have less than eight pigs at once, an' 
she raised 'em ev'ryone. There aint a warment on Bogue 
Banks that could take a pig from that 'ere sow." But what 
did the Demon care for an old man's loss and sorrow? 

Three hot weeks of August passed. It was fine weather 
for rattlers, people said, and they steered clear of all shrub- 
bery. One sultry afternoon the widow Tatum, desiring a 
new broom, asked her only child, Dora, to go up the shore 

The Demon of Wilson's Ridge 254 

and gather some palmetto. The girl was the pride of the 
settlement, the very life of her mother and the betrothed of 
Sam Nebb, who by common consent, was to be king- when 
old Billy Smith died. She did not wish to go, for a cloud 
was in the West, the thunder was booming-' threateningly as 
the lightning played lurid along the horizon, and far 
down the shore the light of the breakers could be seen al- 
ready as they came dashing over the bar. But always du- 
tiful, the girl took a case-knife and left the house, hurried- 
ly. Singing, with a light heart, not thinking of danger, 
she had gone nearly half a mile from the house, when on 
the banks of a little cove where a sluggish stream poured 
its dark waters into the Sound, she spied a dense cluster of 
palmetto. The dead, brushy top of a storm-uprooted pine 
surrounded it and showered the brown, crisp needles about 
it at the passing of every gust. With one hand the girl 
seized a broad leaf and reached the knife down among the 
stems. She saw and heard nothing but the rustle of the 
dense green foliage as she tugged at the tough, fibrous stem. 
Suddenly something struck her a blow on the wrist. In 
terror the knife fell from her hand, she jerked back her 
arm, but not before the quick head of the Demon shot out 
from beneath the leaves and again struck her upon the 
arm. She jumped back and looked at it. Great God! 
Pour bleeding spots, with the greenish-yellow poison ooz- 
ing out, showed where the long hollow fangs had pierced. 
With a loud cry which was heard by a passing skiff two 
miles away, the girl turned and ran, screaming at every 
bound. The thorns and shrubs tore her clothes, scratched 
her face and hands but she heeded not that; the broken 
shells along the path cut her brown bare feet and ankles, 
but she knew it not. Her terrified mother met her at the 
door and led her staggering to the bed. The storm was 
beginning to break and no man dared set sail for the main 
in order to get a doctor. 

Whiskey saved her from immediate death. But the next 
week the poisoned arm swelled till the livid skin broke 

255 University Magazine 

open; then it was amputated. The following - Sabbath 
there was a flock of white sails moored at the wharf. 
More than a hundred men, women and children filled the 
yard of the widow Tatum, and sat upon the soft sand-bank 
which rose in front of it. The sea-breeze stole softly 
through the tops of the live-oaks and China-trees, and out 
on the beach could be heard the swishing waves of the At- 
lantic, as they came tumbling in softly. The mother, al- 
most dazed with grief, sat listening silently to the words 
of the minister as he stood by the side of the coffin, speak- 
ing gently of the Hope which sees beyond the grave. A 
hundred yards away, in a brush-heap the Demon lay, look- 
ing upon the scene. He thought of his dead mother and 
her young, and with great satisfaction he counted Two, 

A month later, as he crawled over the newly-made 
grave where they had buried the grief-stricken mother, 
his round eyes gleamed in the moon-light with the bril- 
liancy of a diamond as he told off Three. 

Winter passed and the hot days came again. Old ag-e 
had begun to make the Demon more slow and sluggish 
than he had ever been. He had to be careful, too, for peo- 
ple said that snakes were getting too numerous, so they 
began to cut the underbrush from the hollows, but leaving 
the dunes covered to prevent the wind from burying their 
homes in the shifting sands. One morning a half dozen 
children went over to the beach to search for turtle's eggs. 
High up from the water's edge, an old surf -boat lay 
bleaching in the sun. Tired with trudging throug-h the 
deep hot sand, the children g-athered in the boat to play. 
One end of the boat sat deep in the sand, while from the 
other the wind had swept a little hollow. The children 
beg-an to jump from the lower end; then the leader, more 
daring than the rest, perched himself over the hollow and 
leaped down. Before he reached the ground, something 
dark shot from beneath the boat and struck him in the 
side. The other children fled in terror across the Ridge to 
their homes, while the stricken boy tottered to the brow of 

Remorse 256 

the hill and fell. The Demon's malignant eyes flashed 
with a sinister fire. He saw the little body lying" so still 
beneath the blazing- sun and he counted Pour. Then he 
wriggled out of the hollow and started down to the shore. 
He heard a voice and coiled. A gun banged. The big 
round head was shattered. 

On the afternoon of the next day there was another 
mound in the little grave yard. As the people turned 
home from the burial, some noticed a few big black birds 
perched on the dead cedar tops overlooking the beach. A 
few bare bones lying upon the shore was all that was 
left of the Demon of Wilson's Ridge. 




Along the heights of wooded pine 
An old man drags his weary limbs; 
His hair is grey; his beard is white; 
His eyes, within their darkened rims, 
Glow fitful with a deep remorse: 
For him, the day is as the night. 


He thinks of those fair times when he, 
And he — his comrade — used to rove 
Light-hearted through the tangled wild, 
Through thicket and through shady grove. 
Light-hearted once. How long ago! 
If only he were still a child! 

His comrade dead, and he alive! 
The day was bright whereon he died, 
And bright the sun shone on his head, 
On his dim eyes — upon the side 
That bled with his own comrade's thrust. 
And she? Would she were dead! 



IT has been well said by another that the story of Rome is 
the most splendid romance in all history. Indeed the 
narrative of its growth seems hardly to belong- to sober 
history. It was before authentic record of humanity 
that a little group of men, speaking- the Latin-Faliscan 
tongue, wearied of their home in the rugg-ed mountains of 
the Italian peninsula. They were of a shepherd-race 
which had watched its flocks on these hill-side pastures for 
many g-enerations. And tradition said they had come from 
the north, across the mig-hty mountains which flung their 
crested heads hig-h into the blue. But they took their 
wives and children and their flocks and moved slowly to- 
ward the green and level plain and the ocean with its many 
voices, toward the river widening- to the sea. There on the 
bank of the yellow stream, they found a curving- plain, set 
like a theatre in the hills and over all its surface the saf- 
fron mud lay deep. For it was the spring time and the 
river had but lately receded to its banks. And in the 
center of this plain, hard by the river, stood two hills. It 
was a fearsome place, where none had chosen to live. For 
the sullen stream was man's enemy and there were fevers 
and all manner of evil thing-s. But those sturdy souls, the 
forbears of a world-dominion, were cast in an heroic mould. 
They climbed the steep hill, built their homes of mud and 
thatched them with rushes from the river bank : then they 
made a wall and trench around all and named their little 
city Rome. That was the twenty first day of April in the 
year 753 B. C, and it is an important day in a world's an- 

Such was the hill-top settlement by the Tiber and 
inconsiderable indeed were its possessions and its environ- 
ment. There was a group of straw-thatched houses and a 

Rome — A World-Romance 258 

few sheep and that was poverty. There was knowledge of 
nothing- save the visible powers of natnre about them and 
that was ignorance and superstition. They were but few 
and their enemies surrounded them on every side and that 
was weakness. Poverty, ignorance and weakness! These 
were the words which they read upon their lot as the 
goddess of chance whirled for them her bronze helmet. 
With such poor tools did the little village set itself to carve its 
destiny in the firm rock of history, yet unmade. How well 
they wrought the world knows. 

The romance of Roman history may be divided into four 
chapters and the first is the chapter of early struggle for 
national existence. Not often does the student of history 
think of the desperate plight of the little city. Toward the 
north across the Tiber were the proud Etruscans, a race 
well civilized, highly organized and strong in military 
power. Toward the east in the mountain fastnesses lived 
the Sabines and Samnites, the uncouth though fiercely 
aggressive men of the Italian hills. In the southland 
were the Campanians, Ligurians and Greeks, their supe- 
riors in wealth and civilization, their enemies ever, 
all different in language, in institutions and sym- 
pathy. This was the time when the work of the village 
and the field was the work of the women and old men ; when 
Roman citizenship meant service in arms and constantly 
from the season when the Tiber swelled from the melting 
snow in the mountains until its surface was locked again 
by the frost. Now the stern Roman men must guard their 
flocks against the robber-bands from the hills and again 
they march away to meet their emenies in solid rank, the 
foretype of the world conquering legion. And in the rude 
homes the women toiled and told their lisping children the 
warlike tales of mighty deeds and mighty men. And, may 
be, as the battle raged in some distant vale, they taught their 
little ones the lesson of the sturdy Roman virtues and the 
priceless honor of the Roman name and impressed upon 
their minds the truth that there is no dishonor save in a 

259 University Magazine 

coward's death and in disregard for the sancity of a Roman 
promise and a Roman's oath. And often no doubt these 
mothers gave silent but effective enforcement to their pre- 
cepts when, as the sun sank in the crimsoning- west, they 
stood in their rude homes dry-eyed and heroic, and looked 
upon the lifeless form of husband or father or eldest son and, 
in the fading - light of their day of sadness, gave thanks that 
they could do as much for their country and give their 
men to die a Roman's death. 

These were days of crippling poverty, straitened 
simplicity and heroic struggle for national existence. 
But when they had passed and the little state could 
stand in saftey, these Romans had established the 
national virtues of dignity, justice and constancy, 
which made every Roman a king. They had laid 
deep and broad the foundations for the imperial 
structure of later times — and they had builded better 
than they knew. They had forced upon their neighbors a 
grudging recognition of their military powers and that 
was the least that they had done. Had that been all, 
Rome might not have been the Rome which we know. But 
they had constructed something far greater, something 
more essential for an imperial destiny and that was — 
character. Then were established those principles of nat- 
ional thought and life which made it a crime for centuries 
that any man should take the name of a Roman upon 
his lips in jest or ridicule : then too that simplicity and 
scorn of ostentation which gave the world a Cato, stern, 
unyielding censor, and a Cincinnatus, who left the plow to 
serve his state. In that time also, this people learned that 
courage and constancy which ruled the spirit of Regulus as he 
returned to Carthage to die for the sake of his oath which was 
aRomanoath. And last and above all they had made national 
and general a regard for purity of life on which rests the stor f y 
of Brutus the first and Lucretia in whose chaste blood the 
republic was born. And that same national characteristic 
is responsible for the fact that for five centuries there was 

Rome — A World Romance 260 

never a divorce in Rome. It is idle to add that in this 
time Rome acquired a genius for war and administration, 
for they bear but slightly upon the question of her great- 
ness. The goddess of battle is fickle and any race may con- 
quer for a season. That the littie city grew to a world- 
dominion is explained by the fact that these years of war 
and hardship had created a race of men, at once pure, unos- 
tentatious, dignified, self-centered, mighty. 

The second chapter in this romance of history in the story of 
that series of wars in which Rome conquered and Romanized 
the peninsula of Italy. And the third chapter, which must be 
treated with the second is that in which she conquered and 
Romanized the world. Great indeed was the work which 
destiny had given her to do. Around her lay the known 
world stretching from the Himalayas and the muddy Gan- 
ges to the Pillars of Hercules and the British Isles and from 
the burning sands of Africa to the frozen north, and Rome 
was in its center. And in the civilization of that broad 
earth, there were three elements : first savagery, dark, cruel 
ignorant ; second, tyrrany and oppression and third a high 
order of civilization without the spirit of empire. Toward 
the north and beneath her right hand, as imperial Rome 
sat upon the hill of the capital, lay the German and the 
Celt, in the depths of the Black Forest or on the sunny 
plains of France, a mere series of disjoined tribes capable of 
of no original government, ignorantt and superstitious, with- 
out knowledge of letters or even of the possibilities and 
economic value of the land on which they lived, in a word 
savages still. Toward the south and beneath her left hand 
was a great race, the Semitic, cradled in the birth-place of 
humanity, and far advanced in all that concerns national 
welfare but, with the exception of one tribe, ignorant and 
cruelly superstitious, a people who knew not the moral law 
and the sanctity of the person and personal rights. In the 
far east, the home of luxury, were nations whose wealth 
was fabulous, whose manhood was weak, and the 
people know no law but the cruel code of the Mede and 

261 University Magazine 

Persian, held above them by the hand of a relentless tyrant. 
And, still in the east but nearer, lived a race, antiquity's 
greatest, thoughtful, imaginative, artistic, who had early 
sought Beauty and found it, who had lived their national life 
in Beauty's name. Such was the world in that distant day, 
and such the birthright which destiny had given to the 
hill-top city by the Tiber. The broad world lay all about 
her and in it was every type of man and of civilization but 
nowhere in that wide earth did there exist well organized 
constitutional authority joined with law that recognized 
the rights of the individual. 

At the dawn of Rome's imperial natal day, she 
looked upon a world into which the spirit of law 
and administration had not yet breathed its unifying in- 
fluence; at the noon time of her power, she saw the scattered 
rags and fragments joined beneath her hand ; she saw 
Order out of chaos, a world welded into a unit of empire 
and throbbing with the pulse which beat upon her capital 
and, with the setting sun of her imperial splendor, she 
might have raised her drooping eyes, her strength spent, 
her life work done, splendidly done, to look upon a world 
the better that she had lived : to know that she had 
created a new principle in civilization, the principle of 
authority, of law and order, of empire; dimly to realize, 
it may be, that she had given to the administrative affairs 
of the world an impetus which would never be spent, and 
a direction which should never essentially change. And 
that is a romance of history. From the mud huts by the 
Tiber to the splendor and might of imperial Rome seems a 
far glance but it is all within the scope of a few centuries. 
In 390 B. C. the city was taken and sacked by the Gauls and 
in 27 B. C. Augustus was crowned sole consul and emperor 
of the world, 363 years from ashes to a world-dominion. 
And the mighty fabric of empire, which Rome created, was 
carved in no yielding stuff but in the firm rock of time. 
Her legions swept out from the field of Mars to no easy 
conquest but to face bitter resistance, to crush nations 

Rome — A World-Romance 262 

wealthier and older than their own, to win battles by 
valor and grim determination ; to make the results per- 
manent by stern authority and administrative capacity. 

And the wonder becomes greater when one considers 
that great national development usually comes from the union 
of states already existing or from a powerful impetus con- 
tributed by parent nations to colonial stocks. But the Roman 
empire was unique in this. It sprung from a single city 
which, though its sway was extended over the whole known 
world, never ceased to be not alone the seat of government 
but the government itself . Rome was the nation. And with 
the period of brilliant conquest, Rome's work was not 
finished ; indeed it was hardly begun. The stricken 
nations lay prostrate at her feet, Mede, Persian, and Hindoo, 
Syrian and Phoenician, Iberian, Celt and Gaul, the children 
of darkness, ignorant, superstitious, oppressed, a series of 
disjoined tribes without a settled government, with no 
unifying political principle, in a word, chaos.. In the 
year 50 B. C. Rome received as her heritage this chaos and 
created modern Europe. The vast and heterogeneous 
domain was welded into a composite whole by a wise pro- 
vincial and colonial policy, to which we may give the name, 
the assimilative principle. Not alone did the colonies belong 
to the empire and contribute to its wealth. Rome distribu- 
ted her very self throughout the world. She gave to the 
people her laws and political and social institutions, her 
life of thought and culture, her decent and orderly civi- 
lization and her language. In a word she Romanized the 
world. And that is why the I^atin Lauguage was spoken 
by a mere handful of people in 753 B. C. while today it 
is spoken by millions and millions of the world's popula- 
rion. Then the first great contribution of Rome to a 
world's cizilization was law and order, organized govern- 
ment and sound methods in administration. And her work 
was not yet done. 

In those years of marvelous growth, Rome had recog- 
nized not only the principle of conservatism but that other 

263 University Magazine 

principle also of progress which allowed the assimilation of 
other elements from a foreign source. To the east lived 
the Greeks, a nation endowed with imagination and the in- 
stinct for the beautiful in thought and form and life. And 
the goddess of battle decreed that Rome should conquer 
them. But after conquest the imperial city of the west 
learned that, though its body was strong and vigorous and 
wholesome, its mind was uncultivated, its thought un- 
couth and its emotion crude. And Rome the mistress sat 
at the feet of conquered Athens and learned of art and lit- 
erature and beauty of life, until that great throbbing 
political unit, strong in the accumulated physical force of 
the years, was filled with Greek culture. Then, when the 
great wave of dominion and authority swept out from 
Rome, its center and source, it carried high upon its crest 
this new-won element of Greek art and civilization 
and literature, and, when the great wave broke in the 
thunders of imperial conquest, receding, it left in every 
land the impress of the beautiful life in the city by the 
eastern sea. And Rome's second contribution to civili- 
zation, is found in the fact, that when she made the world 
Roman, she made it also Greek. 

Again and in the later years, Rome found another ele- 
ment of life better than her own. For centuries, she 
had clung fondly to the religion of the older day ; had tol- 
erated it from her spirit of conservatism. But it could 
not be in harmony with her later life : it could not sat- 
isfy her thoughtful men. And so her people groped in 
darkness and her leaders could speak only in uncertainty, 
since it was not given them to see the light. But the 
Apostles of the Christian church brought to Rome the 
Message of the Gospel. The great city first resisted and 
persecuted, then tolerated and finally accepted the new faith 
in enthusiasm. And Rome had ceased to be Pagan and 
become Christian, ultimately in fact the center of the 
church. Then the same imperial forces operated as had 
operated before. As law and order and Greek culture had 

Rome — A World-Romance 264 

gone forth to all the world and been reinforced in 
the most remote civilizations so now her strong arm gave 
support to Christianity and helped to spread the gospel 
to every part of her imperial domain. Rome's third con- 
tribution to civilization is found in the fact that she not 
only made the world Roman and, in a measure, Greek, but 
that she helped to make it also Christian. 

We have noted the marvellous growth of the city of 
Rome from a group of mud huts on the Palatine to impe- 
rial magnitude. And a broad view of the theme would 
dictate that consideration be given to the circumstances 
under which this greatness was attained. In the first in- 
stance one should not fail to remember that imperial Rome 
was built at a time when transportation was at best very 
slow, when communication of any sort with distant re- 
gions was exceedingly difficult. But in spite of this, 
Rome's great domain was organized by Roman genius and 
authority and controlled by Roman law. So tremendous 
was the accumulated energy and force of empire at her cen- 
tre, that the lines of influence radiating therefrom could 
and did reach to the regions most remote, and not with 
strength wasted but there to stir the sluggish life of the 
colonies, inspire new and worthier ambition and safeguard 
the indivilual's right of life and property. Not only her 
civic power but even the influence of her very fashions and 
art of living were felt in every province. The savage Bri- 
ton vied with Mede and Parthian in learning Roman arts 
and manners; those who began by proudly refusing to 
learn the Roman language, ended by striving for distinc- 
tion in eloquence and to acquire the toga of citizenship was 
the provincial's highest aim. Distance could not impair 
the effectiveness of her influence. Parthian and Samnite, 
Phoenician and Oscan, Iberian and Etruscan, all felt the 
magic of her imperial touch, responded and became Ro- 

And again the student of history does well to remember 
that the most critical formative era in Roman development 

265 University Magazine 

was at the time of greatest stress at the seat of govern- 
ment. These people were conservative and established 
law and custom were always favored. Hence they clung 
tenaciously to the old institutions of the Republic. They 
had established a home government, exceedingly well 
adapted to the control of a small city but ill fitted to direct 
a great and unwieldy empire. Yet it was maintained for 
centuries and until long- outgrown. But the story of Rome 
is even more marvelous in the light of the consideration, 
that expansion continued during- that dark and sanguinary 
period in which Rome was struggling to put off the old go- 
vernment and assume the new, a change dictated by the logic 
of circumstance. Those were sad and gloomy days indeed. 
The state was torn by civil strife and the soil of Italy and 
many of the provinces was reddened by Roman blood. Le- 
gions were enrolled to patrol the world in unmatched pow- 
er not against Parthian or Gaul but to bring death or exile 
to Roman citizens. Thousands fell by proscription and 
millions in treasure vanished in that dreadful conflict. But 
the struggle went steadily on and barbarian nations fell 
while Romans fought their civil duel and passed through 
the agonies of transition from the old Republic to the poli- 
cy of empire, from which they shrank by very conserva- 
tism, toward which they were irresistibly driven by the 
sovereign impulse of necessity. First Sulla, adherent of 
the senate's cause, with one hand held back Marius, cham- 
pion of the people, and with the other crushed Mithridates 
tyrant of the Bast. Then comes peace for a season and 
after that increased confusion and despair. Out from this 
chaos, there bursts a figure, at once the most stupendous 
and interesting in Roman history, valiant warrior and con- 
summate captain of armies, stern ruler and unrivalled ge- 
nius in administration, deep-souled, broad-minded, mag- 
nanimous man, far-seeing prophet of his people, Caius Ju- 
lius Caesar, Dictator of the World. Above the uproar this 
figure rises to lay the Gauls, bleeding and broken at his 
feet, to hold foreign enemies back from Rome's gates with 

Rome — A World- Romance 266 

one great arm and with the other to lead his leg-ions to Ita- 
ty and Greece and conquer Pompey, then to organize the 
great empire and establish order after chaos and then to 
die at the hand of a friend. After that came civil war and 
bitter strife for a score of years, well nigh, until Octavian 
mounts the capital to receive his imperial title, as Augus- 
tus, first Emperor of the Romans. 

'Twere wonderful, from any point of view, that Rome 
should construct so great an empire and rule it as wisely as 
she did. But the fact seems passing marvelous in the 
light of what she suffered in her inner life while the stress 
of foreign conquest was pressing on her. Many states 
have conquered alien foes; many have adjusted civil dis- 
cord; but few, it may be almost none, have borne both bur- 
dens at once and with success. But that was Rome's ac- 
complishment. With one hand to grasp the throats of for- 
eign foes leaping fiercely at her, to force them back and 
conquer or crush them and with the other to still the up- 
roar in her civic life — that was Rome's duty and well she 
did it. 

But it is an error to assume that the story of Rome seems 
to transcend sober history only in the respect that she de- 
veloped in a few centuries from the extreme of -national 
weakness to all power. There is a certain mystic touch of 
magic in all her story, a golden thread of romance in every 
fold of that fabric of empire. As in her military and po- 
litical triumphs, so in every phase of her national life, 
there is that some dizzy, upward bound, that some creation 
of something great from an apparent nothing, mysterious, 
incomprehensible, the more romantic, as it seems the less 
actual. We may note but two of these further particulars. 
In 753 B. C. a shepherd over Tibre on the Vatican, kneel- 
ing in rapt devotion to the rising sun, his only god, could 
raise his eyes and see, beyond the yellow stream, two 
rounded hills, yet bathed in early morning's mist. And if 
his gaze were keen, he might detect upon the hills, low 
arching to the sky, the rude abodes of savage men and few 

267 University Magazine 

at most, clear marked against the radiance of the morn, 
their dull and sombre tones in contrast with the beauty of 
the east. For they were made of virgin clay and thatched 
with straw. And all around them lay a narrow plane, 
deep under water from the sullen stream, a damp and sod- 
den, fever-ridden and unlovely place. And that was all. 
When seven hundred years had passed, imperial Caesar 
might have halted at the city's gates to view the land that 
lay within the compass of the shepherd's gaze, to see a 
city with a million souls upon that homely plane, mud 
huts replaced by marble elegance, imperial lovely Rome, 
the mistress of the world. This was the creation of a few 
hundred years, the true fore-type of municipal greatness 
and splendor. And not only was this city grander than 
the world had ever known. Many centuries must pass be- 
fore its equal should ever rise or one comparable, and yet 
more before the world should know a greater. 

The last of the marvelous creations of Roman genius, to 
which attention should be given, is not the least. At the 
beginning of the national history, the Latin language was 
but one among many local, ancient dialects and perhaps of 
all the most unlovely. It lacked on the one hand the mu- 
sical cadence of the Greek and on the other the forcible ac- 
cent of the German. It flowed from the tongue with the 
monotony of a weak accent, made cumbrous by its position 
on the initial syllable. It was inflexible, rough and un- 
couth, an unschooled native tongue. So marked were its 
characteristics, so much did it lack literary form, that the 
men of thought and culture wrote tor years in Greek. 
And this is another element in Rome's early national pov- 
erty. But again the unrivaled Roman genius sets itself 
the task of overcoming the misfortune of heredity, and, as 
in her political history, so in her linguistic, the great work 
was in large measure the creation of a single master mind. 
For years the Romans sought to mould their language into 
literary form but the process was slow and chaos still ruled 
when her people gave to the world, Marcus Tullius Cicero, 

Rome — A World- Romance 268 

orator and versatile literary genius. In the hands of this 
copious master of style, Latin prose reached its full splen- 
dor: he gathered the fragments of that language, still a 
mosaic of dialects, and moulded them into literary form, 
and the mould, in which he cast it, was his own imperial 
brain. Before his time, Latin prose was an uncouth form 
and one only of the world's dialects. As it left his hands, 
it had become a universal language, one which had defi- 
nitely superseded all others as the type of civilized expres- 

When Cicero appears in history, there lay to the North 
and West of Rome the German and the Celt who knew no- 
thing of literary form, whose language was a mere jargon. 
There were in the world but two decent, civilized langua- 
ges, the Hebrew and Greek, and they were hopelessly re- 
mote from western life. Under these circumstances, 
Ciceronian prose became the prose of the human race: not 
only of the Roman empire, but of Erasmus and Augustine 
and of the mediaeval church. And Cicero's glory is the 
glory also of Rome. 

The fourth chapter in the romance of Roman history is 
the chapter of decadence, ruin, death. Four hundred and 
seventy six years after the birth of Christ and twelve hun- 
dred and twenty nine from the founding of the city, the 
hoof of the Gothic steed went ringing through the forum 
and the palace of the Caesars and Rome had fallen. As 
her life and growth had been marvelous, and romantic, her 
death was tragic, pitiful though predestined by effective 
causes. But Rome died, as she had lived, and, as some 
great, self-centred man, whose strength is wasted with many 
years, whose life work is done, lays down his weary 
frame exhausted and wasted by disease and gives up his 
life, quietly, without a struggle, as was predestined at 
his birth in the unwritten law of nature. That is the fit- 
ting close for a noble life. That any man, in the fulness 
of years whose toil had made its impress on his day and 
generation should pass from life by ictic death or any sud. 

269 University Magazine 

den agency were grievously incongruous. "Tis fitting- that 
the mighty strength of such a man should change to 
weakness by degrees and pass from earth surrounded by 
his children and proudly conscious of the work that he has 
done. Such was the death of Rome. She did not fall in 
one abrupt ruin, but in a slow decadence, extending- over 
centuries of time. When the heig-ht of her power was 
reached, her streng-th had all been given to the building of 
that colossal empire: the great brain had given its tremen- 
dous force to the problems of a world: the throbbing heart 
had been too long forcing its life blood to nourish that 
magnificent political organism: Rome had given her 
strength, her thought, her all to the world and there was 
none left to support her own aging body. Then came di- 
sease, ever ready to seize upon that which is worn by ser- 
vice: its advance was gradual but insidious and sure. One 
by one her various parts were weakened or taken from her: 
the strength of the political centre ebbed lower and lower 
and finally the Goths came sweeping from the North, 
struck the last fatal blow and the Roman empire was no 
more. Her time had passed as must the time of every- 
thing mortal in nature; her work was done, magnificently 
done. In seven hundred years, yes in five hundred years, 
Rome had grown from helplessness to colossal magnitude; 
from ignorance and crudity of life to enlightenment and 
culture, from national weakness to stupendous power and 
world dominion. In one hundred years she had organized 
the whole known world into one great empire and had 
originated sound principles in law, organized government 
and administration, political impulses the direction and 
force of which have never essentially changed, and, in the 
declining years of her life, had bound to herself every ele- 
ment of her great domain by the marvelous force of her 
national character and had poured into their veins her very 
life-blood in the form of her culture, native and acquired, 
her art and literature, her language and finally the Christ- 
ian religion. And this she did not as other nations: not as 

Rome — A World-Romance 270 

Macedonia and France, by the genius of an individual; not 
as Germany by the union of many states; not as America 
by inheritance and by the force imparted by a mother state. 
For Rome there was no inheritance; there was nothing in 
her past but savagery. There was no greatness of indi- 
vidual genius until her palmy days were reached; there 
were absolutely no causes of a fortuitous or circumstantial 
nature which can explain her marvelous growth and pow- 
er. She came from nothing and became great and noth- 
ing helped her to that greatness save that which was in- 
nate. Indeed it would seem that the goddess of destiny 
had given Rome a poorer clay of which to make a nation 
than any race in the Indo-European group. She was 
without territory, without strength of numbers, without 
imagination and fineness of feeling. And every other 
race had at least one of these characteristics. Yet she 
lived to master all the others: to blaze a pathway broad 
and straight through the wilderness of political chaos : to 
take from other nations the elements of life in which they 
were her superiors : to give those same elements to other 
peoples who had them not. That marvelous story may well 
seem, to the man of thought, beyond the realm of sober fact, 
beyond history, beyond science and greater than both. It 
is a world-romance. 

And that is the end and yet not the end. My 
last request would be that we take a more gen- 
eral view of Rome's place in history than we have yet been 
able to assume. The spirit of the modern world 
and of the world before Rome's time are distinctly 
different. That of the modern time is unity, the direction 
of human endeavor along the same or paralell lines for the 
attainment of the same end, the elevation of the race. The 
spirit of the ancient world on the contrarj*- was that of isola- 
tion, differentiation, independence. There were on European 
soil, six great races, receiving from a common mother race, 
the same heritage of energy, intelligence and latent poten- 
tiality for life. But for centuries they had developed 

271 University Magazine 

along- different lines and, though sister races, they had for- 
gotten love and learned to hate each other. Rome stands 
as the bridge between this ancient world of differentiation 
and the modern world of unity. She is the great bond 
which links the unhappy past to the happy present. About 
Rome, at the beginning- of her imperial sway, lay the six 
races of Europe, distinct in civilization and language, and 
without unity of purpose, and lacking in every instance 
save one, those elements of culture and beauty of thought 
and life to which we attach such weight today. Rome 
faced chaos in civilization, as she had political disorder. 
There was here a ray of light and beside it densest dark- 
ness. Europe, then was a study in contrasts, Greek set 
against Slav and German against Celt. But Rome's influ- 
ence went forth, and what is the result? She gave nothing 
to the Greeks but took much from them. She inspired the 
Slav with literary ambition and the spirit of Empire : she 
took into her hands the poor clay of the Celtic race and 
moulded from it the French nation. She met the Ger- 
mans, whom one of her own historians had described, as 
forceful, strenuous, aggressive, with the same basis of ad- 
mirable qualities which we recognize today. But she laid 
over that sturdy character, those hearts of oak the veneer- 
ing of her law and justice and culture and made a new race. 
Rome then eliminated the contrasts of light and shadow in 
the great Aryan race : she made it a homogeneous unit, 
one in principles of government, one in civilization, and 
in purpose, one in culture and religion. As long as the 
great Indo-European race wields its supreme influence in a 
modern worldras long as that race stands together as a unit 
with its shoulder to the wheel of modern progress, working 
for law and order and justice, for truth everywhere, for 
Christianity, for beauty in form and thought and literary 
expression, so long Rome's monument shall stand and, 
when that monument shall fall the Muse of History will 
close her scroll for that will be the end of time. 



Published by the Dialectic and Philanthropic Literary Societies. 

WM. S. BERNARD, '00, Editor-in-Chief, Phi. 

Phi. Di. 

D. P. Parker, '00, D. S. Thompson, '01, 

A. J. Barwick, '00, H. E. D. Wilson, '00, 

J. W. Greening, '00. Whitehead Kluttz, '03. 

ALFRED R. BERKELEY, '00. Business Manager, Di. 

Address literary communications to the Editor-in-Chief: business communica- 
tions to the Business Manager. 
Entered at the Chapel Hill, N. C, Post Office as second class mail matter. 



Perhaps it is the proper thing- to congratulate Tulane, 
and to keep up the form, we do, but with the same hearti- 

President uess that a defeated foot-ball team after the 
Alderman's game yells for its successful opponent. 
Resignation. With no small gratification have the stu- 
dents read the press comments called forth by Dr. Alder- 
man's election to the Presidency of Tulane, for these have 
been unstinted in recognition of his fine qualities and 
splendid services. But though the voices at large have said 
most and would seem to know most of what should have 
been done, and should be done, I doubt not that we students 
feel most and are not least cognizant of all that his resig- 
nation implies. But it is gratifying at least to know that 
the sleepy, unappreciative old State has at last recognized 
a good thing though it be slipping through her lax and 
nerveless fingers. Heretofore she has driven her sons of 

273 University Magazine 

genius out into other worlds and never known or cared that 
they became famous. For their name is leg-ion and their 
brawn and brain have built and are building- other states 
and blessing other peoples. 

We have euphemistically called this trait "conserva- 
tism." Whatever it be, whether it be conservatism or 
denominationalism or politics or ignorance or stinginess or 
what Mark Twain calls " don't-care-a-damnitiveness " or a 
combination of all of these, it is a curse. If you let the 
wind blow your seed on the land of some one else, who will 
reap the crop? And that Dr. Alderman has embodied 
most actively the spirit to combat and dissipate this incu- 
bus of conservatism, therein his removal proves our greatest 
loss. We believe that Dr. Alderman underestimated his 
influence and ability in this respect, and that he thought 
his work in North Carolina had reached its climax, other- 
wise he would not have left us. Yet this is the yard stick 
by which we could have wished him to measure himself. 
With what a voice of authority could he have spoken to 
the — but we are gnawing old bones. 

The outside voices clamor for executive ability and edu- 
cational experience to fill this position, but what is needed 
is not only these qualities, but a burning zeal to lift the 
State up into new ideals, such as animated our president. 
If the man does not appear immediately, why elect a man 
immediately? The University can get along very well 
with its present impetus, and the harmonious and efficient 
co-operation of our present Faculty. 

V. N. 

* * 

The Magazine; is supposed to give expression to the lit- 
erary life of the University, but as a matter of fact it does 
Have we a no ^» since we have no literary life. 
Literary It seems so to the editor, at least. The un- 
Spirit? initiated has no idea how much labor is neces- 
sary to extract from the student body enough material to 

Current Comment 274 

fill our Magazine;. We have students who can write, and 
write well, but it is chilling- to see the look of pity they 
give one when they are asked for a contribution. With 
one consent they beg-in to make excuse, or if no excuse is 
offered, they laugh one to scorn. There is a larg-e element 
among- us who reg-ard the art of writing- as a childish, silly 
thing-, which only fools attempt. Because a writer's first 
article is not equal in merit to the best productions of the 
most famous authors, there is no end to the ridicule heap- 
ed upon it. When the Magazine appears, it is criticized 
without mercy by those who will not write themselves, and 
who disparag-e those who do write. When a man tries to 
get a place on any of our athletic teams, in spite of all 
mistakes, he is hailed as a hero ; when he competes for a 
Society medal, he is considered as doing- a worthy thing- ; 
but when he begins to write — then for the good of society, 
cage the fool for he is crazy. Of course all of us do not 
hold this opinion, but we fear a great majority of us do. 
Until this too prevalent sentiment disappears, we need not 
expect an overflow of literary activity. 

When the present Senior Class entered College, the 
whole University was wild over athletics. There was talk 
of nothing else. Little interest was taken in Society work, 
and one of our Societies was about defunct. There has 
been a gradual change for the better. Without losing any 
interest in athletics, we have won notable victories in de- 
bate and the work in our Societies was never better. Our 
next development must be in literary activity. We have 
all the essentials, but the atmosphere is a little chilling at 

* * 

Our debate with Vanderbilt is such a thing of the past, 

and it has been so widely discussed, that it seems almost 

Tlie inappropriate to resurrect it again. But a 

Vanderbilt few words may not be out of place. 

Debate. While the debaters are indebted no little to 

students and faculty for their enthusiastic support, the 

275 University Magazine 

most of the work was done by the debaters alone. They 
were not aided as they should have been, especially by the 
students. No doubt the new arrangements recently made 
by the Societies providing for a better series of scrub de- 
bates will be a great help in the future. 

Our contemporary, the Tar Heel seems to have blundered 
in reporting the debate. The report, evidently taken from 
the Tennessee papers, takes the ground that oratory rather 
than logic won the debate ; the editor says that logic not 
oratory decided the question. Which is correct? Both 
statements are right. The two debaters were masters in 
oratory and logic almost alike, though perhaps the one ex- 
celled in logic and the other in oratory. 


* * 

It is very difficult to step in a man's place and carry on 
his work without interruption. Time is necessary for the 
adjustment of things. We have done our 
best to get out a Magazine up to the stand- 
ard, and we are sorry that some things had to be omitted. 
Two of our Editors have been busy in the Vanderbilt de- 
bate, and a third, Mr, Barwick, has left the Hill. We had 
hoped to get reports of the Debates to take the place of the 
Exchange Department, but failing in that, the Department 
has been omitted altogether. We hope the loss is not ir- 


D. P. PARKER, Editor. 

Since Thos. Hughes wrote in such charming - style his 

Tom Brown at Rug-by and Tom Brown at Oxford the life 

and experience of the school boy and College student has 

"stalky & Co." been a theme of interest to the initiated. 

New d York: chines Amoa S && new books to which our atten- 
sribtier's Sons, tion has been directed is another well writ- 
ten volume on this subject. Stalky & Co. by the well know 
Kipling gives a vivid picture of the preparatory school life 
in England, the fagging system, etc. Stalky, and his two 
friends who compose the Company have an excellent way of 
effecting the role of injured innocence and thus putting the 
other fellow on the defensive. Stalky the leader 
of the three is shrewd, intelligent and has a clear insight 
into the workings of the human passions. 

The style of this work is not, we believe, entirely up to 
Kipling's best, though it is by no means bad. The diction 
has a considerable amount of school-slang thrown into the 
numerous conversations. 

Narration predominates in the work with here and there 
a bit of effective description interspersed. 

This is a romance of the French Revolution and after, 
written in a style in harmony with the times depicted. The 
present volume is a translation from the original Provencal 
"The white Tsr- by Catharine A. Janvier, and of necessity 
ror,- Fen* eras. fa ] t much Q f fe French charm in pass- 
New York: D. Ap- r 

pietoti&co. ing through the translator's hands. But for 

all that it is a very readable novel. Being written on such 
an exciting subject, it cannot be but filled with exciting 
scenes. Indeed we shouid think the picture over-drawn — 

277 University Magazine 

did we not know that then such occurences were only too 
often true. 

On the whole the book gives a very clear conception of 
the spirit of the time woven into the story of the life of an 
unfortunate girl of the nobility who loses her rank, property, 
love and life in misfortunes of the time. 

Among the great unsolved or but partially solved problems 
recognized as of first importance by all serious studentsof ec- 
onomic questions are those relating to life in and the rule of 
"The Government municipalities ; and any work treating 
ties." d. b. Eaton, intelligently of any of these problems is 
New York: The gladly received and carefully read by 

MacMiltan Co. & J J J 


This book contains five hundred pages of well written 
matter. The author discusses first how and why we have 
reached the present municipal condition in the United 
States and the problems we must solve to improve it. The 
evils in America city government pointed out and remedies 
proposed whereby, the author believes they may be elimi- 

The primary object of the book, however, is not to crit- 
icise but to construct. The methods and practical results 
of municipal government in England and Continental 
Europe are carefully studied and valuable lessons drawn 
from them. 

On the whole the book is neatly gotten up and well ar- 
ranged. The print is large and pleasing to the eye. A 
clear style adds to its merits. 


A. J. BARWICK Editors H. E. D. WILSON 

The University sustains a great loss in Dr. Alderman's 
resignation as President, which was sent in on May 5th. 
Dr. Alderman accepts the Presidency af Tulane University, 
New Orleans. Onr loss is Louisiana's gain. 

Prof. Cobb recently delivered a lecture at Whitsett In- 
stitute on "The Yellowstone National Park." 

Mr. Jacob Warshaw, a Harvard magna cum laude man, 
has taken the place made vacant by the death of our much 
lamented Prof. May, 

Dr. Kemp P. Battle has in the Law Journal under the 
editorship of Paul Jones, Esq. of the U. N. C. Law Class of 
1886-'88, a long and elaborate paper on North Carolina's 
attitude and action towards the United States Constitu- 
tion in 1788 and 1789. He shows that the Anti-Federalists 
were actuated by lofty motives and that a hundred years 
experience has proved that in many instances their criti- 
cisms were just. Some of their objections have been re- 
moved by amendments and it remains to be seen how far 
their predictions as to others will be verified. Our students 
of constitutional law and American history should read 
Dr. Battle's article. 


The last meeting for the year of the North Carolina 
Historical Society was held in Gerrard Hall, Monday 
night, May 7th. Mr. Lockhart read an interesting paper 
on "Chief Justice Ruff in." "The Career of General Will- 
iam Gaston" was the subject of a paper read by Mr. J. S, 
Cook. He briefly sketched out the life of Mr. Gaston and 
told of his remarkable career in the House of Representa- 
tives. Prof. Noble closed the exercises of the evening with 

279 University Magazine 

a particularly interesting- paper on "The Battle of Moore's 
Creek." The meeting's of the Historical Society this year 
have proved very enjoyable and highly instructive. The 
papers as a rule, have been well prepared. To Dr. Battle 
is due the life of the organization and also most of its un- 
usual success. 


The last regular meeting of the Elisha Mitchell Scien- 
tific Society was held in Person Hall on Tuesday evening 
April 10th. Interesting papers were read by the following 
gentlemen. "Whitehead on the Brain; a Review," by Dr. 
H. V. Wilson. "Gastrulation in the Frog," also by Dr. 
Wilson. "The Science of Language," by Dr. H. F. lyin- 
scott. All of the papers were very instructive and full of 


The fourth annual debate between the Universities of 
Georgia and North Carolina took place April 6th, in Ger- 
rard Hall. Dr. Geo. T. Winston presided with Mr. G. N. 
Coffey, '00 as Secretary. The query was, "Resolved, That 
the English System of Government Answers Better to the 
Needs of a Free and Self-Governing People than Does 
that of the United States." The debaters were: for the 
affirmative, from Georgia, Messrs R. Hume Smith, '00, of 
Butler, Ga., and C. E. Weddington, '00, of Atlanta, Ga.; 
for the negative from Carolina, Messrs. D. Preston Park- 
er, '00, of Benson, N. C, and Wiley H. Swift, '01, of A- 
mantha, N. C. The Committee which decided the debate 
were Hon. Robt. M. Douglas, a member of the State Su- 
preme Court, Frank L. Fuller, Esq., of the Durham Bar, 
and Rev. Theodore D. Bratton, Rector of St. Mary's School 
at Raleigh. Judge Douglas announced the decision of the 
Committee in favor of Carolina. This is the third of these 
debates which Carolina has won in succession. 

The first of a series of three debates to be held between 

College Record 280 

Vanderbilt University and the University of North Caro- 
lina took place in Nashville, Tenn., on April 27th. Gov. 
McMillan presided and read the question for debate, "Re- 
solved, That the United States Should not Maintain Perma- 
nent Control of the Phillipine Islands." Vanderbilt had 
the affirmative and was represented by Messrs. E. B. 
Crooks and Carl Monk. Messrs. W. S. Bernard and 
Whitehead Kluttz debated the negative for Carolina. 
The judges who were Mr. Hamiton Parks, Dr. J. Y. 
Crawford, and Prof. H. A. Vance, rendered their decision 
in favor of the negative. It augurs well for the U. N. C. 
that she won the first debate on Tennessee soil. 

The eighth Semi-annual Inter-Society debate was held 
in Gerrard Hall on the evening of April 15th. The query 
discussed was ; "Resolved, That the Constitutional Amend- 
ment Proposed by the Last Legislature Should Become a 
Part of Our Constitution." Messrs. A. P. Spell and T. A. 
Adams of the Phi. Society spoke on the affirmative. 
Messrs. B. A. Jonas and C. E. Maddry of the Di. argued 
the negative. The Committee to decide the debate con- 
sisted of Judge McRae, Prof. Cobb, and Dr. Thos. Wilson. 
They decided in favor of the negative. 


There has been two meetings of the Shakespeare Club 
since our last issue. In the regular monthly meeting 
which was held on April 3rd, the President, Dr. Hume, 
made a few remarks on good text books for use in the 
study of Shakespeare. Mr. J. K. Hall read the first paper 
on "Juvenal as Compared with Modern Satirists." Mr. 
P. H. Eley then read a paper on "Desdemona." Mr. 
Wharton was to have read the next paper, but owing to his 
illness, Dr. Hume closed the evening's programme with an 
excellent paper on "How Hamlet Looked." 

The last meeting for this session was held May 1st. 
The following read papers : Mr. D. S. Thompson on "The 
Allegorical Elements in Tennyson's Holy Grail"; Miss 

281 University Magazine 

Marcia Latham, whose subject was, "Sentimentalism in 
Literature"; Mr. J. W. Greening- on "Life and Customs of 
the Elizabethan Age as Reflected in Hamlet." The meet- 
ing- was concluded with a paper read by Dr. Hume, writ- 
ten bj special request on "The Evil Eye." All the 
programmes for the year have been good and this, the last 
meeting was indeed a success. 


Inasmuch as it pleased Almighty God to remove by 
death our friend and class mate Frank Clayton Rierson, be 
it resolved : 

I, That we, the members of the Junior Class of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina while bowing in humble sub- 
mission to the will of him who doth all things well, yet 
deeply regret the untimely death of our fellow-student. 

II, That we extend our he art- felt sympathies to the be- 
reaved family in the great loss of a son and brother. 

III, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the 
family, the Twin-City Sentinel and to the University 

( J. S. Atkinson 
Committee •< C. A. Shore 
( F. B. Rankin 

May 12, 1900. 
Wheras, God in his All Wise Providence has seen fit to 
remove from our midst our beloved friend and fellow-mem- 
ber, Frank Clayton Rierson, therefore be it resolved : 

I, That, while submitting in all humiliation to this dis- 
pensation of the Divine Will, we the members of the Dia- 
lectic Society, can but deeply feel the loss which we have 
sustained in his death. 

II, That in his untimely death this Society has lost a 
faithful friend and earnest member whose future was 
bright with promise. 

III, That we extend our sincerest sympathy to the be- 
reaved family. 

College Record 282 

IV, That a copy of these resolutions be spread upon the 
minutes of the Society, and that copies be sent to the 
family of the deceased, to the Tar Heel and University 

( F. B. Watkins 
Committee X J. W. Turrentine 
( H. E D. Wilson. 

On April 20th, Mr. Robert Strong- of Raleigh, delivered a 
lecture before the Law School on "Municipal Corpora- 

The annual address before the Law School at the Univ- 
ersity was delivered in Gerrard Hall on the evening- of May 
9th. The Hon. George Rountree of Wilmington, N. C, 
was the orator for the occasion and his masterly address 
on "The Growth of Law" was heard with interest by a 
large audience. 

The first track team to represent U. N. C. abroad 
was present on April 25th at the Track Meet at the North 
Carolina Athletic Association held at Oxford. The cup 
was won by the Varsity, Francis Osborne breaking the 
Southern Inter-Collegiate record on the 220 yard dash 
and Wade Oldham breaking the record on the 250 low hur- 
dle. N. C. Curtis tied the Southern record on the 125 
yard high hurdle. Carolina won 125>^ out of a possible 
137 points, 

w. R. smith's coei<ege, eexington, ky. 

Summer Session offers special inducements. Bookkeep- 
ing, shorthand and typewriting taught. You can com- 
plete a course during the summer. Kentucky University 
diploma awarded our graduates. Read ad. and keep this 
notice for reference. Remember in order that your letters 
may reach this college to address only W. R. Smith, Lex- 
ington, K. Y. 



Mr. W. J. Peele, of Raleigh, a University alumnus and 
interesting- writer on North Carolina history, has recently 
written and published in the State press, an excellent 
sketch of Wilkes Caldwell. 

W. G. Randall, A. B. '84, the brilliant young artist of 
whom the State is proud, has invented a new etching pro- 
cess. The Randall Etching Company has been formed for 
the purpose of utilizing the invention. 

Clyde R. Hoey, the youngest member of the present 
State Legislature and probably the youngest member of 
any important legislative body, was married in March to 
Miss Bessie Gardner, of Shelby. Late in April Mr. 
and Mrs. Hoey were thrown from a buggy, both receiving 

On April 25th last Miss Lalla Ruth Carr, daughter of 
Gen. Julian S. Carr, one of the University's most disting- 
uished alumni, was married to Mr. E. W. Patton, of 
Wilkesbarre, Penn. The union was the most brilliant 
social event in North Carolina historv. The bride was 
arrayed like a queen, and all the decorations and surround- 
ings of the event, in their elaborateness, costliness, and 
beauty, were worthy of royalty. The bride is the lovely 
and accomplished daughter of one of the State's wealthiest 
and best loved sons. The groom is a prominent young 
attorney of Pennsylvania, and is a considerable figure in 
the financial world. The young couple, thus starting life 
under such favorable auspices, have the sincerest wishes of 
North Carolinians for a happy voyage. 

In April a well-attended and very enthusiastic meeting 
of the Winston Alumni was held. The organization was 
effected with more than fifty members, all active and much 

Alumniana 284 

interested. Following is the result of association's pro- 
ceeding- to the election of officers: President, Mr. J. W. 
Fries; Vice President, Rev. Robert E. Caldwell; Secretary 
and Treasurer, Mr. C. F. Tomlinson. The meeting decid- 
ed to hold two convocations of the association each year. 
Resolutions were passed relative to President Alderman's 
call to Tulane. He was urged to stay in North Carolina, 
and the trustees were asked to raise the salary of the Univ- 
ersity's president. After transacting this business, the 
Winston alumni adjourned. Much good is hoped for the 
University from their organization, and that of alumni 


The State has lost an able jurist and the University a 
son who reflected honor upon her. The following are the 
resolutions of the criminal court in session in Fayetteville 
in honour of the late Judge Dossey Battle. 

"Since the last term, Hon. Battle, Judge presiding over 
the Eastern District criminal court, having died, the bar 
and officers of Cumberland county would pay their last tri- 
bute to his memory. He was well known to some of us as 
far back as 1859, while to others he became known only 
from his presence here as Juge. To all he was the same 
polite, genial, polished gentleman. 

"Judge Battle served with credit as a Confederate 
soldier during the war between the States, and at its close, 
as was the common lot, having lost all save honor, had a 
hard struggle to begin life. 

"Licensed to practice law in 1866, he soon thereafter be- 
came editor of a newspaper, which he made popular and 
spicy by his steady flow of wit and humor. 

"After a while he passed under a cloud, which, by his 
own will power, he threw aside; and thenceforth, to the 
day of his death, his walk and conversation were upright. 
His whole character seemed sobered, chastened, purified. 

"A strong mind was his, well stored with precedent, 
ready at all times, with good manners, the outward mani- 
festations of a good heart, great patience, and plodding 

285 University Magazine 

care, without which no man is fit to preside over a court of 

"All who came before him — lawyers, officers and crimi- 
nals—were treated with consideration, courtes} 7 , kindness. 
Mercy tempered justice in his judgments. 

"He has passed through those portals which stand open 
for us all, we believe, with ear attuned to hear 
" 'The shouts of them that triumph, 
The song of them that feast.'" 


Born 1829. Died, April 9, 1900. 

We grieve to record the death of one of the most esteem- 
ed Trustees of the University, William Edward Hill, of 
Duplin. He was elected as one of the guardians of his 
Alma Mater in 1877 and was reelected since continuously, 
his term expiring in 1901. None of our alumni had a 
warmer love for the good mother, and this love has de- 
scended to his four sons, the last of whom, John Sprunt 
Hill, a prosperous lawyer of New York City, took his de- 
gree in 1889, and founded the Hill prize in History. 

Wm. E. Hill graduated in 1849, in the class of Dr. P. E. 
Hines of Raleigh, Dr. Thomas D. Haigh of Fayetteville, 
the late Judge Charles R. Thomas, and Dr. Kemp P. Bat- 
tle, among others. He studied law and practised for sev- 
eral years, but, finding that his large planting interests 
were suffering by his abscence, he removed to his planta- 
tion. He was a successful cultivator of the soil, and ful- 
filled with eminent ability and wisdom the duties of a cit- 
izen. In early life he was induced to give up his privacy 
in order become a member of the House of Commons (now 
Representatives), but preferred the joys of home life, and 
the care of the interests of his county. The only office 
drawing him from home that he could be induced to accept 
was that of Trustee of this institution, in which he spent 
four happy years, winning the regard and confidence of 
Faculty and students. 

Alumniana 286 

Win. Hill married a daughter of the house of Faison, 
one of the most prominent and esteemed families of the At- 
lantic slope, an excellent lady who survives him. They 
have fulfilled one of the noblest duties of good citizens, 
rearing seven sons and daughters, true and faithful ser- 
vants of God, and mindful of social duties. In these res- 
pects their parents, like Chaucer's good priest, showed them 
the way but first followed it themselves. 





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YOU have heard from one* who was a large part of all 
that he described, the brave story of the rebirth of this 
University. You have heard from onef who was a 
large part of all that he described, the inspiring' story of 
the beginning's of the revived institution and its growth 
into power. I have the directer task of setting forth the 
University as it is to-day and of declaring its needs for fine 
service in the strange new century awaiting it and us and 
our children. I believe that this University is the highest 
achievement of the best brain and impulses of the best 
people of all classes of the State of North Carolina. It is 
the child of civic virtue and democratic necessity and it 
has been forever true to its parentage. Pour distinctive 
traits of institutional character mark its life. 

1. Its freedom from academic aloofness. This Univer- 
sity has managed to see from the first the relation of cul- 
ture and training to social service, and it has touched and 
awakened the life about it in all of its concerns, in the 
factory, in war, in peace, at the forum, in the teacher's 
study. It has been sensitive to new needs as they arose, 
sympathetic and patient with the inevitable popular indif- 
ference to higher education, and gentle and dignified al- 
ways to strange hostilities and antagonisms. Though but 

*Dr. Battle. 
tDr. Winston. 

288 University Magazine 

a little over one percent of the population of the area 
which it serves has received training- here during- the won- 
derful eighty years of separation and stillness between 
1800 and 1800, yet I am able to submit this broad record of 
University acievement. Of the United States Senators 
from this State, forty-four percent went from this Univer- 
sity ; of the members of Congress, forty percent ; of the Gov- 
ernors of the State, fifty-eight percent; of the Lieuten- 
ant Governors, fifty-nine percent ; of the Speakers of the 
House of Representees, fifty percent ; of the State officers, 
twenty-two percent ; of the Judges of the Superior Court, 
thirty-eig-ht percent; of the Judges of the Supreme Court, 
fifty-two percent. And not only in pulic life but in the 
professions of teaching, of agriculture, of industrial and 
mechanical endeavor, while it is not possible to express its 
influence in percentages, it is true to say that the form- 
ative influences in each of these great departments of society 
have come from this institution. In war one might silently 
point to that long roll inscribed on these tablets, 

" Of those whose faith and truth 

On war's red touchstone rang- true metal." 

Yet it can be said accurately that forty percent of the total 
enrollment of this University from 1825 to 1867 were in the 
Confederate army. The average enrollment of the New 
England colleges in the Federal army was twenty-three 
percent, and of Yale University, the highest of them all, 
twenty-five percent. 

Since the re-opening of the institution in 1875 two thous- 
and eight hundred and ninety-six students have matricu- 
lated here ; five hundred and sixty-two have graduated 
here and entered the various professions of life. There is 
no arithmetic that can calculate the good these men have 
done, or can estimate the loss to the state if this army of 
trained men had not been sent out into its life. Ninety- 
three percent of these matriculates have have come from 
this State and I dare say that there has been no new move- 
ment for good in which they have not been active from 

The University of To-day 289 

public schools to public roads. Fifty percent, of these matric- 
ulates have been the sons of men who themselves never knew 
the advantages of college training-. Thus while old family 
stocks have been kept strong- and fit, new material has 
been sent out to become the heads of cultured homes and 
to bear testimony to their communities. In such ways is 
developed the true aristocracy of republics — character en- 
riched by learning. 

2. The University has managed to accomplish greater 
results on smaller means than any American institution. 
Its income from the State to-day is twenty-five thousand 
dollars annually. Its income from all sources is forty-eight 
thousand tlollars. Its faculty numbers thirty-five members. 
Its enrollment of students is five hundred and twelve. It 

maintains a continuous session and a summer school for 
teachers. It has opened its doors to women. Compare 
this with other Southern institutions and you will find 
that this is the smallest income with which such results 
are accomplished anywhere in this State or the Southern 

3. The spirit of freedom and toleration and equality in 
its life. Three fourths of the students here are the sons of 
poor men, or are here as the result of money borrowed or 
earned. All sects, parties and conditions meet and mingle 
here on an equal footing and love the place with an equal 
love. I have seen men fight in unity of purpose for this 
place who did not agree with each other on any other pub- 
lic question in heaven above or on the earth beneath, and 
some of them could not agree with themselves for long. 
North Carolina owes much of the dignity and the freedom 
from rancor of its public life to the manly spirit of respect 
for motives engendered here. 

4. The passionate but disorganized affection of its Alum- 
ni. I know of no place in which the genius loci exerts 
such wonderful influence as it does in this quiet villag-e. 
The old alumnus thinks of Chapel Hill as Hastings 
did of his home and would like to die here. The mid- 
dle-aged alumnus in the strife of life holds the place 

290 University Magazine 

in his mind as he does the lighted lamp and the gentle 
faces gathered about his hearthstone. The young- 
boy whose feet have just faded from its doors thinks of it 
as the sailor man upon the sea thinks of his home. The 
University of North Carolina is an honest, faithful force, 
deriving its inspiration not from traditions and records, but 
from the knowledge that it must have a hand in the forceful 
struggle for deeper wisdom and heightened power in all 
forms of life. Is it fit to live or die ? Is it fit to expand or 
contract, to grow or stagnate ? Is it fit to become a great 
University, or to become a small college ? Do North Caro- 
linians need it as Virginians need their great school, or 
Texans theirs, or Louisianans theirs ? Has it not learned 
through decades of service and sacrifice the right to fulfill a 
great destiny? Can it be denied the means to grow without 
violating the young manhood of the State ? And such 
manhood ! I do not believe a finer type reaches into man- 
hood in America than the boy of these regions. In com- 
mon with my brother college presidents of this State, I be- 
hold a quadrennial mericle. A boy presents himself in my 
office for matriculation. He is hard of hand, strong of face, 
ungainly of address with the rude disorder of nature 
evident in his thinking and in his manner. But he 
has a faith, and it is a good faith, shining in his eyes. It is 
the high Scotch faith in knowledge and culture from which 
poverty and hardship slink away abashed. And the four 
years go by, and something rich and strange comes into 
the face of that boy, something subtle enters into his mo- 
tions and his speech — some pride of race, some conscious- 
ness of power, some intimation of immortality, and at last 
he stands here erect and free — that noblest of God's crea- 
tures, an effective, cultured gentlemen, fit to beget children 
and to lead them into life. Can we refuse to accord growth 
to such an institution without paying the cost in class ha- 
tred, in religious rancor, in town against country, in rich 
against poor, in agriculture against manufacture, in cor- 
poration against individual. The mere speculative conten- 

The University of To-day 291 

tion that the State has no right to assist in creating- its di- 
rective power has no place in my mind in all this pleading - . I 
deem that sentiment, as a deterrent force, as extinct as the 
mastodon. What is most to be feared is that stunting in- 
heritance handed down to us from the grinding days 
of want and poverty which has accustomed us to the 
use of small means for great purposes. It may be seen in 
our treatment of the public school question, as well as in 
our treatment of the higher institutions. It is an inher- 
itance, a geographical condition, and a habit of mind, not 
a perversity, and it must be shaken off, for the day of large 
things is at hand. Let no one fancy that I mean to cavil at 
this wise, conservative, just, dignified commonweath, with 
its tender constraining power to make a man once a North 
Carolinian a North Carolinian forever. This is a community 
where one might gladly choose to be born. It has trusted 
me and I have served it and tasted of its confidence, and 
the taste is sweet to my soul. It has done much under stu- 
pendous difficulties. If it moves slowly, it moves with a 
certain grand steadfastness. If it sometimes lifts its foot 
to move along the highway of progress and keeps it sus- 
pended for twenty years there are no twirlings and back- 
trackings. It needs simply to feel things in its bones be- 
fore vivid action follows, and this is due in great part to the 
lack of the fierce impulsion of urban life. Whenever a true 
conception of what a real University is gets into the bone 
and marrow of North Corolina this institution will have 
the finest chance in America to realize its ideals. When- 
ever it is truly understood what an adequate system of pub- 
lic education means in productive power to a free people, 
the percentage of illiteracy will drop like a thermometer in 
a blizzard, and the pitiful ideal of a four months school 
will be replaced by the juster ideal of a ten months school. 
I believe that this day of large things is dawning in North 
Carolina. I pray that it is. It is dawning in other Suth- 
ern States. 

Fifteen years ago the State's duty toward its children 

292 University Magazine 

was a debatable proposition, but today it is an axiom and 
measures the growth of the public conscience and the 
sweep of the public vision during- that period. The church 
approves it, the statesman proclaims it and pleads for it, 
the rich man sees its force in society, and the poor man 
thanks God for it. 

I believe that the educational policy of the State will be 
shaped for half a century within the next decade. It is 
true to say however that now it is atomistic and chaotic. 
There is no just correlation of the various elements. Pri- 
mary education is set over against itself. Higher educa- 
tion is labelled and stood in its corner, sometimes with the 
fingers of detraction pointing at it and seeking to have us 
believe that it stands for the monstrous theory of the bene- 
fit of the few at the expense of the many. The prepara- 
tory school is not fitly articulated in the great scheme. 
The schools of the churches and the schools of private en- 
terprise do their work and stand for their ideas. The 
unity of the educational process is not fully recognized. 
The conception of it, however named, as a social servant is 
not realized. The construction of a true educational sys- 
tem is a fine piece of work as difficult as it is essential to 
democracies. Let us make no patch-work job of this great 
subject. We have been struggling with it for sixty years, 
but intelligent study of the whole subject has not been 
made since Archibald Murphey submitted his celebrated 
report in 1816. A good public school system is our su- 
premest need and I may say with Jefferson that as my first 
plea in life was for public schools, my latest plea here 
shall be for them also, but the University is as much a 
part of this system as the log school house. The point for 
the coming educational statesman, and that wholesome 
variety of statesman has indeed arisen among us, to see 
and to act upon is the intimate relation between higher 
and lower schools and to afford the co-ordinate growth. 
The University is the dynamo, the public school the incan- 
descent light. To spend all the money on the dynamo and 

The University of To-day 293 

neglect to provide for any lamps would be a crime for any 
community, but to spend it all on the dynamo would be a 
farce. I believe the new Governor and the General Assem- 
bly would act wisely to appoint a commission to study and 
report in great detail on this great question before our ed- 
ucational policy hardens into law and becomes fixed for 

The time has come to decide what sort of a University 
we are going to make here out of this noble foundation. 
Shall it be a good honest disciplinary college seeking no 
new truth, dealing with letters and records and traditions 
and arts, or shall it become a great modern force doing 
that also, but alert to all social needs from the problems of 
suffrage to the problems the transference of electric force. 
There can be but one answer to this question. While I do 
not believe that any Yale or Harvard can ever be built 
here, yet I do believe that the State of North Carolina has 
the opportunity to make here a far-reaching and powerful 
institution call it University or what you will. 

There can be no limit set to the ideal of a State Univer- 
sity. It must be the source of power to all below it, or 
fail miserably ; and everything may justly be taught in it 
necessary to citizen life, livelihood and character in the 
twentieth Century. After isolation, war, submersion, we are 
entering into membership into the modern world. Im- 
mense combinations of endeavor and capacity face the 
isolated individual. Not only is there needed the directive 
brain and the cunning hand, the factory and the blast 
furnace, but the man who has the right public spirit and 
the force to make himself felt : the thinking man who sees 
that civic unity and community effort must replace raw 
individualism and the disunion and rage of section, party 
and sect. This is the mighty social engine to create that 
benign force. 

Three great needs appear in order to bring about this 

1. An appropriation from the State, of fifty thousand 

294 University Magazine 

dollars a year as an investment in manhood and directive 

2. A scientific, business like organization of the Alum- 
ni demanding what is right and getting it, and opening 
their own purses for the good of "Alma Mater." 

3. A broader and more effective scheme of adminis- 

The University has grown amazingly since 1875 as these 
gentlemen can see. In the last nine years the numbers 
have increased one hundred and fifty per cent, while its in- 
come has increased only twenty-five per cent. Its standards 
have been maintained and advanced. I have some natural 
pleasure in declaring that to-day it is at its high-water 
mark in numbers, equipment and income, but I have truer 
and finer satisfaction in declaring that this is due largely 
to those who went before me and to the labors of those 
who have worked with me — to the high-mindedness, faith 
and sagacity of Kemp P. Battle, to the energy and re- 
sourcefulness and power of George T. Winston, to the 
loyalty and co-operation of the Faculty and Trustees 
through all the years. This splendid achievement has 
been made through grinding economy, ceaseless toil, vigi- 
lant quick-eyed appreciation of popular needs. There has 
been no Olympian nonsense here. The University has 
kept its eyes on the people. It has let no grass grow be- 
tween the public schools and its doors, and if it ever does 
that, neglect will spell ruin for it. It has gone out into the 
highways and hedges and beaten in the throng. It has ta- 
ken great risks. It has denied itself decencies, comforts and 
absolute necessities. It has poured its small income into 
daily instruction. It has helped thousands to come hree 
through loans and scholarships and self help. It has set the 
pace in the Southern States for large achievement on small 
income. All that unselfishness and economy, all that de- 
votion and saving, and turning of old clothes can do, has 
been done. The great need now is not to scrimp and save, but 
to get something to spend wisely for large growth. En- 

The University of To-day 295 

thusiasm and faith will not equip laboratories nor build 
Universities. We need to know that one hundred thousand 
dollars a year is a very small income for a modern Univer- 
sity. In the East and Northwest, institutions are not 
taken seriously unless they have that much steam behind 
them. The South has caught the idea. We need money so 
that we may rise sharply from out the plains, ample and 
even magnificent, so that the world may know that this is 
indeed the eldest child of the State, so that philanthrophy 
may feel sure of its gift, so that new departments may be 
organized, old departments may be renewed, new teachers 
employed, worthy teachers better paid, the spirit of hope 
and assured growth spread about. 

This is the work to be done by the Alumni and friends 
of the University guided and inspired by the administra- 
tion. To that end the Executive should be freed from 
small details and given some time to think, to speak au- 
thoritatively on educational questions, to move helpfully 
among the people, to mould large policies, to represent 
fully University culture at home and abroad. And to 
that end the Alumni should band themselves together in 
tight and strong organizations along the lines suggested 
last year and to be further elaborated to-night. The 
enormous moral, sentimental and practical force of this 
great body instead of wasting itself in memories and boast- 
ings and amenities or bewailings should find itself, and 
know itself as a weapon in every community, well-knit to 
Alma Mater and clear of purpose to beat down opposition 
and cause this great, noble State to sustain and strengthen 
the institution that gave them their intellectual liberty. 
Thousands of men who do not call it mother, but who 
have got the religion of public spirit and State pride will 
lend a hand. And there is no despair in the task or in my 
heart, dear friends, as to the final result. It is absurd to 
say that this State will not do the large, just thing by its 
institutions when it knows just what that thing is, and our 
people have a good old fashioned way of submitting to 

296 University Magazine 

being- talked to and written at. The State is too great and 
sagaciousnot to do right and the University is too worthy 
not to deserve right treatment. There is needed boldness 
but kindness of speech, and an end forever to the apologetic 
manner. The State has a right to build up its University. 
The man that says it has not this right is speaking puny 
words against a spirit as strong as common-sense, as sol- 
emn as the instinct of self preservation and as resistless as 
the winds of nature. And it has the wealth to do it too. 
A new State has been born in these twenty-five years. 
This is not the State that lay beaten with the red lashes 
of war, struggling to endure without energy in law or 
order in society, when Graham and Steele and Cameron 
and Battle and Saunders and Phillips and Winston and 
Graves and Manning and Gore and Venable and a hundred 
others plucked these buildings from grass and weeds, and 
with hope and self-denial as their comrades, sought to make 
a University with an income of seventy-five hundred dollars 
a year. North Carolina has become a great industrial com- 
munity. The frenzy and fever of accumulation have gotten 
into its blood. It has learned the hang* of industrial success 
stolen from its fathers while they slept under the deadening 
touch of slavery. Prom countless thousands of looms and 
spindles and whirring saws and clacking machinery come 
the shouts and songs of power and success. Wealth has 
come, and if this State with its central position and breed 
of strong men shall permit states to the north of it and states 
to the south of it to develop their institutions, while this 
higher stragetic possibility, with its beauty, and its heroic 
past is left to starve in mediocrity and not turned into a 
great actuality with a splendid present, this neglect will 
be the saddest instance in the history of democratic 
countries, of a failure to use a great, God given oppor- 

It has seemed to me to be my duty to set my hand to 
work elsewhere in this Southern land. With what sadness 
and regret I have elected to do this thing, I may not speak, 

The University of To-day 297 

but I may believe that every good man sympathizes. I 
have come to know afresh, dear friends, that this quite the 
pleasantest spot on earth to me. Here I first learned the 
secret of love and here I have made acquaintance with 
grief. Here the scholar's life first showed itself admirable 
and fair to my eyes. Here in company of unselfish men, 
my colleagues, and ardent youth, whom I love, I have 
done the day's work as the days went by. I go to wide and 
honorable labor, but all the fine aspirations of my heart 
shall at all times stretch their hands hitherward and lift 
up their eyes to these hills for help — in the grim winter, 
when the westering- sun blazes against the severe old 
buildings ; in the soft spring, when greenness and 
blooming fall like magic about the campus byways ; 
in the autumn-time, when the maple leaves flame red, like 
fire, in the eager air. May God put it into the brain and 
purpose of our people to cherish this great school, "so 
that their honorable men may not be famished and their 
multitudes dried up with thirst." 

May this noble people hold up high the strong hands of 
our new president to whom I make my obeisances and offer 
my allegiance. For him personally the dying King shouts 
li vive le roi!", and for the dear mother which he must 
guard and maintain and strengthen, he cries with the love 
of son, Esto perpetual 



THE manifold otganizations in which men have bound 
themselves together have been formed in obedience to 
a fundamental law of man's nature, the law that man 
finds only in relations with his fellow man those conditions 
to which his inherent capacities are correlated. His capac- 
ities for pleasure, work, government, duty, love, and relig- 
ion, all the higher qualities peculiar to him, are developed 
and made known to himself by means of his intercourse 
with other men. In this way men find themselves. Further, 
they will find in themselves and have developed those 
qualities which correspond to the character of the environ- 
ment. The nobler, stronger and more perfectly developed 
the men that make one's environment, the stronger and 
nobler will be the capacities which he finds in himself, and 
the fuller and more complete will be the development of his 

Acting consciously or unconsciously, upon this principle, 
students, who recognized in each other strength and 
nobility, and who found in each other's companionship, 
congeniality and mutual helpfullness, bound themselves to- 
gether in relations which were best adapted to accomplish 
their most complete development — relations of brotherly 
love, sympathy, and encouragement. Thus was evolved 
the Greek Letter Fraternity. 

This reason for being of the Fraternity is a true conception, 
for if this conception is adhered to as a fundamental prin- 
ciple, there is truly furnished an atmosphere in which the 
possibilties of men can be best fulfilled. To render the 
highest service to the Fraternity, its members must strive 
diligently to preserve the purity of its purpose, the purpose 
which gave is a right to be. and in all problems that arise, 
they must regard the preservation of the Fraternity idea as 
the chief consideration. Each individual must surbordi- 

The Fraternity ; Its Relation to the Institution 299 

nate his private desires to the large purpose of perfecting 
the conditions under which all the members grow, he must 
sacrifice himself in order to keep pure the atmosphere which 
best furthers his own development as well as that of his 

The Fraternity, however, has problems before it other 
than those of internal relations. As an organization it has 
problems of external relations which it must meet and solve, 
problems upon the solutions of which depends its value to 
the institution in which, and some times upon which it grows. 
Upon the solutions hangs the answer to the question — is 
the Fraternity an artery giving - nourishment to the life of 
the institution, or is it a parasite sapping the heart's 

The great problem, which sums up all the others is 
this — what shall be the relation of the Fraternity to the 
institution? The answer that the Fraternity works out to 
this question will determine its attitude in all the various 
phases of the life of the institution, and will determine its 
value to the institution. 

The purpose of education, and, therefore, of an educa- 
tional institution, is essentially the same as the birth idea 
of the Fraternity. The institution, however, contributes 
an elementary, essential development to the mass of its 
students, while the Fraternity adds to this contribution a 
rounding, more complete development due to the more com- 
plex and harmonious relations of a few choice men. The 
contribution of the institution is more fundamental and 
more universal than that of the Fraternity. Therefore, 
when the wishes of the Fraternity conflict with the policy of 
the institution or with the larger interests of the institution's 
welfare, it is the duty of theFraternity to sacrifice itself — if, 
indeed, it is a sacrifice — and to seek for and adopt measures 
in harmony with the policy and best interests of the institu- 

This being its solution, the attitude of the Fraternity in 
all problems of college affairs will be one of loyalty and 

300 University Magazine 

helpfulness to the institution ; it will stand for higher ideals, 
larger conceptions of living-, and by elevating 1 the life it 
will promote the efficiency of the institution in fulfilling 
its purpose of serving men. Following this solution, pol- 
itics, athletics, contests of all kinds will be fought out con- 
scientiously upon the just and liberal basis of choosing the 
men best fitted to represent the student body of the institu- 
tion, that is, the institution. 

The methods for doing this will of course vary with vary- 
ing conditions of life in different institutions, but in them 
all the basis of the greed for gaining prominence, by hook 
or by crook, must go, if the Fraternity would vindicate its 
right to be, if it would hold itself above meanness and petty 
motives, and if it would preserve the purity of its original 

The moment the Fraternitv breaks with its foundation 
idea and denies its duty to the whole, it becomes a menace 
to the institution and an organization worse than useless to 
its members. Those having authority should then weed 
it out as a harmful and spurious growth in the life of the 

It breaks with its idea and denies its duty when it be- 
comes a machine which works for the selfish aggiandize- 
ment of its members, for their elevation to positions of 
prominence in the college life regardless of their ability to 
discharge the duties thereby falling upon them, thus causing 
the highest offices in the college life to become positions 
of dishonor rather than honor. And again it breaks with 
its ideal and denies its duty when its spirit becomes one 
which will allow its members to look upon the less fortu- 
nate men as creatures beneath them whose feelings may be 
wounded at will ; creatures with whom they have nothing 
in common, and whose merit even has no just claim upon 
their recognition. The result of this selfish attitude is to 
create strife and bitterness, first, between the different 
Fraternities and, second, between the Fraternity and 
the nonfraternity elements, Arrayed against each other, 
the Fraternities strive to rise to prominence on the slain 

The Fraternity; Its Relation to the Institution 301 

bodies of their rivals. Backbiting-, misrepresentation, mis- 
understanding-, suspicion, deceit, spite and unbelief impreg- 
nate and poison the atmosphere, and there follows tb at which 
condemns it all, a perverted development of students who are 
passing through the formative period of life. The insti- 
tution becomes a chaotic mass of antagonistic factions, "a 
house divided against itself." Its purpose is defeated as 
far as the student body is able to defeat it ; its frame is 
bent, and its strength is broken. 

Morever, this spirit of selfishness on thepart of the organ- 
ization will react upon the individuals composing it, teach- 
ing them to set their own motives above the interests of the 
Fraternity. It is a sure reaction which will result in internal 
strife and the elimination of the principle of fraternal love 
which gave it being. The Fraternity also will become "a 
house divided against itself," and its reason for being will 
be no more. 

On the other hand, to fulfil its duty, though it may neces- 
sitate the abandonment of some wishes and plans, in the end 
does not mean the sacrifice of the best interests of the Fra- 
ternity. Illustrating the reactive laws of interdependence, 
towards the perf ection of which our civilization moves, to fulfil 
its duty is to till the soil in which the Fraternity grows, from 
which it assimilates the substance of its being. It means, 
also, the establishment for the Fraternity of an honorable 
place and an acknowledged place in the life of the institu- 

An unselfish ideal is thus held before the minds of the 
individuals of the Fraternity, and they have, as members 
of the organization, a common purpose of high character, 
a purpose which binds them more closely together in fra- 
ternal relations because it creates a greater need of sym- 
pathy and encouragement. 

This common purpose will also draw together and unite 
the different elements in the institution ; confidence and 
good will will be established, a manly frankness and 
friendliness will pervade the atmosphere in which indi- 

302 University Magazine 

viduals can move along - the lines of true development, and 
for the institution there will result a greater strength and 
efficiency because of the harmony and unity of its life. 

It is argued that one Fraternity can not make this high 
standard its own without the concurrence of the other 
Fraternities ; that if it does attempt to do so, it will be met 
by disbelief in its motives and by ridicule, that it will lose 
its prestige in the institution unless it does "as Rome does." 
This argument is a weak subterfuge and is for those who 
have not courage to take the initiative. Even if it is valid, it 
does not in the least relieve a Fraternity of its responsibil- 
ity. Furthermore, to do "as Rome does" is the rankest 
conservatism, it is to "walk in the beaten paths" of the 
Chinese, and it means stagnation. Never was a progress- 
ive movement made but some one took his life in his hands 
as he made a pathway into the untried. 

However, the Fraternity that takes this stand does not 
jeopardize its life, but firmly establishes its prestige. Cer- 
tainly there are some men who, in the wretchedness of their 
little spirits, will seek to find and, as far as they are con- 
cerned, will find ulterior and blameworthy motives in its 
action. But there are others who, perhaps have not seen the 
great significance of the problem, and, therefore have given 
it little consideration ; others have been slow to act because 
they feared the consequences ; while others yet, brave and 
thoughtful men, have been carefully considering the ques- 
tion, and, even now, are about to take progressive action. 
All of these three classes will, sooner or later, fall into line 
when the signal is given, and will respond to the nobler 
call. Then the Fraternity that has taken the initiative 
will not find itself alone, its motives disbelieved and despis- 
ed, but it will find itself a leader among the Fraternities 
in a worthy movement that will be far reaching in its re- 

Morever, if it must stand alone for a time, it will not 
suffer, for its members, if they are strongmen, will achieve 
success in scholarship, debate, athletics and other fields 

The Fraternity; Its Relation to the Institution 303 

in which selfish intrigue can not enter Also, the force of 
their personalities will make itself felt, and win for them 
influence and recog-nization among- f airminded men, and the 
recognization of its members is the recognization of the 
Fraternity. Honors such as these which come through 
force of merit are, after all, the only kind worth hav- 

Another argument against endeavoring to establish this 
idea in the institution is that the politics of the nation, 
though ostensibly based upon the highest good of the 
nation, are based in reality upon the greed for getting. 
How, then, can college boys hope to establish this Utopian 

Admitting, for the sake of discussion, that in the out- 
side world this condition of affairs does exist (undoubtedly 
it does exist too frequently), does it follow that in institu- 
tions which stand for culture the low example must be emu- 
lated? The training ground of the men who are to shape 
the nation's life is in her colleges and universities, and the 
hope of the nation is founded upon the truths taught and 
striven for where her choice men receive their formative im- 
pressions, impulses, and tendencies. It is in her institu- 
tions of learning that the movements towards the right 
government of the nation must have their homes and from 
which the movements must emanate. The Fraternity being or 
pretending to be, composed of the highest type of men, must 
accept the responsibility of promulgating these movements. 
In order to acquit itself honorably, however, it must elect 
as members only tnose men who give promise of strong and 
noble manhood. The Fraternity man must stand for all 
that is large, liberal and f airminded ; for culture, strength, 
honor, high ideals, large thought, and determined will. 
He must not be hide-bound on the question of aris- 
tocracy, and he must base his own value and that of another 
man, not upon financial status or any other artificial mode 
of classification, but solely upon genuine merit — what he 
really is, what he can do, and what he will do. 


304 University Magazine 

A Fraternity composed of such men should be able and is 
able to set for itself its own ideal, and by conforming- to it 
make it, Utopian though it may seem, a real and vital force 
in the college world. Set over against the weak and divid- 
ed life and purpose of an institution in which the selfish 
policy prevails, there is developed by means of this large 
spirited, universal policy an institution whose life is unified 
and harmonized, and whose spirit is large, liberal, and 
just ; an institution in which there are no artificial meth- 
ods by which men are judged, but inwhich every man receives 
fair recognition of his merit ; an institution powerful in its 
strength to serve men, and to send out men with noble con- 
ceptions of their duty towards themselves, toward the 
nation, and towards their f ellowmen, 

These are the ends toward which the Fraternity must 
strive ; the ends in the working- out of which it will solve 
the problem of its existence and demonstrate its right to be; 
the ends in the fulfilment of which true and cultured gen- 
tlem of glory. 





THE doors of the University were closed February 1, 1871. 
In 1873, Professor Alexander Mclver, then Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, a first-honor graduate of 
the University, and always a warm friend, made an earnest 
effort to revive the institution. He called a meeting- in the 
Senate chamber at the Capitol of all University alumni and 
friends to devise means to that end. The meeting was 
largely attended and enthusiastic resolutions were passed. 
In order to effect a reorganization, the trustees were re- 
quested to place their resignations in the hands of Governor 
Caldwell, a University man. The scheme failed, and then 
it was concluded that nothihg but a constitutional amend- 
ment, giving- the management of the institution to the 
General Assembly, would suffice. 

In August, 1873, such an amendment was adopted by the 
people. The change was due to the influence of our alum- 
ni in the General Assembly, especially of Montfort McGee- 
h'ee and Richard C. Badger, Mr. Badger, a Republican, 
assisting the Democrats in obtaining the requisite three- 
fifths vote. The Assembly determined, by act of January 
28, 1874, to delegate the management to sixty-four trustees, 
elected by joint ballot, to serve eight years. Only two of 
the last board were re-elected — Rev. Dr. Neill McKay and 
James A. Graham. Of those deprived of their offices in 
1868, thirteen were found on the new board. Rev. Dr. 
McKay has the unique distinction of having been a mem- 
ber of all three boards. 

William A. Graham was called temporarily to the chair 
and William L. Saunders was appointed secretary. It was 
then unanimously resolved that a committee, of which Mr. 
Manning was chairman, be appointed to wait on Gover- 

306 University Magazine 

nor Tod R. Caldwell and request him to preside at the 
meeting - . His Excellency declined, because, in his opinion, 
the General Assembly had no power to elect trustees, but 
they should have been nominated by himself and con- 
firmed by the Senate. 

Notwithstanding- this rebuff, the board continued its 
sessions. An executive committee was appointed. K. P. 
Battle was elected secretary and treasurer, to give a 
$20,000 bond. 

The next day, on motion of W. A. Graham, Messrs. 
Steele, Cameron and Saunders were appointed a committee 
to visit Chapel Hill and report the condition of the Univer- 
sity buildings and other property and of the available 

The next meeting- was on April 9, 1874. Messrs. Fourney 
George, Mills L. Kure, Thomas D. S. McDowell, W. W. 
Peebles and J. H. Thorpe, who were not present at the 
preceding meeting - , took their seats. 

An elaborate report prepared by W. L. Steele, chairman 
of the committee of three, was read by him. The com- 
mittee met at Chapel Hill on April 2, 1874. A written re- 
quest was made of Dr. Pool for the keys and possession of 
the buildings. He declined to surrender their custody but 
allowed the committee the privileg-es of visitors. Accord- 
ingly, they inspected all the building's except Smith Hall, 
the key of which was not in Dr. Pool's possession. They 
found that there were urgent need of extensive repairs. 

On motion of Judge Eure, Messrs. Graham, J. J. Davis 
and K. P. Battle were appointed to take steps for bringing 
the question of the validity of the appointment of the trus- 
tees to judicial determination. 

Fortunately for the speedy settlement of this question, 
Secretary and Treasurer Lassiter had deposited the seal of 
the University and the books relating to his office in the 
office of Superintendent Mclver. The superintendent read- 
ily consented that suit might be instituted against him for 
the possession of this property and to expedite the case as 

The Rebirth of The University 307 

much as possible. Consequently one action was brought 
against him and one against Dr. Pool at the May term, 
1874, of Orange Superior Court. The University lawyers, 
Messrs. John W. Graham and James A. Graham, declined 
to accept a fee for their services. The judge, Tourgee, 
decided against the University, but appeal to the Supreme 
Court was taken. In that court, in June, 1874, Hon. B. F. 
Moore and ex- Judge William H. Battle, who had been 
classmates at the University, graduating in 1820, argued 
the question for their alma mater, likewise without charge. 
At the January term, 1875, the decision was for the Univer- 

Another committee on motion of ex-Governor Graham, 
was appointed to memorialize the General Assembly to re- 
store to the University the principal ($125,000) of the land 
grant fund, which had been impaired by the investment by 
late board largely in worthless special tax bonds. 

The memorial of the trustees, written by the chairman, 
ex-Governor Graham, and endorsed by Governor Brogden, 
was duly submitted to the General Assembly, then in ses- 
sion. The case of the University was strongly argued by 
the distinguished chairman and is peculiarly interesting as 
being his last state paper. The closing work of his great 
career was in behalf of the uplifting of the youth of the 
land, the restoration of the institution, whose halls he had 
left fifty-one years before, a highest honor graduate. 

The bill to carry into effect the memorial was introduced 
in the House of Representatives on February 27, 1875, by 
Nereus Mendenhall of Guilford, a worthy member of the 
Society of Friends, a vetern teacher of high reputation. It 
was referred to the committee on finance, of which Col. 
S. McD. Tate was chairman. Messrs. D. M. Carter and 
K. P. Battle, in pursuance of their appointment by the 
trustees, asked and obtained leave to address the committee 
on behalf of the bill, and were respectfully heard. 

All familiar with the temper of the public mind at that 
time towards appropriations, especially towards anything 

308 University Magazine 

like paying- interest on the public debt, will realize that if 
nothing- further had been done by the trustees the bill 
would have been sunk in the quagmire of "innocuous 
desuetude." Accordingly, with the approval of all, and at 
the request of many trustees, the secretary and treasurer 
spent several weeks in the unpleasant business of lobbying 
for the measure. The surviving members of the General 
Assembly will bear witness that he used no argument, not 
even to the value of a cigar or a glass of lemonade, other 
than earnest pleading for higher education. 

The most effective workers for the bill were Representa- 
tive William N. Mebane, who exchanged his sophomore 
gown in 1861 for the uniform of a Confederate soldier ; 
Col. Paul B. Means, of the last class under the old regime, 
who has always been ready with head and time and purse 
to push forward his alma mater ; George V. Strong, a first 
honor man of the class of 1845, who then made one of the 
most eloquent of his many eloquent speeches during a long 
and successful career at the bar ; and those able lawyers, 
Messrs. Marshall T. Pinnix, of the class of 1859 ; Piatt D. 
Walker, 1865-'67 ; John M. Moring, of 1860-'62 ; W. C. 
Fields of Alleghany, 1869. Good work in our behalf was 
done by others, who mainly on account of the civil war, 
were not sons of the University. I recall the strong appeals 
of Col. S. McD. Tate, one of our trustees and one of the 
ablest men of the Piedmont country, whose position as 
chairman of the committee on finance gave him peculiar 
power ; of Alfred M. Erwin of McDowell, whose advocacy 
could not possibly have had any taint of self-interest be- 
cause he was a confirmed old bachelor; of Col. J.A. Spears of 
Harnett, and of the able chairman of the judiciary commit- 
tee, who had then as little idea of ever having a position 
in our faculty as he had of being chief justice of Porto 
Rico or one of the Phillipines ; our esteemed professor of 
law, ex-Judge James Cameron MacRae, of Cumberland. 

In the Senate the University had "counted noses" and as- 
certained their safe majority, and they concluded not to 

The Re-birth of the University 309 

consume time by speaking-. Mr. W. W. Peebles of North- 
hampton however, could not be restrained, and short but 
strong- speeches were made by Messrs. K. W. Kerr of Samp- 
son, W. F. French of Robeson, Joseph Cashwell of 
Bladen, Col. Edward Cantwell of New Hanover, and 
last, but by no means least, by one, although an alum- 
nus and trustee of another institution, always our friend, 
active and efficient, now a trustee of ours, Charles Manly 
Cooke of Franklin. 

On March 2 Mr. Tate reported the bill with the chilling 
statement that "the committee were divided, a por- 
tion recommending its passage." It was made a special 
order for March 4, subsequently changed to March 9, when 
it was again postponed to March 11. These postponements 
were at the instance of friends of the measure, who were 
laboring to mitigate the intensity of the hostililty threat- 
ening to be fatal. 

On the 11th of March the bill failed to pass the second 
reading by a vote of 41 to 58. Mr. Norment, who voted 
with the negative for the purpose, moved to reconsider. 
The motion to table this failed, 48 to 54, and the motion 
to reconsider prevailed by 58 to 46, and the bill was made 
a special order for March 15. 

On this day the friends of the measure thought they 
could pass it without a division, but the speaker decided it 
was lost. A motion to reconsider was at once carried, 61 
to 31, and then the bill passed its second reading by the 
handsome majority of 53 to 43. 

Ordinarily the opposition to a measure is put forward on 
the second reading, but such was the animosity to this 
measure that every effort was made to defeat it on the 
third reading, which was set for March 17. Amid breath- 
less excitement, surrounded by crowds in the lobby and 
galleries, fifty-one members recorded their vote in the af- 
firmative and fifty in the negative. The fate of the Uni- 
versity hung- on one vote. Judge MacRae, ever watchful, 
at once moved to make the triumph irreversible, and suc- 
ceeded, by 59 to 39, twenty majority. 

310 University Magazine 

An incident, of which I was personally cognizant, well 
shows the perils surrounding- the measure. Its friends had 
induced a few members, who felt bound to vote "no," not 
to do so when their names were called, in the fond hope 
that some waverers might like to be with those who seem- 
ingly were triumphant. An excellent gentleman, Mr. 
A. A. Mclver of Moore, came to me and said : "Mr. Battle, 
I wish your bill to pass, and if necessary it shall have my 
support. But my constituents, I fear, are opposed to it, and in 
deference to them, if I am not needed, I will vote 'no.'" 
So when his name was called, he kept silent. When the 
roll was finished the University was five or six in the ma- 
jority, and Mr. Mclver said : "Mr. Speaker, I ask leave to 
vote." "No!" Then so many members, silent at first, fol- 
lowed his example that there was a majority in the nega- 
tive. Turning to me, with a comically wry face, before 
the result was announced, he whispered, " I've got to do 
it. " ' ' Mr. Speaker, I ask leave to change my vote. I vote 
aye!!" And I wish to record, in memory of my ancient 
friend and desk-mate, Col. Rufus L. Patterson of Salem, 
our chief marshal of 1850, and graduate of 1851, then a 
trustee, that the member from Forsyth, Dr. Wheeler, a few 
minutes before the vote was taken, said : "I intend to sup- 
port your bill. I have just received a letter from one of 
my constituents, Colonel Patterson, which convinces me 
that it is right." 

The University had plain sailing in the Senate. In 
the first place, its sons were very strong there, and they 
were men of talent and influence. These were : 

C M. T. McCauley of Union, a grandson of Matthew 
McCauley, one of the donors of the University site, A.B., 

Nicholas W. Boddie of Nash, a student of 1843-44. 

Joseph B. Stickney of Beaufort, a student of 1847-48. 

W. F. French of Robeson, of 1868. 

Legh Richmond Waddell of Johnston, A.B., 1852. 

William W. Peebles of Northampton, A.B., 1853. 

The Re-birth of the University 311 

James T. Morehead of Guilford, A.B., 1858. 

William A. Graham, Jr., of Lincoln, a student of 1856-59. 

Charles Manly Busbee of Wake, a student of 1865-68. 

And as reading- clerk we had, then in his prime, Patrick 
Henry Winston, Jr., A.B., 1867, full of enthusiasm for his 
alma mater. 

The bill passed the Senate by a large majority and the 
University was saved. 

The joyful news was forwarded at once to Mrs. C. P. 
Spencer, who, with her mother, remained at Chapel Hill 
in all its darkest hours, and by her potent pen kept the 
University and its woes before the public eye. She sum- 
moned to her aid Misses Susan G. and Jenny Thompson 
(now Mrs. J. P. Kerr), Mr. A. D. Mickle, and perhaps 
others, and, repairing to the attic of the south building, 
exultingly rang out the glad tidings over the hills and 
vales for miles around. The deep-toned bell had lost 
by its slumbers none of its sonorousness. It seemed to re- 
joice to enter on its duties again, and to promise never 
again to cease " calling from duties done," or " ringing for 
honors won," to the end of time. 

The board of trustees convened in the executive office on 
May 4, 1875. 

Secretary Battle submitted various schemes for reorgan- 
ization. Rev. C. B. Hassell presented one and moved its 
adoption, but, on motion of Mr. P. C. Cameron, all the 
schemes were referred to a committee consisting of Messrs. 
K. P. Battle, chairman, Manning, J. A. Graham, J. J. 
Davis and Rev. C. B. Hassell. Their scheme was unan- 
imously adopted. 

On motion of ex-Governor Graham, the election of a 
president was postponed indefinitely, it being- the general 
opinion that one of the professors might, for a while, act 
as Chairman of the Faculty. 

It was agreed to meet on the 16th of June for the elec- 
tion of professors. 

K. P. Battle moved that a committee of five be appointed 

312 University Magazine 

to solicit contributions for the revival of the University, 
not to be used to pay any existing - debt of the institution. 
This was carried, and the chair appointed him and Messrs. 
B. F. Moore, W. A Graham, P. C. Cameron and John 

A pleasant feature of the rebirth was the interest taken 
by the good women of North Carolina, at the instance of 
Mrs. Spencer. The pupils of Salem School and that of the 
Misses Nash and Miss Kollock, the ladies of Raleigh, Hills- 
boro and Salisbury contributed valuable apparatus for in- 

Twenty-eight trustees met on June 16, 1875, for the pur- 
pose of electing professors. The Governor presided. On 
account of the unusual numbers, adjournment was had to 
the Senate chamber. Col. P. B. Means was appointed as- 
sistant secretary. 

It is President Winston's province to speak of those elec- 
ted, and I now pass them by, with this single remark, that 
the trustees of 1875 are entitled to much of the credit of 
his most useful educational work for North Carolina, be- 
cause they then started him on his professional labors. 

It was at this meeting that Mr. Cameron made an urgent 
appeal to ex-Governor Graham to allow the board to elect 
him president. An expression of pain passed over his face 
as he firmly declined. He was thinking of the insidious 
and certain mine being rapidly pushed under the fortress 
of his life. Less than two months after this meeting I as- 
sisted as pall-bearer in carrying to his grave in the Pres- 
byterian Church lot in Hillsboro the body of this broad 
minded statesman and virtuous citizen. 

There are persons other than the faculty connected with 
the reopening who must not be neglected in this chronicle. 
The first is Andrew Mickle, the bursar, a man of unpre- 
tending manners, but of rare intelligence, and whose 
virtues were as solid as the adamantine hills. 

He was prospering as a merchant when the war began, 
but during its progress ruined his fortune by acting on 

The Re-bhth of the University 313 

the chivalric notion that it was wrong - to raise prices of his 
goods, because it was as difficult for his neighbors to ob- 
tain Confederate money as it had been to obtain good 
money. And so, as the currency depreciated, he sold his 
merchandise for much less than cost. He bore his poverty 
with the same dignity which characterized him in his pros- 
perity, and when the trustees resolved to depart from the 
old plan of devolving the bursarship on a professor, it fell 
by universal consent to him, with whom millions of dol- 
lars would have been as safe as in the Bank of England. 

Another indispensable and equally worthy officer of the 
University was the University carpenter, Foster Utley. 
He was born in Wake county on a farm. His mother was 
a Walton, said to have been of the family of the noted fish- 
erman and author, Isaac Walton. The transparent purity 
of character, the boundless benevolence, the sturdy hon- 
esty, the quiet humor, the love of nature, the delight, on a 
rare holiday, of sitting for hours on a mossy bank, under a 
beech tree roof, with his cork floating on the quiet waters, 
or dancing among the ripples, his devout thankfulness to 
God, whether the yellow perch yielded to the "eloquent 
squirm " of the bait or passed it by in cold indifference, re- 
mind us of the sainted father of the art of angling. He 
married an excellent Chapel Hill lady, who survives him, 
and the University is fortunate in having in its employ- 
ment a son, who resembles his father in his person, his 
skill and, I firmly believe, in his character. 

To complete the personnel of the institution, the faculty 
chose to wait on the students, ring the bell and for other 
similar services one who had occupied a similar position un- 
der the old faculty. He had been a slave of President Swain 
and, therefore, he appears on the records of 1875 as Wilson 
Swain, though he afterwards preferred the surname of 
Caldwell, his father having been a slave of President Cald- 
well. He was an exceedingly intelligent, courteous, faith- 
ful man, reliable always, and had the unbounded regard 
and confidence of the faculty and students, A gifted son 

314 Uhiversity Magazine 

of the University (Mr. Peele), who is to address you to-day, 
has published a pen picture of him, as beautiful as true, 
which attests that my description of Wilson Caldwell is not 

The friends of the University were greatly encouraged 
by a decision of the Circuit Court of the United States at 
the June term, 1874. A short statement of facts is neces- 
sary to make this clear. 

From 1789 it had been supposed by the best legal talent 
that all the property of the University was subject to sale 
by the trustees. When the war ended it had $200,000 
worthless bank stock and owed about $20,000 to individ- 
uals and over $90,000 to the bank. It was thought to be a 
good arrangement to compromise this bank debt for $25,000 
in gold or $35,700 in paper currency. The bank agreed 
to this, on condition that a mortgage should be made cover- 
ing all the property of the University, which was done. 
President Swain then endeavored to secure a loan for 
$60,000 on transfer of the mortgage. He visited New York 
city and applied to the Astors and other capitalists, but 
without success. When the institution passed into the 
hands of the new trustees, in 1868, tney employed counsel 
to contest the Validity of the mortgage. By consent of the 
attorney general, Mr. W. M. Coleman, suit was brought in 
the Circuit Court of the United States in the name of the 
State, returnable to June term, 1869, asking for a decree 
nullifying the mortgage. 

The bill was dismissed for want of jurisdiction. 

In 1874, Charles Dewey, assignee, of the bank, brought 
suit to have the property of the University sold under mor- 
tgage. This was resisted, on the ground that, as the State 
Supreme Court had already decided that property of coun- 
ties and other municipal corporations could not be sold 
without the consent of the legislature, the property of the 
University, being a State institution, was similarly pro- 

At June term, 1874, the Circuit Court, Chief Justice 

The Re-birth of the University 315 

Waite, Circuit Judge Hugh L. Bond and the District Judge, 
George W. Brooks, unanimously decided that the bank 
debt was valid, but that neither the judgment creditor, nor 
the trustees themselves, had power to alienate such proper- 
ty as constituted the life of the University, as distinct 
from the endowment for its support. Mr. George H. 
Snow, a prominent lawyer of Raleigh, was appointed com- 
missioner to report as to what personal and real property 
should be exempt from sale under the foregoing decree. 

Mr. Snow met the committee appointed by the trustees, 
Messrs, Cameron, Manning and. Battle, soon afterwards at 
at Chapel Hill. In order to show the desolate condition of 
Chapel Hill at the time, I state that there was no hotel in 
its limits, and we four, separately, were entertained by the 
courtesy of friends, Mrs. Spencer, Mr. S. M. Barbee, Dr. 
Mallett and Mr. Mickle. 

'There was little difficulty in deciding that the campus 
and its buildings, books, pictures and apparatus for in- 
struction should be exempt. But it was not so clear what 
part of the 700 or 800 acres adjoining the campus should 
be considered as necessary to the University life. Fortu- 
nately, I had, as agent, applied to the trustees for the 
purchase of lots east and south of the campus, and was 
able to testify that the application was refused on the 
ground that it was the settled policy of the trustees since 
1795 to sell lots only from the land to the north and west, 
for the reason that it would be fatal to good order and dis- 
cipline to surround the campus on all sides with dwellings. 
Colonel Carter, in arguing the case before Judge Bond, for 
which he refused to accept a fee, with his inimitable grav- 
ity when resorting to the humorous, said : "Why, may it 
please your honor, the village is sparsely populated. It 
has only one policeman, and he is old and rheumatic. He 
could not even outrun the students when they get after 
him." So after a liberal report at June term, 1876, Judge 
Bond gave the University as a homestead all the land, 
about 600 acres, from the Durham to the Pittsboro road, 

316 University Magazine 

except the Piney Prospect rectangle of 60 to 70 acres. I 
am constantly hoping - that some big - hearted friend, who 
remembers with what delight, when seated on Piney Pros- 
pect hill, his lady love by his side, he gazed on the vast 
expanse of green fields and growing crops, which now 
covers the bottom of the old Triassic sea, bounded by the 
spires and factory chimneys of Durham and the green hills 
of Cary and Apex, realizing fondly the truth of the Irish- 
man's saying, "How swate it is to be alone, when 
your swateheart is wid you," will, for the perpetual delec- 
tation of courting couples, buy that rectangle and add it to 
the park, which the students and their lady friends have 
honored me by calling after my name. 

On the 30th of June, 1872, six of the committee of nine 
appointed to take steps for reopening the University, viz., 
Messrs. Kemp P. Battle, chairman, B. F. Moore, Rev. Dr. 
N. McKay, P. C. Cameron, D. M. Carter and W. L. Saun- 
ders, met in Raleigh, the following - professors-elect being 
present by invitation, viz. : Rev. Dr. C. Phillips, Messrs. J. 
DeB. Hooper, A. W. Mangum, A. F. Redd, George T. 
Winston. The faculty, being requested to make recom- 
mendations, made a report, which, after being amended in 
certain particulars, was adopted provisionally. 

The opening of the session was as advertised, on the 6th 
of September, 1875. Dr. Phillips was unanimously chosen 
Chairman of the Faculty, and Professor Winston Secretary. 
Professor Graves received the then almost honorary office 
of Librarian. 

There is a psychological tendency in the human mind to 
be desirous of ascertaining the originators of great move- 
ments. We wish to know who brought letters to Greece, 
who founded Rome, who first set foot on American soil, 
who discovered oxygen, who kicked the first football, and 
so on. Thus it happens that Hinton James has gained im- 
mortal fame by being the first to trudge through the mud- 
dy roads of the winter of 1795, and presenting himself to 
the delighted gaze of the first Presiding Professor, Dr. 
David Ker, exactly four weeks after the session began. 

The Re-birth of the University 317 

I know, therefore, you all are in a state of trembling- 
anxiety to know the name of the Hinton James of the nine- 
teenth century. I am glad to be able to inform you. I am 
proud to set him on the pinnacle of fame. 

In thus awarding the honor I am compelled to ignore the 
claims of Mr. James C, Taylor and Dr. Isaac M. Taylor, 
because their residence was Chapel Hill, and being on the 
ground, they could not possibly, in the graphic language 
of General Forest, "git thar first." Not counting them, 
the glory belongs to the elder of two brothers, who, with 
Charles Bond, preceded all other candidates by a day's 
journey, When their conveyance reached the boundary 
line of Chapel Hill at the hamlet of Couchtown, the elder 
suddenly leaped from the vehicle and dashed forward with 
the amazing speed for which duck-legged youths are often 
famous, shouting, "Hurrah! I am the first student on the 
Hill!" He reversed the history of Esau and Jacob. Esau 
was ahead this time. The unsuspecting Jacob (Hebrew 
for Robert) had no time to offer his mess of pottage. 
When I tell you that this long-headed — if short-legged — 
youth went to the legislature over about one thousand ma- 
jority against his party, intent on looking out for the in- 
terests of his alma mater, you will guess that his name is 
Francis Donnell Winston, the Hinton James of 1875. 

The good old county of Bertie has another honor which 
should be here recorded. On the opening day one youth 
only entered the agricultural department. I therefore pro- 
claim that Charlas Bond was the first student of the first 
College of Agriculture in North Carolina. 

The youth, Robert, thus outgeneraled, has his share of 
the blood of the old Scandinavian vikings. After great 
searchings of the heart he devised his scheme and bided 
his time. It was a signal and cruel revenge. Frank's 
Nemesis came, when there appeared on this stage to re- 
ceive the silver cup for the first boy baby of the Class of 
1879 — James Horner Winston, son of Robert. 

The formal celebration of the opening of the University 
was held September 15, 1875. It was eminently success- 

318 University Magazine 

ful. The numerous visitors were surprised and gratified 
at the renovation of buildings and grounds effected under 
the direction of the chairman of the committee on repairs, 
Mr. Cameron. Mrs. Spencer called to her aid the young- 
ladies of Chapel Hill and decorated the chapel with ex- 
quisite taste. The portraits of great men of the University 
— Davie, Caldwell and Swain, Mitchell and Phillips, Hawks 
and Badger, Ruffin, Graham and Manly — were hung on 
the walls. There was a single motto in letters of ever- 
green — "Laus Deo, " (Thank God). 

The Salisbury band, without charge, furnished excellent 
music. At 11 o'clock Mr. John R. Hutchins, of the Class 
of 1852, as chief marshal, and Mayor A. S. Barbee, of the 
Class of 1860, and several of the students as assistants, 
formed a procession, as in the days of yore, in front of the 
South building and marched to the chapel. The rostrum 
was occupied by Governor Brogden, Judge Battle, Dr. Wil- 
liam Hooper, Governor Vance, Dr. Phillips and Professors 
Mangum and Redd. Trustees and distinguished visitors 
were in the area in front. The chapel was full, floor and 
gallery, of worthy men and beautiful women. Among the 
men were about fifty students of the Horner School, near 
Hillsboro. The band began with " Auld Lang Syne." 
Prayer was offered by Dr. Hooper, who matriculated sev- 
enty years before. The opening hymn was then read by 
Professor Redd. It was composed by William A. Betts, a 
graduate of 1880, now an honored member of the South 
Carolina Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
whose father, Rev. A. N. Betts, a graduate and trustee, 
married his mother, a beautiful lady of Chapel Hill, while 
in the Senior Class. 

Great God of Heaven, condescend 

To meet thy servants here ; 
Where once we worshipped, Thee again 

We gratefully revere. 

Be present while with joyful hearts 

We consecrate anew 
This hallowed spot, in thine own name, 

And to thy service true. 

The Re-birth of the University 319 

Favor again, O God, these walls 

Where once Thy spirit shone ; 
Send help and wisdom, and may all 

The glory be' Thine own. 

Dr. Phillips, the chairman of the faculty, rose to intro- 
duce Governor Brogden. He prefaced his introduction by 
a few words as to the past and future policy of the insti- 
tution. Among other things, he said that it had been 
sarcastically remarked that the University had "neither 
politics nor religion. " In the broad sense of these words 
it was false, as we teach the principles of true statesman- 
ship and of Christianity. But in the sense, that the pro- 
fessors will rigidly abstain from attempting to influence 
students for or against any political party or religious de- 
nomination, the charge is true. All parties and sects shall 
be treated with perfect impartiality. 

Governor Curtis H. Brogden then made an address, full 
of animation, with language ornate and strong, pressing 
the importance of education, classical, professional, tech- 
nical, primary and collegiate, as necessary to modern 
•progress. The Governor made many friends. His compli- 
ments to the ladies were very happy, but some of them 
wondered, if he believed all he said, why he had not sued 
for and obtained for himself one of the angelic beings he 

Ex-Governor Vance then in his usual felicitous style in- 
troduced the orator of the day, ex- Judge William H. Battle, 
a graduate of the class of 1820. To quote from a contem- 
porary letter to the Raleigh News: "Judge Battle's was 
the tender task to awaken the echoes of memory, and bid 
us remember, resemble and persevere." He took a survey 
of the history of the University. He gave sketches of 
some of its illustrious sons, and an estimate of their in- 
fluence on the history of the State. Both addresses were 
highly appreciated. 

Professor Mangum, with a graceful compliment to the 
author of the hymn, Mrs. Spencer, who had written it for 

320 University Magazine 

this occasion, gave out the following - lines, which were 
sung- to the tune of Old Hundred, the band leading-. 

Eternal source of light and truth, 
To Thee ag-ain our hearts we raise ; 

Except Thou build and keep the house, 
In vain the laborer spends his days. 

Without Thine aid, in vain our zeal 
Strives to rebuild the broken walls ; 

Vainly our sons invoke the muse 

Among these sacred groves and walls. 

From off Thine altar send a coal, 

As burning seraph erst have brought ; 

Relight the flame that once inspired 
The faithful teachers and the taught. 

Pour on our path Thine clouded light, 
That from Thy constant favor springs ; 

Let heart and hand be strong beneath 
The shadow of Almighty wings. 

Recall, O God! the golden days; 

May rude, unfruitful discord cease ; 
Our sons in crowds exulting throng 

The ancient haunts of white-robed Peace! 

So shall our upward way be fair, 

As that our sainted fathers trod, 
Again the "Priest and Muse" declare 

The holy oracles of God. 

The proceedings in the chapel were closed by a benedic- 
tion and the audience separated with their hearts full of 
thankfulness tor the new life of the institution they loved 
so well. 

The venerable Dialectic and Philanthropic societies were 
reinaugurated during the evening, The Dialectic was cal- 
led together by Thomas M. Argo, Esq., the last secretary, 
and Judge Wm. H. Battle was made temporary president. 

The Philanthropic Society was called together by Col. 
Wm. L, Saunders, in whose care its books were placed in 
1868, when the last meeting was held. 

The Cigarette Fiend 321 

I have shown how the good old University was started 
ag-am on its career of usefulness and honor. Its friends 
have been rapidly swelling- in numbers, while its enemies 
are manifestly growing- fewer. May its prosperity for the 
next quarter of a century increase as rapidly in proportion 
as it increased since 1875! If my prayer shall be answered 
our chances are good for over two thousand students in 



L EMERY in his Cours de Chemie (1675) was the first to 
separate that branch of sience termed chemistry into or- 
ganic and inorganic. The latter embraced those bodies 
found in the mineral world and those produced by means 
of such substances. Berzelius, recognizing - that organic 
bodies contained carbon, maintained that they came about 
through the influence of a particular force — vis vitalis. 
In 1828, however, Wohler synthetically prepared, from 
strictly inorganic materials in the laboratory, urea, the 
eventual product of animal metabolism. This discovery 
was followed by the synthesis of numerous other bodies 
hitherto thought to be possible of preparation only through 
the mysterious life-force. 

Although the unification of the divisions of chemistry is 
the only tenable basis, yet for pedagogic convenience this 
classification is adhered to by many ; others even diversify 
at greater length and we have physical chemistry, techno- 
logical, analytical, agricultural, and physiological chem- 
istry. Yet chemical laws prevail and are the same, it 
matters not how one classifies his facts. 

By mathematics through ages we have sought expres- 
sion, whether by definite exact numbers, equations, or 
indeterminates. It is the language of physics, making 
possible the expression of the invention of means for meas- 
uring force and calculating its effect upon matter. Joule, 
Helmholtz, Robert Mayer, and Maxwell in their refined 
discoveries in mechanics touched chemistry, for the expla- 
nation of the phenomena of dissociation, solution, vapour 
pressure, osmotic pressure, etc., as developed by Arrhenius, 
Van't Hoff, Nersnt, Ostwald and others, could never have 
gained currency save through the invention of a mode of 
quantitative expression by the former savants. Richter 
over an hundred years <ago said that chemistry was a 
branch of mathematics. 

The Tendency Toward Unification in Science 323 

It has been only within the past three tenths of the pres- 
ent century that the barriers between physics and chemis- 
try have been completely removed. This came about 
through the necessity of applying - more closely certain 
laws of physics for the explanation of chemical facts, as 
for example, electrolytic conductivity, heat of reaction, and 
so on, and conversely, by conversion of chemical force into 
electrical energy, heat, phosphorescent light, etc., and 
measuring the same. Mathematics has served as the me- 
dium of quantitatively determining these changes. 

Geology may be termed the chemistry and physics of the 
earth's crust, more particularly applied to the inanimate 
portion of the world, although full cognizance of altera- 
tions of the shell by animals is taken. Latterly geology 
and biology, the chemistry and physics of animal life, may 
be said to merge. Only recently chemistry and biology 
have been more firmly welded into a unit by the interesting 
work of Bredig and Miiller von Berneck on "Inorganic 
Ferments," in which was demonstrated that certain pro- 
cesses hitherto regarded as possible only through the in- 
tervention of germs, could be carried out by means of an 
active chemical. This step is far in advance of even 
Biichner's enzyme fermentation. 

Cognizant of the persistent outcropping of favorable 
evidence for Darwin's evolution, we observe a unity of pur- 
pose in animal growth. Astronomy is the chemistry and 
physics of celestial bodies, and our knowledge of them is 
dependent upon mathematics. By this term must of course 
be meant simply a method by which the senses judge. 

Realizing therefore the articulated relation among the 
various utilitarian divisions of science, we may develop our 
theme along the lines of those teachings of which we feel 
best qualified to write, namely physics and chemistry, and 
regard all science as these two differently applied, either 
as to method of application or class to which we would di- 
rect the application. We are perfectly aware of valid 
arguments that may be put forward strenuously against 

324 University Magazine 

such a conception, yet feel that we are reduced to the study 
of a unity, as we must express our knowledge of all science, 
qualitative and quantitative, mathematically. 

Despite this unifying tendency to which we would call 
attention, chemists will persist in discovering new ele- 
ments, as argon, helium, neon, krypton, radium, polonium, 
etc., and seem to have facts in direct opposition to our 
ideas. Over a century ago resemblances of what chemists 
now term elements were noted. Lavoisier by chemical and 
physical means proved the law of conservation of matter. 
Then Dalton ascribed weights to these elements composing 
matter, from which came our satisfactory atomic theory. 
None of these, as well as Joule's proof of the conservation 
of energy, was possible without the medium of expression, 
namely, mathematics, as numbers were necessary for a 
comparison of weights and other measurements. Dumas' 
triads and Newlands' octaves foreshadowed a periodicity in 
atomic properties as later clearly and definitely set forth 
by Mendeleeff and Lothar Meyer. This periodic law, so 
long accepted, has had shadows cast upon its universality 
by the failure of scientists so far to satisfactorily arrange 
the new elements in accord with it. Naturally we lend 
ourselves to the thought that this is due to our insufficient 
knowledge of these novel members of the chemical family. 
Prout may not have been so far wrong in conception 
when he asserted that all the elements were compounded 
of hydrogen, then known to have the lowest of all atomic 
weights. Stas' classical researches and redeterminations 
of the atomic weights and Morley's accurate proof of the 
mass relations of hydrogen and oxygen prevent absolutely 
the acceptance of the fact of the statement, but the germ 
of thought bears fruit. The idea is still prevalent and 
Crookes has termed that initial — universal — substance of 
which all else is composed, -protyle. Thus are we brought 
face to face with the most ancient alchemical teachings. 
Within recent years Hartley, thoroughly orthodox, has 
written that " one element in a group differs in its proper- 

The Tendency Toward Unification in Science 325 

ties from another not because it consists of another kind of 
matter, but because of the quantity of matter in an atom is 
different." Doubtless later, transmutation will become an 
experimental fact, not that all our base metal will be con- 
verted into a precious one, but we shall secure more refine' 1 
methods and further decompose our present elements or 
the increased number of our elements, yearly augmented, 
shall give us a more perfect periodicity demonstrating the 
relationship of the elements and their unity. The specu- 
lative hylozoists may thus have foretold events. 

We already have some experimental evidence pointing in 
the direction indicated. Our chemistries have dogmati- 
cally taught that hydrogen was the lightest gas and im- 
possible of liquefaction. Dewar, Olzewsky and Wroblesky 
have secured that gas as a limpid liquid by intense refrig- 
eration in vacuum jacketed apparatus. And but recently 
the first named in classicalresearches reduced the temper- 
ature of liquid hydrogen to within eighteen of the absolute 
zero ( — 255) and obtained white crystalline solid hydrogen. 
These researches with extreme cold and Moissan working 
at from four to five thousand degrees give us the widest 
range of temperature. The latter has already secured 
many elements hitherto regarded as non-volatile in a gas- 
eous condition. Like Dewar's work at the low tempera- 
tures, it appears that a refinement of skill will secure all 
elements in a gaseous condition. Thus all matter, that is 
elemental, may exist in the three physical states. 

In the domain of physics, observation of the marvelous 
effects of the Roentgen rays, Becquereul rays, the charac- 
teristic property of certain old and some new elements, as 
barium, thorium, radium, and polonium, show things un- 
dreamt of. We can not say that these discoveries, as 
praise-deserving as they are, will give us final proof of the 
truth of our premise as put forth, yet they do point in that 

All forms of energy are interchangeable, hence we have 
but one force whether it exhibits itself as heat, electrical 

326 University Magazine 

energy, chemical force, or what not. These new rays, 
active and specific in their demonstration, are but altered 
forms of the one force. Why not therefore a one matter? 
Having reached that point we may con well Ostwald's 
dictum, that all is force, there is no such thing as matter ; 
matter is our perception of force. We may conclude by re- 
peating- the query of the earlier Biichner, that aberwitzig 
youth; "Is it a duty to believe things that cannot be 
proven? " 



'Published by the Dialectic and Philanthropic Literary Societies. 

WM. S. BERNARD, '00, Editor-in-Chief, Phi. 

Phi. Di. 

D. P. Parker, '00, D. S. Thompson, '01, 

A. J. Barwick, '00, H. E. D. Wilson, '00, 

J. W. Greening, '00. Whitehead Kluttz, '02. 

ALFRED R. BERKELEY, '00. Business Manager, Di. 

Address literary communications to the Editor-in-Chief: business communica- 
tions to the Business Manager, 
loitered at the Chapel Hill, N. C, Post Office as second class mail matter. 


In the official announcement of Dr. Venable's election to 


the presidency of the University, Mr. Graham struck a 

suggestive note when he said that the trus- 

.... tees had been content in their choice to 


follow the motto and past policy of the insti- 
tution. For those who heard the ' ' Story of the Struggle 
and Re-birth of the University," and are familiar with its 
past, these words need no comment. 

There has been little trumpet blowing- and dress-parade 
in all these years and much hard marching and strenuous 
fighting against the foes of ignorance, poverty, and preju- 
dice. In the place of donations, economy and sacrifice; in 
lieu of salaries, with love She binds to her chairs those 
who could gain fortune and prestige elsewhere ; in derth 
of the comforts of living herself, she nourishes half a 
thousand students, out of proverty endowing others with 
riches ; to the bitter slings of envy and the subtle trickery 

328 University Magazine 

of misrepresentation, she presents the devotion of thous- 
ands of her sons. This is all possible because of the esse. 
There is no gilt-edge plaster moulding here. The thing 
is real even if it shows up somber and gray like her old 

In the teaching profession, especially in the great uni- 
versities, starring obtains to almost the same extent it does 
in the theatrical profession. Here the professor merges 
himself into the institution. He is a committee of one for 
the good of the institution ; his relation to the student is 
characterized by helpfulness and cotnradship. Character 
and scholarship, the first no less than the second, he en- 
deavors to teach in his life as well as his lecture room. 
The writer has heard expressed again and again by 
students the idea that the most sobering, strengthening 
influence of the fourth year was the realization of what 
the Faculty stood for and had been to them throughout 
their course. It nerved them to be — something. 

To the presidency of such an institution, Dr. Venable 
has been called. The mouthpiece of the trustees has ap- 
plied the University's motto to him. We believe there are 
no voices which dissent from this judgment of character, 
however they may or may not have supported some other 
candidate. In this new field of activity, while the outside 
world is watching with critical eye and poised pen, he may 
feel sure of the sympathy and hearty co-operation of the 
student body in his labors for the triumph of this ideal of 
being rather than seeming. 

* * 

Our readers will be surprised to find this issue of the 

Magazink composed almost wholly of literary matter. Of 

the other five departments only one is in evi- 

* j dence. The responsibility for this omission 

rests not on the shoulders of the Editor in 

Chief. Despite his earnest request of the other editors to 

furnish the matter for their several departments, with the 

Current Comment 329 

exception of Mr. Parker, our faithful staff left the Univer- 
sity without handing- in a line and without a word of 
explanation. The departments which should have been 
fully stored with matter this issue are College Record and 
Alumniana. All the many interests of commencement 
times, the Class Day Kxercises of the Seniors, especially 
their speeches and papers of that day, the action of the 
Board of Trustees, the exercises of the Societies and many 
other interests, should all have been matters of record, and 
it was the wish of the Editor in Chief to make this depart- 
ment the star department of the issue. 

Members of the Societies, if the assistant positions on 
the editorial staff carry with them no deeper sense of re- 
sponsibility and obligation, and cannot be made to carry 
such deeper sense, by all that is reasonable and business 
like, abolish the farce of honorary editorship and pay one 
good assistant, so that there may be a man to whom the 
Editor in Chief may say, "Do this" and know that it will 
be done. 

I say it with the hearty assent of every other Editor in 
Chief of the Magazink, and I believe it true, that the position 
is the most trying, the most arduous, the least appreciated, 
unpaid job in the University. Without some assistance, 
such as Mr. Greening often rendered the present incum- 
bent, such as should have been rendered by the whole staff, 
few will be found with the endurance to stagger through 
the regular college course bearing at the same time this 
additional burden. If you want a magazine worthy of the 
Societies and University, something should be done with 
regard to this matter. 


It is with a natural pride that the faculty and students 
of our University recognize in the new college song- book, 
"Songs of All the Colleges," (Hinds and Noble, N. Y.), 
the work of a former friend and teacher, Prof. Karl P. 
Harrington who together with Mr. David B. Chamberlain 
has collected and sifted the mass of so called college songs, 
giving as a result, the only real creditable book of the kind 
which I am cognizant. 

College Songs — their name is legion and some of them 
should not so be called. Many are a mere jingle of a tune 
set to any words which will rhyme, and the result is some- 
thing that college students ought to be, and oft times are, 
ashamed of. On the other hand our Colleges and Univer- 
sities have been the birth place of songs which are alto- 
gether unique in their nature. They are naturally often 
local in their coloring, but when it is a good song this is 
no drawback for, after all, one college student is much like 
his brothers and a song alive with a wholesome sentiment 
and set to creditable music appeals to all. 

The editors of the above book have sought, as Hor- 
ace would put it, the ' ' aurea mediocritas, " they do 
not soar above the heads of their audiences and invade 
the dreaded realm of "Classic Music," nor do they give 
weight to productions of a cheap order by placing them in 
their book. 

The work is extensive in scope, including songs comic 
and serious, sentimental and prosaic, patriotic and general, 
and I feel sure will prove a blessing to that sorely tried 
personage who is ever racking his brain for suitable songs 
— the leader of the College Glee Club. 

Halcott Anderson. 


When de Doctor sez I'm dyin' put a "root " between 
me lips, 

'n I'll breade me life out peaceful 'twixt de blissful 
kissful sips, 

'n I'll draw de smoke down in me t' de remnint uv 
me lungs, 

'n in two hazy streamlets, spurt it t'rough me nos- 

'n w'en de gleamin' angels are chantin' overhe'd, 
De mournful, tuneful requirim fur ernudder fool 

det's dead, 
Lord, let me wait er little, w'ile de dear ole stump I 

Den put it in me coffin wid de skelington of dis. 

'n if, w'en I gits t' heaven, er "NO SMOKIN" 

sign I see, 
I'll turn eround 'n come right out — it ain't er place 

fur me. 
I dunt want ter be an angle ; I'd rudder shuvel coal, 
'n sell me season-ticket t' some "no tobacco" soul. 

Git er match frum ole Saint Peter at dat eighteen- 

karet gate, 
Scratch it on me glis'nin' robe uv w'ite, 'n go t' hell 

in state, 
Ijjr smokin' uv a Nestor — its gold tip between me 

'n er winking et de devil 'twix de blissful kissful 


YeS, I'll greet him quite jacosely, 'n giv' him an in- 

W'ich will almost make him tink det he's inside de 
heav'nly pale. 

Wid dis favor ez er knockdown, I'll touch him fur 
er spot 

Were a man may smoke in quiet, 'n it ain't too 
bloomingk hot. 

Johns Hopkin's News-Letter. 

INDEX 1899-1900 

November, December, January, March, April, June 

Alumniana 56, 116, 167, 220, 283 

A Song-, A Poem. . . .X, Opt 21 

Benton, Thomas H Halcott Anderson, '00 144 

Carlyle, Thomas, Scotch Traits in, . . L. R. Wilson, '99 . . 22 

Carr, Julian S 221 

College Record 50, 112, 161, 215, 278 

Current Comment 38, 100, 150, 201, 272 

Dartmouth Man, The. . . .H. H. Home, A. M., '95. .... .59 

Dead Language, A Romanus 139 

Demon of Wilson's Ridge G. W. John, '00 250 

De Profundis, A Poem . . . . B 12 

Etching, An .... Minna Curtis Bynum, Opt 32 

Exchanges 47, 110, 158, 213 

Flowing Together, A Poem W. V. Brem, Med., '00. .65 

Franklin, Hon. Jesse .... J. S. Atkinson, '01 71 

Fraternity, The; Its Relation to the Institution 

W. V. Brem, Med., '00 298 

Hamlet, The Spanish Tragedy and, Thomas Hume, Jr., 193 

Homer, A Poem H. F. Linscott : 192 

Ike, Tht Wrestler. . . .Lucy M. Cobb, Opt 66 

John Lucas : A Southern Sketch 

Wm. B. Phillips, Ph, D., '77, 1, 83, 124, 172 
Ku Klux Klan and Its Operation in North Carolina 

R. D. W. Connor, '99. 224 

Language, A Dead .... Romanus 139 

Library Notes .44, 105, 154, 209, 276 

Man, The Dartmouth. . . .H. H. Home, A. M., '95 59 

May, Samuel H. F. Linscott , 206 

Mebane, Giles J. G. McCormick, '98 . . 135 

Message, A....C. B. M., Opt 235 

Moravians, Early Settlements of, in North Carolina 

D. M. Swink, '01 186 

Index 1889-iQoo 333 

Mythology, The Odinic. . . .Whitehead Kluttz, '02 243 

Ole Marse Henry . . . . M. K. S., '99, 180 

On a New York Daily. . . .Ralph H. Graves, A.M., '98. . .13 

Pickard, Marvin A Allen J. Barwick, '00 36 

Plan Revealed, The .... W. V. Brem, Med., '00. . . 70 

Prece, A Poem B 138 

Remorse, A Poem .... J. Warshaw 256 

Rest, A Translation 31 

Rome— A World-Romance. . . .H. P. Linscott, Ph.D. . . .257 
Scotch Traits in Thomas Carlyle . . . . h. R. Wilson, '99. .22 

Sidney's Sweethearts C. A. Shore, '01 77 

Some Animals I Have Known . . Unrest Seedy Thobson . . 119 
Spanish Tragedy and Hamlet . . Thomas Hume, Jr., '00 . . 193 

Story of the Civil War, A .... K 96 

Struggle and Story of the Re-birth of the University 

Kemp P. Battle, LL.D 305 

Tendency Toward Unification in Science 

Charles Baskerville, Ph.D 322 

University of To-day, The ; Its Work and Needs 

Edwin Anderson Alderman, LL.D 287 

Where Ocean Breezes Blow . . H. Leg-are Watson, '91 .... 17 
Y. M. C. A. in the University . . P. M. Osborne, '99. . . . 197 

The McAdoo Hotel, 





A. N. PERKINS, Prop'r. 


Plans, specifications, and competitive sketches for all 
classes of building- furnished promptly. 
Correspondence Solicited. 

Kimball House, 

American plan : $2.50 to $5.00. European plan : $1.50 to $3.50- 

European plan (double rooms): $2.00 to $6.00, 

Restaurant open from 6 a. m. to midnight. All railroads entering 
Atlanta have officies in the hotel. Opposite the Union Depot. 

Electric Railway at the door to all parts of Atlanta. No charge 
for delivery of baggage. One hundred rooms with private baths. 
Two passenger elevators. No waiting for transfer of baggage. 

Hold your checks for Kimball House porter. 




N. C. 


Watch for our Representative in the Spring with an up-to-date line. 


an Bine) 








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